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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5209, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060602

RESUMO

Chronic high-thoracic and cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a complex phenotype of cardiovascular consequences, including impaired left ventricular (LV) contractility. Here, we aim to determine whether such dysfunction manifests immediately post-injury, and if so, whether correcting impaired contractility can improve spinal cord oxygenation (SCO2), blood flow (SCBF) and metabolism. Using a porcine model of T2 SCI, we assess LV end-systolic elastance (contractility) via invasive pressure-volume catheterization, monitor intraparenchymal SCO2 and SCBF with fiberoptic oxygen sensors and laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively, and quantify spinal cord metabolites with microdialysis. We demonstrate that high-thoracic SCI acutely impairs cardiac contractility and substantially reduces SCO2 and SCBF within the first hours post-injury. Utilizing the same model, we next show that augmenting LV contractility with the ß-agonist dobutamine increases SCO2 and SCBF more effectively than vasopressor therapy, whilst also mitigating increased anaerobic metabolism and hemorrhage in the injured cord. Finally, in pigs with T2 SCI survived for 12 weeks post-injury, we confirm that acute hemodynamic management with dobutamine appears to preserve cardiac function and improve hemodynamic outcomes in the chronic setting. Our data support that cardio-centric hemodynamic management represents an advantageous alternative to the current clinical standard of vasopressor therapy for acute traumatic SCI.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dobutamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Suínos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
2.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 48(5): 2173-2184, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119046

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), with its expansive membranous system and a vast network of chaperones, enzymes, sensors, and ion channels, orchestrates diverse cellular functions, ranging from protein synthesis, folding, secretion, and degradation to lipid biogenesis and calcium homeostasis. Strikingly, some of the functions of the ER are exploited by viruses to promote their life cycles. During entry, viruses must penetrate a host membrane and reach an intracellular destination to express and replicate their genomes. These events lead to the assembly of new viral progenies that exit the host cell, thereby initiating further rounds of infection. In this review, we highlight how three distinct viruses - polyomavirus, flavivirus, and coronavirus - co-opt key functions of the ER to cause infection. We anticipate that illuminating this virus-ER interplay will provide rational therapeutic approaches to combat the virus-induced diseases.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Flavivirus/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Polyomavirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4948, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009415

RESUMO

The tripartite multidrug efflux system MexAB-OprM is a major actor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance by exporting a large variety of antimicrobial compounds. Crystal structures of MexB and of its Escherichia coli homolog AcrB had revealed asymmetric trimers depicting a directional drug pathway by a conformational interconversion (from Loose and Tight binding pockets to Open gate (LTO) for drug exit). It remains unclear how MexB acquires its LTO form. Here by performing functional and cryo-EM structural investigations of MexB at various stages of the assembly process, we unveil that MexB inserted in lipid membrane is not set for active transport because it displays an inactive LTC form with a Closed exit gate. In the tripartite complex, OprM and MexA form a corset-like platform that converts MexB into the active form. Our findings shed new light on the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) cognate partners which act as allosteric factors eliciting the functional drug extrusion.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/ultraestrutura , Transporte Biológico , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5063, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033242

RESUMO

Genome-wide chromatin state underlies gene expression potential and cellular function. Epigenetic features and nucleosome positioning contribute to the accessibility of DNA, but widespread regulators of chromatin state are largely unknown. Our study investigates how coordination of ANP32E and H2A.Z contributes to genome-wide chromatin state in mouse fibroblasts. We define H2A.Z as a universal chromatin accessibility factor, and demonstrate that ANP32E antagonizes H2A.Z accumulation to restrict chromatin accessibility genome-wide. In the absence of ANP32E, H2A.Z accumulates at promoters in a hierarchical manner. H2A.Z initially localizes downstream of the transcription start site, and if H2A.Z is already present downstream, additional H2A.Z accumulates upstream. This hierarchical H2A.Z accumulation coincides with improved nucleosome positioning, heightened transcription factor binding, and increased expression of neighboring genes. Thus, ANP32E dramatically influences genome-wide chromatin accessibility through subtle refinement of H2A.Z patterns, providing a means to reprogram chromatin state and to hone gene expression levels.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Genoma , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 34(12): 1237-1259, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034007

RESUMO

Computational protein-ligand docking is well-known to be prone to inaccuracies in input receptor structures, and it is challenging to obtain good docking results with computationally predicted receptor structures (e.g. through homology modeling). Here we introduce a fragment-based docking method and test if it reduces requirements on the accuracy of an input receptor structures relative to non-fragment docking approaches. In this method, small rigid fragments are docked first using AutoDock Vina to generate a large number of favorably docked poses spanning the receptor binding pocket. Then a graph theory maximum clique algorithm is applied to find combined sets of docked poses of different fragment types onto which the complete ligand can be properly aligned. On the basis of these alignments, possible binding poses of complete ligand are determined. This docking method is first tested for bound docking on a series of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme-substrate complexes, in which experimentally determined receptor structures are used. For all complexes tested, ligand poses of less than 1 Å root mean square deviations (RMSD) from the actual binding positions can be recovered. Then the method is tested for unbound docking with modeled receptor structures for a number of protein-ligand complexes from different families including the very recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protease. For all complexes, poses with RMSD less than 3 Å from actual binding positions can be recovered. Our results suggest that for docking with approximately modeled receptor structures, fragment-based methods can be more effective than common complete ligand docking approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/química , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/química , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
6.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(21)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868289

RESUMO

The yeast prion [URE3] propagates as a misfolded amyloid form of the Ure2 protein. Propagation of amyloid-based yeast prions requires protein quality control (PQC) factors, and altering PQC abundance or activity can cure cells of prions. Yeast antiprion systems composed of PQC factors act at normal abundance to restrict establishment of the majority of prion variants that arise de novo While these systems are well described, how they or other PQC factors interact with prion proteins remains unclear. To gain insight into such interactions, we identified mutations outside the Ure2 prion-determining region that destabilize [URE3]. Despite residing in the functional domain, 16 of 17 mutants retained Ure2 activity. Four characterized mutations caused rapid loss of [URE3] yet allowed [URE3] to propagate under prion-selecting conditions. Two sensitized [URE3] to Btn2, Cur1, and Hsp42, but in different ways. Two others reduced amyloid formation in vitro Of these, one impaired prion replication and the other apparently impaired transmission. Thus, widely dispersed sites outside a prion's amyloid-forming region can contribute to prion character, and altering such sites can disrupt prion propagation by altering interactions with PQC factors.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Mutação , Príons/genética , Príons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amiloide/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22237-22248, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839316

RESUMO

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are traditionally recognized as major inflammasome components. The role of NLRs in germ cell differentiation and reproduction is not known. Here, we identified the gonad-specific Nlrp14 as a pivotal regulator in primordial germ cell-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation in vitro. Physiologically, knock out of Nlrp14 resulted in reproductive failure in both female and male mice. In adult male mice, Nlrp14 knockout (KO) inhibited differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and meiosis, resulting in trapped SSCs in early stages, severe oligozoospermia, and sperm abnormality. Mechanistically, NLRP14 promoted spermatogenesis by recruiting a chaperone cofactor, BAG2, to bind with HSPA2 and form the NLRP14-HSPA2-BAG2 complex, which strongly inhibited ChIP-mediated HSPA2 polyubiquitination and promoted its nuclear translocation. Finally, loss of HSPA2 protection and BAG2 recruitment by NLRP14 was confirmed in a human nonsense germline variant associated with male sterility. Together, our data highlight a unique proteasome-mediated, noncanonical function of NLRP14 in PGCLC differentiation and spermatogenesis, providing mechanistic insights of gonad-specific NLRs in mammalian germline development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/genética , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/fisiologia
8.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784966

RESUMO

Intracellular protein inclusions are diverse cellular entities with distinct biological properties. They vary in their protein content, sequestration sites, physiological function, conditions for their generation, and turnover rates. Major distinctions have been recognized between stationary amyloids and dynamic, misfolded protein deposits. The former being a dead end for irreversibly misfolded proteins, hence, cleared predominantly by autophagy, while the latter consists of a protein-quality control mechanism, important for cell endurance, where proteins are sequestered during proteotoxic stress and resolved upon its relief. Accordingly, the disaggregation of transient inclusions is a regulated process consisting of protein solubilization, followed by a triage step to either refolding or to ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Recent studies have demonstrated an indispensable role in disaggregation for components of the chaperone and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. These include heat-shock chaperones of the 40/70/100 kDa families, the proteasome, proteasome substrate shuttling factors, and deubiquitylating enzymes. Thus, a functional link has been established between the chaperone machinery that extracts proteins from transient deposits and 26S proteasome-dependent disaggregation, indicative of a coordinated process. In this review, we discuss data emanating from these important studies and subsequently consolidate the information in the form of a working model for the disaggregation mechanism.


Assuntos
Citoplasma/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3990, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778659

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms regulating lymphocyte homing into lymph nodes are only partly understood. Here, we report that B cell-specific deletion of the X-linked gene, Cosmc, and the consequent decrease of protein O-glycosylation, induces developmental blocks of mouse B cells. After transfer into wild-type recipient, Cosmc-null B cells fail to home to lymph nodes as well as non-lymphoid organs. Enzymatic desialylation of wild-type B cells blocks their migration into lymph nodes, indicating a requirement of sialylated O-glycans for proper trafficking. Mechanistically, Cosmc-deficient B cells have normal rolling and firm arrest on high endothelium venules (HEV), thereby attributing their inefficient trafficking to alterations in the subsequent transendothelial migration step. Finally, Cosmc-null B cells have defective chemokine signaling responses. Our results thus demonstrate that Cosmc and its effects on O-glycosylation are important for controlling B cell homing.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vênulas
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3907, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764578

RESUMO

Nucleic acids can fold into G-quadruplex (G4) structures that can fine-tune biological processes. Proteins are required to recognize G4 structures and coordinate their function. Here we identify Zuo1 as a novel G4-binding protein in vitro and in vivo. In vivo in the absence of Zuo1 fewer G4 structures form, cell growth slows and cells become UV sensitive. Subsequent experiments reveal that these cellular changes are due to reduced levels of G4 structures. Zuo1 function at G4 structures results in the recruitment of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, which has a positive effect on genome stability. Cells lacking functional NER, as well as Zuo1, accumulate G4 structures, which become accessible to translesion synthesis. Our results suggest a model in which Zuo1 supports NER function and regulates the choice of the DNA repair pathway nearby G4 structures.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , Quadruplex G , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Aptidão Genética , Genoma Fúngico , Instabilidade Genômica , Modelos Biológicos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(4-5): 451-465, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803477

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The first biochemical characterization of a chloroplastic disaggregase is reported (Arabidopsis thaliana ClpB3). ClpB3 oligomerizes into active hexamers that resolubilize aggregated substrates using ATP and without the aid of partners. Disaggregases from the Hsp100/Clp family are a type of molecular chaperones involved in disassembling protein aggregates. Plant cells are uniquely endowed with ClpB proteins in the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Chloroplastic ClpB proteins have been implicated in key processes like the unfolded protein response; however, they have not been studied in detail. In this study, we explored the biochemical properties of a chloroplastic ClpB disaggregase, in particular, ClpB3 from A. thaliana. ClpB3 was produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli and affinity-purified to near homogeneity. ClpB3 forms a hexameric complex in the presence of MgATP and displays intrinsic ATPase activity. We demonstrate that ClpB3 has ATPase activity in a wide range of pH and temperature values and is particularly resistant to heat. ClpB3 specifically targets unstructured polypeptides and mediates the reactivation of heat-denatured model substrates without the aid of the Hsp70 system. Overall, this work represents the first in-depth biochemical description of a ClpB protein from plants and strongly supports its role as the putative disaggregase chaperone in chloroplasts.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Cinética , Magnésio/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Desnaturação Proteica , Temperatura
12.
Nature ; 584(7822): 630-634, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814900

RESUMO

Integral membrane proteins are encoded by approximately 25% of all protein-coding genes1. In eukaryotes, the majority of membrane proteins are inserted, modified and folded at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)2. Research over the past several decades has determined how membrane proteins are targeted to the ER and how individual transmembrane domains (TMDs) are inserted into the lipid bilayer3. By contrast, very little is known about how multi-spanning membrane proteins with several TMDs are assembled within the membrane. During the assembly of TMDs, interactions between polar or charged amino acids typically stabilize the final folded configuration4-8. TMDs with hydrophilic amino acids are likely to be chaperoned during the co-translational biogenesis of membrane proteins; however, ER-resident intramembrane chaperones are poorly defined. Here we identify the PAT complex, an abundant obligate heterodimer of the widely conserved ER-resident membrane proteins CCDC47 and Asterix. The PAT complex engages nascent TMDs that contain unshielded hydrophilic side chains within the lipid bilayer, and it disengages concomitant with substrate folding. Cells that lack either subunit of the PAT complex show reduced biogenesis of numerous multi-spanning membrane proteins. Thus, the PAT complex is an intramembrane chaperone that protects TMDs during assembly to minimize misfolding of multi-spanning membrane proteins and maintain cellular protein homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Asparagina/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(4): F654-F663, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715759

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of sepsis and an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A cornerstone of sepsis-associated AKI is dysregulated inflammation, leading to increased tissue oxidative stress and free radical formation, which leads to multiple forms of cell death. DJ-1 is a peroxiredoxin protein with multiple functions, including its ability to control cellular oxidative stress. Although DJ-1 is expressed prominently by renal tubules, its role in AKI has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effect of DJ-1 deficiency in a murine model of endotoxin-induced AKI. Endotoxemia induced greater kidney injury in DJ-1-deficient mice. Furthermore, DJ-1 deficiency increased renal oxidative stress associated with increased renal tubular apoptosis and with expression of death domain-associated protein (DAXX). Similar to the in vivo model, in vitro experiments using a medullary collecting duct cell line (mIMCD3) and cytotoxic serum showed that serum obtained from wild-type mice resulted in increased expression of s100A8/s100A9, DAXX, and apoptosis in DJ-1-deficient mIMCD3 cells. Our findings demonstrate a novel renal protective role for renal tubular DJ-1 during endotoxemia through control of oxidative stress, renal inflammation, and DAXX-dependent apoptosis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Endotoxemia/complicações , Túbulos Renais/enzimologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Nefrite/prevenção & controle , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/enzimologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Nefrite/enzimologia , Nefrite/etiologia , Nefrite/patologia , Estresse Nitrosativo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3360, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620763

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the next major health epidemic with an estimated 25% worldwide prevalence. No drugs have yet been approved and NAFLD remains a major unmet need. Here, we identify MCJ (Methylation-Controlled J protein) as a target for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced phase of NAFLD. MCJ is an endogenous negative regulator of the respiratory chain Complex I that acts to restrain mitochondrial respiration. We show that therapeutic targeting of MCJ in the liver with nanoparticle- and GalNAc-formulated siRNA efficiently reduces liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis in multiple NASH mouse models. Decreasing MCJ expression enhances the capacity of hepatocytes to mediate ß-oxidation of fatty acids and minimizes lipid accumulation, which results in reduced hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. Moreover, MCJ levels in the liver of NAFLD patients are elevated relative to healthy subjects. Thus, inhibition of MCJ emerges as an alternative approach to treat NAFLD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA-Seq
15.
Mol Cell ; 79(2): 320-331.e9, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645369

RESUMO

Valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 is an AAA-ATPase that extracts polyubiquitinated substrates from multimeric macromolecular complexes and biological membranes for proteasomal degradation. During p97-mediated extraction, the substrate is largely deubiquitinated as it is threaded through the p97 central pore. How p97-extracted substrates are targeted to the proteasome with few or no ubiquitins is unknown. Here, we report that p97-extracted membrane proteins undergo a second round of ubiquitination catalyzed by the cytosolic ubiquitin ligase RNF126. RNF126 interacts with transmembrane-domain-specific chaperone BAG6, which captures p97-liberated substrates. RNF126 depletion in cells diminishes the ubiquitination of extracted membrane proteins, slows down their turnover, and dramatically stabilizes otherwise transient intermediates in the cytosol. We reconstitute the reubiquitination of a p97-extracted, misfolded multispanning membrane protein with purified factors. Our results demonstrate that p97-extracted substrates need to rapidly engage ubiquitin ligase-chaperone pairs that rebuild the ubiquitin signal for proteasome targeting to prevent harmful accumulation of unfolded intermediates.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína com Valosina/metabolismo , Catálise , Citosol/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteólise , Solubilidade , Ubiquitinação
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17418-17428, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636267

RESUMO

Carboxysomes are membrane-free organelles for carbon assimilation in cyanobacteria. The carboxysome consists of a proteinaceous shell that structurally resembles virus capsids and internal enzymes including ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary carbon-fixing enzyme in photosynthesis. The formation of carboxysomes requires hierarchical self-assembly of thousands of protein subunits, initiated from Rubisco assembly and packaging to shell encapsulation. Here we study the role of Rubisco assembly factor 1 (Raf1) in Rubisco assembly and carboxysome formation in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 (Syn7942). Cryo-electron microscopy reveals that Raf1 facilitates Rubisco assembly by mediating RbcL dimer formation and dimer-dimer interactions. Syn7942 cells lacking Raf1 are unable to form canonical intact carboxysomes but generate a large number of intermediate assemblies comprising Rubisco, CcaA, CcmM, and CcmN without shell encapsulation and a low abundance of carboxysome-like structures with reduced dimensions and irregular shell shapes and internal organization. As a consequence, the Raf1-depleted cells exhibit reduced Rubisco content, CO2-fixing activity, and cell growth. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the chaperone-assisted Rubisco assembly and biogenesis of carboxysomes. Advanced understanding of the biogenesis and stepwise formation process of the biogeochemically important organelle may inform strategies for heterologous engineering of functional CO2-fixing modules to improve photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Organelas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Synechococcus/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19465-19474, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709745

RESUMO

Infection by malaria parasites triggers dynamic immune responses leading to diverse symptoms and pathologies; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these reactions are largely unknown. We performed Trans-species Expression Quantitative Trait Locus analysis to identify a large number of host genes that respond to malaria parasite infections. Here we functionally characterize one of the host genes called receptor transporter protein 4 (RTP4) in responses to malaria parasite and virus infections. RTP4 is induced by type I IFN (IFN-I) and binds to the TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) complex where it negatively regulates TBK1 signaling by interfering with expression and phosphorylation of both TBK1 and IFN regulatory factor 3. Rtp4 -/- mice were generated and infected with malaria parasite Plasmodiun berghei ANKA. Significantly higher levels of IFN-I response in microglia, lower parasitemia, fewer neurologic symptoms, and better survival rates were observed in Rtp4 -/- than in wild-type mice. Similarly, RTP4 deficiency significantly reduced West Nile virus titers in the brain, but not in the heart and the spleen, of infected mice, suggesting a specific role for RTP4 in brain infection and pathology. This study reveals functions of RTP4 in IFN-I response and a potential target for therapy in diseases with neuropathology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Malária Cerebral/patologia , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon , Malária Cerebral/metabolismo , Malária Cerebral/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Fosforilação , Plasmodium berghei/fisiologia , Plasmodium yoelii/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/metabolismo , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/patologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia
18.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 21(9): 522-541, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665685

RESUMO

Histones serve to both package and organize DNA within the nucleus. In addition to histone post-translational modification and chromatin remodelling complexes, histone variants contribute to the complexity of epigenetic regulation of the genome. Histone variants are characterized by a distinct protein sequence and a selection of designated chaperone systems and chromatin remodelling complexes that regulate their localization in the genome. In addition, histone variants can be enriched with specific post-translational modifications, which in turn can provide a scaffold for recruitment of variant-specific interacting proteins to chromatin. Thus, through these properties, histone variants have the capacity to endow specific regions of chromatin with unique character and function in a regulated manner. In this Review, we provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of histone variants to chromatin function in mammalian systems. First, we discuss new molecular insights into chaperone-mediated histone variant deposition. Next, we discuss mechanisms by which histone variants influence chromatin properties such as nucleosome stability and the local chromatin environment both through histone variant sequence-specific effects and through their role in recruiting different chromatin-associated complexes. Finally, we focus on histone variant function in the context of both embryonic development and human disease, specifically developmental syndromes and cancer.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia
19.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(18)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631902

RESUMO

hRpn13/ADRM1 links substrate recruitment with deubiquitination at the proteasome through its proteasome- and ubiquitin-binding Pru domain and DEUBAD domain, which binds and activates deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) UCHL5/Uch37. Here, we edit the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line to delete part of the hRpn13 Pru, producing cells that express truncated hRpn13 (trRpn13), which is competent for UCHL5 binding but defective for proteasome interaction. trRpn13 cells demonstrate reduced levels of proteasome-bound ubiquitinated proteins, indicating that the loss of hRpn13 function at proteasomes cannot be fully compensated for by the two other dedicated substrate receptors (hRpn1 and hRpn10). Previous studies indicated that the loss of full-length hRpn13 causes a corresponding reduction of UCHL5. We find UCHL5 levels unaltered in trRpn13 cells, but hRpn11 is elevated in ΔhRpn13 and trRpn13 cells, perhaps from cell stress. Despite the ∼90 DUBs in human cells, including two others in addition to UCHL5 at the proteasome, we found deletion of UCHL5 from HCT116 cells to cause increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins in whole-cell extract and at proteasomes, suggesting that UCHL5 activity cannot be fully assumed by other DUBs. We also report anticancer molecule RA190, which binds covalently to hRpn13 and UCHL5, to require hRpn13 Pru and not UCHL5 for cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2887, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513971

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, DNA wraps around histones to form nucleosomes, which are compacted into chromatin. DNA-templated processes, including transcription, require chromatin disassembly and reassembly mediated by histone chaperones. Additionally, distinct histone variants can replace core histones to regulate chromatin structure and function. Although replacement of H2A with the evolutionarily conserved H2A.Z via the SWR1 histone chaperone complex has been extensively studied, in plants little is known about how a reduction of H2A.Z levels can be achieved. Here, we show that NRP proteins cause a decrease of H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes in Arabidopsis under standard growing conditions. nrp1-1 nrp2-2 double mutants show an over-accumulation of H2A.Z genome-wide, especially at heterochromatic regions normally H2A.Z-depleted in wild-type plants. Our work suggests that NRP proteins regulate gene expression by counteracting SWR1, thereby preventing excessive accumulation of H2A.Z.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/genética , Histonas/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Nucleossomos/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
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