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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131715, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388874

RESUMO

The biological impacts of residual pharmaceuticals in the complex wastewater effluents have not been fully understood. Here, we investigated changes in the transcriptomic responses of hepatobrastoma (HepG2) cells exposed to a single or partially combined three common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); ketoprofen (KPF), mefenamic acid (MFA) and diclofenac (DCF), in domestic wastewater effluents. After 48 h sub-lethal exposure to single compounds, the DNA microarray analysis identified 57-184 differently expressed genes (DEGs). The hierarchical clustering analysis and GO enrichment of the DEGs showed that gene expression profiles of the NSAIDs were distinct from each other although they are classified into the same therapeutic category. Four maker genes (i.e., EGR1, AQP3, SQSTM1, and NAG1) were further selected from the common DEGs, and their expressions were quantified by qPCR assay in a dose-dependent manner (ranging from µg/L to mg/L). The results revealed the insignificant induction of the marker genes at 1 µg/L of KPF, MFA, and DCF, suggesting negligible biological impacts of the NSAIDs on gene expression (early cellular responses) of HepG2 at typical concentration levels found in the actual wastewater effluents. Based on the quantitative expression analysis of the selected marker genes, the present study indicated that the presence of wastewater effluent matrix may mitigate the potentially adverse cellular impacts of the NSAIDs.


Assuntos
Cetoprofeno , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Ácido Mefenâmico/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 377(2): 232-241, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622770

RESUMO

This study evaluated a battery of pain-stimulated, pain-depressed, and pain-independent behaviors for preclinical pharmacological assessment of candidate analgesics in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid (IP acid) served as an acute visceral noxious stimulus to produce four pain-related behaviors in male and female ICR mice: stimulation of 1) stretching, 2) facial grimace, 3) depression of rearing, and 4) depression of nesting. Additionally, nesting and locomotion in the absence of the noxious stimulus were used to assess pain-independent drug effects. These six behaviors were used to compare effects of two mechanistically distinct but clinically effective positive controls (ketoprofen and oxycodone) and two negative controls that are not clinically approved as analgesics but produce either general motor depression (diazepam) or motor stimulation (amphetamine). We predicted that analgesics would alleviate all IP acid effects at doses that did not alter pain-independent behaviors, whereas negative controls would not. Consistent with this prediction, ketoprofen (0.1-32 mg/kg) produced the expected analgesic profile, whereas oxycodone (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) alleviated all IP acid effects except depression of rearing at doses lower than those that altered pain-independent behaviors. For the negative controls, diazepam (1-10 mg/kg) failed to block IP acid-induced depression of either rearing or nesting and only decreased IP acid-stimulated behaviors at doses that also decreased pain-independent behaviors. Amphetamine (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) alleviated all IP acid effects but only at doses that also stimulated locomotion. These results support utility of this model as a framework to evaluate candidate-analgesic effects in a battery of complementary pain-stimulated, pain-depressed, and pain-independent behavioral endpoints. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Preclinical assays of pain and analgesia often yield false-positive effects with candidate analgesics. This study used two positive-control analgesics (ketoprofen, oxycodone) and two active negative controls (diazepam, amphetamine) to validate a strategy for distinguishing analgesics from nonanalgesics by profiling drug effects in a battery of complementary pain-stimulated, pain-depressed, and pain-independent behaviors in male and female mice.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal , Movimento , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Anfetamina/administração & dosagem , Anfetamina/uso terapêutico , Anfetamina/toxicidade , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Diazepam/toxicidade , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/normas , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Cetoprofeno/administração & dosagem , Cetoprofeno/uso terapêutico , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Oxicodona/toxicidade
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 229: 105677, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181407

RESUMO

Racemic ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP) are widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and commonly detected in the aquatic environment. The present study has evaluated the toxicological effects of RS-KP and S(+)-KP on biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in gills and liver of Atlantic salmon. Fish were exposed for 10 days using different concentrations of RS-KP (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) and S(+)-KP (0.5, 5 and 50 µg/L). Biotransformation and oxidative stress responses were analysed at both transcript and functional levels. In the gills, significant inhibitory effect at transcriptional and enzymatic levels were observed for biotransformation and oxidative stress responses. On the contrary, biotransformation responses were significantly increased at transcriptional and translational levels in the liver, while the associated enzymatic activities did not parallel this trend and were inhibited and further demonstrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Our findings showed that both compounds produced comparable toxicological effects, by producing organ-specific effect differences. RS-KP and S(+)-KP did not bioaccumulate in fish muscle, either due to rapid metabolism or excretion as a result of their hydrophobic properties. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects observed in the gills suggest that these drugs may not undergo first pass metabolism, that might result to downstream differences in toxicological outcomes.


Assuntos
Cetoprofeno/análogos & derivados , Cetoprofeno/química , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Salmo salar/genética , Trometamina/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 80: 103498, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950717

RESUMO

Inefficient ketoprofen removal from pharmaceutical wastewater may negatively impact the ecosystem and cause detrimental risks to human health. This study was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity effects of ketoprofen on HEK 293 cell growth and metabolism, including cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) expression, at environmentally relevant concentrations. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated through the trypan blue test, DNS assay, MTT assay, and the expression ratio of the COX-1 gene. The results of this study show insignificant (p > 0.05) cytotoxic effects of ketoprofen on cell viability and cell metabolism. However, high glucose consumption rates among the treated cells cause an imitation of the Warburg effect, which is likely linked to the development of cancer cells. Apart from that, the upregulation of COX-1 expression among the treated cells indicates remote possibility of inflammation. Although no significant cytotoxic effects of ketoprofen were detected throughout this study, the effects of prolonged exposure of residual ketoprofen need to be evaluated in the future.


Assuntos
Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Indústria Farmacêutica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias
5.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(6): 1033-1039, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907584

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes caused by the administration of ketoprofen to albino NMRI mice on some hematological, biochemical, and structural parameters. For this purpose, the mice were divided into two lots: a control batch and an experimental batch to which ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. A decrease in erythrocyte number and hemoglobin was observed altogether with the increase in white blood cells. Blood biochemistry indicates increased blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Enzyme values (AST, ALT, and ALP) show a significant increase. Hepatic pathology reveals the enlargement of sinusoidal capillaries, the presence of leukocyte infiltrates associated with necrosis zones.


Assuntos
Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos
6.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 43(2): 174-181, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052082

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study uses in vitro methods to investigate the potential and unknown genotoxic effects of dexketoprofen trometamol, an active substance in painkillers, on healthy human lymphocytes. In this study, a cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay is used to investigate potential clastogenic, aneugenic activity and to identify chromosome breakages caused by the active drug substance dexketoprofen trometamol; a comet assay is performed to identify the genotoxic damage resulting from DNA single-strand breaks; a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction panel system is used to evaluate the potential negative effects on the expression of the genes responsible for DNA damage assessment. Dexketoprofen trometamol induces toxic effects in healthy human lymphocytes at concentrations of 750-1000 µg/mL and above, and shows clastogenic, aneugenic activity by inducing micronucleus formations at exposures of 750-500 µg/mL. At concentration intervals of 1000, 500, 250, 100 µg/mL, dexketoprofen trometamol also resulted in DNA damage in the form of strand breaks, as demonstrated by highly significant increases in DNA tail length and density comet parameters when compared to spontaneous values. Human lymphocytes exposed to 750-100 µg/mL dexketoprofen trometamol were found to have significantly increased levels of expression of the XPC, XRCC6, PNKP genes in the DNA damage signaling pathway. It can be concluded that dexketoprofen trometamol may have cytotoxic, cytostatic, genotoxic effects on healthy human lymphocytes in vitro, depending on the concentration and duration of exposure. It is anticipated that this outcome will be supported by advanced studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetoprofeno/análogos & derivados , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trometamina/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Ensaio Cometa , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Simples/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Cetoprofeno/administração & dosagem , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Linfócitos/patologia , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mutagênicos/administração & dosagem , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Trometamina/administração & dosagem
7.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114533, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618485

RESUMO

Pharmacologically active compounds found in reclaimed wastewater irrigation or animal manure fertilizers pose potential risks for agriculture. The mechanism underlying the effects of ketoprofen on rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings was investigated. The results showed that low concentrations (0.5 mg L-1) of ketoprofen slightly stimulate growth of rice seedlings, while high concentrations can significantly inhibit growth by reducing biomass and causing damage to roots. Ketoprofen affects photosynthetic pigment content (Chla, Chlb, and carotenoids) and chlorophyll synthesis gene (HEMA, HEMG, CHLD, CHLG, CHLM, and CAO) expression. Fluorescence parameters such as minimum fluorescence (F0), maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv), potential photosynthetic capacity (Fv/F0), maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (ETR), and Y(II), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) values were affected, showing photosynthetic electron transfer was blocked. Active oxygen radical (O2•-and H2O2), malondialdehyde and proline content increased. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities, glutathione content and antioxidant-related gene (FSD1, MSD1, CSD1, CSD2, CAT1, CAT2, CAT3, APX1, APX2) expression were induced. Higher integrated biomarker response values of eight oxidative stress response indexes were obtained at higher ketoprofen concentrations. Ultrastructure observation showed that ketoprofen causes cell structure damage, chloroplast swelling, increase in starch granules, and reduction in organelles. This study provides some suggested toxicological mechanisms and biological response indicators in rice due to stress from pharmacologically active compounds.


Assuntos
Cetoprofeno , Oryza , Antioxidantes , Clorofila , Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Oryza/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Plântula
8.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881750

RESUMO

The development of ionic liquids based on active pharmaceutical ingredients (API-ILs) is a possible solution to some of the problems of solid and/or hydrophobic drugs such as low solubility and bioavailability, polymorphism and an alternative route of administration could be suggested as compared to the classical drug. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis and detailed characterization of a series of ILs containing a cation amino acid esters and anion ketoprofen (KETO-ILs). The affinity and the binding mode of the KETO-ILs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy. All compounds bind in a distance not longer than 6.14 nm to the BSA fluorophores. The estimated binding constants (KA) are in order of 105 L mol-1, which is indicative of strong drug or IL-BSA interactions. With respect to the ketoprofen-BSA system, a stronger affinity of the ILs containing l-LeuOEt, l-ValOBu, and l-ValOEt cation towards BSA is clearly seen. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments have shown that all studied compounds induced a rearrangement of the protein molecule upon binding, which is consistent with the suggested static mechanism of BSA fluorescence quenching and formation of complexes between BSA and the drugs. All tested compounds were safe for macrophages.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/síntese química , Líquidos Iônicos/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno/síntese química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ésteres/síntese química , Ésteres/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/química , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Cinética , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Células RAW 264.7 , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Água/química
9.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 69(4): 403-412, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intrathecal administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more efficacious for post-operative pain management. Cyclooxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen, may be effective at lower intrathecal doses than parenteral ones. Preclinical safety regarding possible neurotoxicity associated with the intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen was not evaluated. Here we analysed the neurotoxicity of intrathecally administered (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen in rats. METHODS: A randomized placebo-controlled experimental study was conducted. Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300g) aged 12-16 weeks were randomly divided into 2 treatments [100 and 800µg (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen] and control (sterile water) groups. Intrathecal catheters were placed via the atlantoaxial space in anesthetized rats. Pinch-toe tests, motor function evaluations and histopathological examinations of the spinal cord and nerve roots were performed at days 3, 7 and 21. Spinal cord sections were evaluated by light microscopy for the dorsal axonal funiculus vacuolation, axonal myelin loss, neuronal chromatolysis, neuritis, meningeal inflammation, adhesions, and fibrosis. RESULTS: Rats in all the groups exhibited normal pinch-toe testing response (score=0) and normal gait at each observed time (motor function evaluation score=1). Neurotoxicity was higher with treatments on days 3 and 7 than that on day 21 (2, 3, 0, p=0.044; 2, 5, 0, p=0.029, respectively). On day 7, the total scores reflecting neuronal damage were higher in the 800µg group than those in the 100µg and Control Groups (5, 3, 0, p=0.048, respectively). CONCLUSION: Intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen caused dose-dependent neurohistopathological changes in rats on days 3 and 7 after injection, suggesting that (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen should not be intrathecally administered.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Espinhais , Cetoprofeno/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 403-412, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041995

RESUMO

Abstract Background and objectives Intrathecal administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more efficacious for post-operative pain management. Cyclooxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen, may be effective at lower intrathecal doses than parenteral ones. Preclinical safety regarding possible neurotoxicity associated with the intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen was not evaluated. Here we analysed the neurotoxicity of intrathecally administered (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen in rats. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled experimental study was conducted. Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) aged 12-16 weeks were randomly divided into 2 treatments [100 and 800 µg (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen] and control (sterile water) groups. Intrathecal catheters were placed via the atlantoaxial space in anesthetized rats. Pinch-toe tests, motor function evaluations and histopathological examinations of the spinal cord and nerve roots were performed at days 3, 7 and 21. Spinal cord sections were evaluated by light microscopy for the dorsal axonal funiculus vacuolation, axonal myelin loss, neuronal chromatolysis, neuritis, meningeal inflammation, adhesions, and fibrosis. Results Rats in all the groups exhibited normal pinch-toe testing response (score = 0) and normal gait at each observed time (motor function evaluation score = 1). Neurotoxicity was higher with treatments on days 3 and 7 than that on day 21 (2, 3, 0, p = 0.044; 2, 5, 0, p = 0.029, respectively). On day 7, the total scores reflecting neuronal damage were higher in the 800 µg group than those in the 100 µg and Control Groups (5, 3, 0, p = 0.048, respectively). Conclusion Intrathecal (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen caused dose-dependent neurohistopathological changes in rats on days 3 and 7 after injection, suggesting that (S)-(+)-Ketoprofen should not be intrathecally administered.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A administração intratecal de anti-inflamatórios não esteroides é mais eficaz no tratamento da dor pós-operatória. Anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, como o (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno, pode ser eficaz em doses intratecais inferiores às parenterais. A segurança pré-clínica relativa à possível neurotoxicidade associada ao (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno intratecal não foi avaliada. Neste estudo avaliamos a neurotoxicidade do (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno administrado por via intratecal em ratos. Métodos Conduzimos um estudo experimental randomizado e controlado por placebo em ratos Sprague-Dawley (250-300 g) com idades entre 12 e 16 semanas. Eles foram randomicamente divididos em dois grupos de tratamento [100 e 800 µg de (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno] e um de controle (água estéril). Cateteres intratecais foram colocados através do espaço atlantoaxial nos ratos anestesiados. Testes de pinça, avaliações da função motora e exames histopatológicos da medula espinhal e das raízes nervosas foram realizados nos dias 3, 7 e 21 do estudo. Os cortes da medula espinhal foram avaliados por microscopia de luz para vacuolização do funículo axonal dorsal, perda de mielina axonal, cromatólise neuronal, neurite, inflamação, aderências e fibrose das meninges. Resultados Em todos os grupos, os ratos exibiram resposta normal ao teste de pinça (pontuação = 0) e marcha normal em cada tempo observado (escore de avaliação da função motora = 1). A neurotoxicidade foi maior com os tratamentos nos dias 3 e 7 do que no dia 21 (2, 3, 0, p = 0,044; 2, 5, 0, p = 0,029, respectivamente). No dia 7, os escores totais refletindo o dano neuronal foram maiores no grupo com 800 µg que nos grupos com 100 µg e controle (5, 3, 0, p = 0,048, respectivamente). Conclusão A administração intratecal de (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno causou alterações neuro-histopatológicas dose-dependentes em ratos nos dias 3 e 7 após a aplicação e sugerindo que o (S)-(+)-cetoprofeno não deve ser administrado por via intratecal.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo , Injeções Espinhais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cetoprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
11.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 62: 147-155, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025357

RESUMO

Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was responsible for the death of millions of vultures on the Asian subcontinent, following the consumption of diclofenac contaminated carcasses. The aim of this research was to establish if liver slices could serve as an alternate means of predicting the toxicity of NSAIDs in Gyps vultures. The Cape vulture liver slices was prepared and incubated with four NSAIDs for 6 h. A percent clearance of 1.0 ±â€¯0.253, 0.58 ±â€¯0.153, 0.961 ±â€¯0.312 and 1.242 ±â€¯0.406 (%/h*g) was attained for diclofenac, carprofen, ketoprofen and meloxicam respectively. Both meloxicam and diclofenac exerted toxic effects on the hepatic cells. Protein content indicated that the vulture tissue had lower enzyme levels than expected for an animal of its size. The poor distinction between the ex vivo hepatic percent clearance of meloxicam and diclofenac indicates that liver slices is not an ideal model to investigate NSAIDs toxicity in Cape vulture.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Falconiformes , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Bioensaio , Carbazóis/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Falconiformes/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Meloxicam , Tiazinas/toxicidade , Tiazóis/toxicidade
12.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 59: 199-207, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626791

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals such as racemate ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP) are highly detectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the aquatic environment and therefore are designated as one of the most emerging groups of pollutants that can affect environmental and human health. The potential impact of these pharmaceuticals was assessed for the first time in vitro using a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (H4IIE). Cells were exposed to low and high concentrations of these drugs. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT reduction assay; CYP1A1 transcriptional and enzymatic levels together with canonical oxidative stress responsive markers (GPx, GR, GST and CAT) were also investigated. Cells exposed to RS-KP and S(+)-KP did not show cytotoxicity effect at the concentrations tested. However, this study highlighted differences between RS-KP and S(+)-KP in most of the evaluated markers, showing compound-, concentration- and time-specific effect patterns which suggest a potential stereo-selective toxicity of these drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/análogos & derivados , Trometamina/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Fígado/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Estereoisomerismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 198: 238-248, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421735

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent a growing concern for marine ecosystems due to their ubiquitous occurrence and documented adverse effects on non-target organisms. Despite the remarkable efforts to elucidate bioaccumulation and ecotoxicological potential under short-term conditions, limited and fragmentary information is available for chronic exposures. In this study bioavailability, molecular and cellular effects of diclofenac (DIC), ibuprofen (IBU) and ketoprofen (KET) were investigated in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to the realistic environmental concentration of 2.5 µg/L for up to 60 days. Results indicated a significant accumulation of DIC and IBU but without a clear time-dependent trend; on the other hand, KET concentrations were always below the detection limit. Analyses of a large panel of molecular, biochemical and cellular biomarkers highlighted that all investigated NSAIDs caused alterations of immunological parameters, genotoxic effects, modulation of lipid metabolism and changes in cellular turn-over. This study provided the evidence of long-term ecotoxicological potential of NSAIDs, further unraveling the possible hazard for wild marine organisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Mytilus/genética , Mytilus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
14.
J Cell Physiol ; 233(3): 2304-2312, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710861

RESUMO

Ketoprofen L-lysine salt (KLS), is widely used due to its analgesic efficacy and tolerability, and L-lysine was reported to increase the solubility and the gastric tolerance of ketoprofen. In a recent report, L-lysine salification has been shown to exert a gastroprotective effect due to its specific ability to counteract the NSAIDs-induced oxidative stress and up-regulate gastroprotective proteins. In order to derive further insights into the safety and efficacy profile of KLS, in this study we additionally compared the effect of lysine and arginine, another amino acid counterion commonly used for NSAIDs salification, in control and in ethanol challenged human gastric mucosa model. KLS is widely used for the control of post-surgical pain and for the management of pain and fever in inflammatory conditions in children and adults. It is generally well tolerated in pediatric patients, and data from three studies in >900 children indicate that oral administration is well tolerated when administered for up to 3 weeks after surgery. Since only few studies have so far investigated the effect of ketoprofen on gastric mucosa maintenance and adaptive mechanisms, in the second part of the study we applied the cMap approach to compare ketoprofen-induced and ibuprofen-induced gene expression profiles in order to explore compound-specific targeted biological pathways. Among the several genes exclusively modulated by ketoprofen, our attention was particularly focused on genes involved in the maintenance of gastric mucosa barrier integrity (cell junctions, morphology, and viability). The hypothesis was further validated by Real-time PCR.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Arginina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/toxicidade , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Cetoprofeno/análogos & derivados , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Arginina/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção , Combinação de Medicamentos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/farmacologia , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Lisina/farmacologia , Lisina/toxicidade , Células MCF-7 , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(1): 201-212, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796322

RESUMO

The increased use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has resulted in their ubiquitous presence in the environment. The toxicological properties of these 2 widely prescribed NSAIDs, namely racemic ketoprofen and its enantiomer S(+)-ketoprofen (dexketoprofen), were evaluated, firstly, by acute and chronic toxicity tests using 3 representative model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and, secondly, by evaluating the responses of biotransformation systems and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1/MRP2) using the Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma 1 (PLHC-1) fish hepatic cell line. Toxicity data from both acute and chronic dexketoprofen exposure indicated higher sensitivity through inhibition of bioluminescence and algal growth and through increased mortality/immobilization compared to racemic ketoprofen exposure. The growth inhibition test showed that racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen exhibited different effect concentration values (240.2 and 65.6 µg/L, respectively). Furthermore, racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen did not exert cytotoxic effects in PLHC-1 cells and produced compound-, time-, and concentration-specific differential effects on cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and glutathione S-transferase levels. For CYP1A, the effects of racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen differed at the transcriptional and catalytic levels. Exposure to racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen modulated MRP1 and MRP2 mRNA levels, and these effects were also dependent on compound, exposure time, and concentration of the individual drug. The present study revealed for the first time the interactions between these NSAIDs and key detoxification systems and different sensitivity to the racemic mixture compared to its enantiomer. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:201-212. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ciprinodontiformes/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia , Água Doce , Cetoprofeno/química , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Ciprinodontiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Luminescência , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estereoisomerismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
16.
Chemosphere ; 194: 450-462, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227893

RESUMO

Implementing "targeted" eco-pharmacovigilance(EPV) which focuses on individual or specific pharmaceuticals on a prioritised basis is a feasible, economical and customized approach to reduce the environmental concentrations and risks of pharmaceuticals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) remaining in environment are a kind of priority hazard substances, due to a notable case that diclofenac residues caused the loss of more than 99% of vultures across the Indian sub-continent. Ketoprofen, as another widely used NSAID with comparable or even higher global consumption than diclofenac, in the environment has been shown to present a potential risk to non-target terrestrial and aquatic species. Based on the review of 85 articles reporting the analyses of ketoprofen residues in environment since 2010, we found that this NSAID frequently present in various environmental compartments around the world. Therefore, it is urgent to implement EPV targeting ketoprofen pollution. Here, we provide some recommendations for implementing the targeted EPV for ketoprofen, including: Closely monitoring ketoprofen in the natural environment; Reducing the residues of ketoprofen through source control; Encouraging urine source separation and treatment; Limiting the application of veterinary ketoprofen; Designing and constituting a framework system of targeted EPV. But some challenges, such as ambiguity in the accountability of the main bodies responsible for continued monitoring of ketoprofen residues, the lack of optimized urine source separation scenarios and procedure, the need for detailed design and application schemes of the framework system of targeted EPV, etc. should be addressed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cetoprofeno/análise , Farmacovigilância , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade
17.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 19(9): 1176-1184, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745761

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the photolysis mechanism of ketoprofen (KET) under simulated sunlight. The results demonstrated that the photolysis of KET aligned well with pseudo first-order kinetics. Radical scavenging experiments and dissolved oxygen experiments revealed that the superoxide anion radical (O2˙-) played a primary role in the photolytic process in pure water. Bicarbonate slightly increased the photodegradation of KET through generating carbonate radicals, while DOM inhibited the photolysis via both attenuating light and competing radicals. Moreover, Zhujiang river water inhibited KET phototransformation. Potential KET degradation pathways were proposed based on the identification of products using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS techniques. The theoretical prediction of reaction sites was derived from Frontier Electron Densities (FEDs), which primarily involved the KET decarboxylation reaction. The ecotoxicity of the treated solutions was evaluated by employing Daphnia magna and V. fischeri as biological indicators. Ecotoxicity was also hypothetically predicted through the "ecological structure-activity relationship" (ECOSAR) program, which revealed that toxic products might be generated during the photolysis process.


Assuntos
Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Fotólise , Luz Solar , Superóxidos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cetoprofeno/análise , Cetoprofeno/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Superóxidos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 36(12): 3232-3239, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28718961

RESUMO

Photodegradation of 3 commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid, was conducted under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The kinetic results showed that the 3 pharmaceuticals obeyed the first-order reaction with decreasing rate constants of 1.54 × 10-4 , 5.91 × 10-5 , and 7.78 × 10-6 s-1 for carprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac acid, respectively. Moreover, the main transformation products were identified by ion-pair liquid-liquid extraction combined with injection port derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric analysis. There were 8, 3, and 6 transformation products identified for ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid, respectively. Decarboxylation, dechlorination, oxidation, demethylation, esterification, and cyclization were proposed to be associated with the transformation of the 3 pharmaceuticals. Toxicity prediction of the transformation products was conducted on the EPI Suite software based on ECOSAR model, and the results indicate that some of the transformation products were more toxic than the parent compounds. The present study provides the foundation to understand the transformation behavior of the studied pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3232-3239. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Carbazóis/química , Diclofenaco/química , Cetoprofeno/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Água/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Carbazóis/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Cinética , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Espectrometria de Massas , Fotólise , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 94(7): 739-44, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124106

RESUMO

Ketoprofen (Ket), widely utilized in treatment of many inflammatory disorders, is found to induce liver toxicity especially with overdose. This study aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of concomitant ß-caryophyllene (Cary) and silymarin (Sily) against Ket-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 5 groups (each n = 8): the control group received distilled water for 6 weeks; the Ket-treated group received distilled water for 5 weeks and Ket in a dose of 8 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) p.o. for the 6th week; the Cary + Ket treated group received Cary in a dose of 200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) orally for 6 weeks and Ket for the 6th week; the Sily + Ket treated group received Sily in the dose of 150 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 6 weeks and Ket for the 6th week; and the Cary + Sily + Ket treated group received Sily and Cary for 6 weeks and Ket for the 6th week. At end of the experiment, serum ALT, AST, and albumin and liver total antioxidant capacity (t.TAC) and malondialdehyde (t.MDA) were measured in all rats. Ket increased serum ALT and AST and t.MDA and decreased t.TAC. Cary and Sily improved these changes. Combined Cary and Sily restored these liver changes to nearly normal. Combined Cary and Sily is hepatoprotective, with the ability to scavenge oxidants against Ket-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Silimarina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Silimarina/isolamento & purificação
20.
Environ Toxicol ; 31(12): 1710-1719, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26183440

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents; however, their pharmacological actions raise concerns about potential risks to the reproductive health of aquatic vertebrates. In the present study, a medaka ovulation assay was applied as an in vitro model to evaluate NSAID-induced antiovulatory activity. We first tested five NSAIDs, including diclofenac sodium (DCF), ketoprofen (KP), salicylic acid (SA), mefenamic acid (MA), and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for their antiovulatory activities toward the follicles isolated from the ovaries of spawning females. Of all the chemicals tested, DCF had the highest antiovulatory activity, with the concentration that caused 50% inhibition (IC50) (101 µM). MA was the second most potent inhibitor following DCF, but KP, SA, or ASA had little inhibitory effect on the ovulation of the follicles. The in vitro antiovulatory activity of five NSAIDs showed good correlation with data published on the inhibitory activity on human COX-2. Second, we selected DCF and SA as the most and least potent NSAIDs, respectively, and examined the effects on reproduction of intact fish in order to evaluate whether the ovulation assay was a reasonable predictor of potential reproductive effects in fish. Females exposed to DCF showed a concentration-dependent decrease in the number of spawned eggs and an increment in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), possibly due to an anovulation in the females. In contrast, neither fecundity nor the GSI of females decreased at up to 20 mg/L of SA, at which acute lethality to medaka was induced. In conclusion, the medaka ovulation assay reflected the potency of NSAID-induced antiovulatory activity and may thus serve as an in vitro model for the prediction of NSAID-induced reproductive toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1710-1719, 2016.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aspirina/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cetoprofeno/toxicidade , Ácido Mefenâmico/toxicidade , Ovário/citologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/toxicidade
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