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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111314, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956866

RESUMO

Brazilian freshwater ecosystems are continuously exposed to pesticides and domestic sewage. The Uruguay River was chosen for this study because of its international importance, as it flows through Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. It receives contaminants such as pesticides and domestic residues. Thus, the aim of this study to assess the accumulation of pesticides in muscle of the fish Astyanax jacuhiensis, its biochemical responses, and the presence of pesticides in water. In total, seven pesticides were registered in water from both river sites. Eight pesticides were detected in fish muscle. The biochemical responses showed that brain lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl (PC) in A. jacuhiensis were higher in the summer. Muscle showed the highest LPO levels in the spring and the highest PC in the summer. Liver LPO and PC levels were higher in the spring and summer. In the gills, the PC was higher in the spring and the LPO in the spring and winter. In the brain and in the gills, glutathione-S-transferase activity was high in the summer and autumn. Catalase activity was lower during the winter and spring. Non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels were lower in the brain in the winter and spring. Muscle tissue showed lower NPSH in the winter (site 1). Liver NPSH showed increased levels in liver in the spring and winter (site 2). The biochemical results clearly is related to pesticides and/or to the presence of other contaminants in the water such as metals or domestic sewage. The accumulation of pesticides in fish muscle added evidence that pesticides have been used in the area surrounding the Uruguay River. In conclusion, the biomarkers assayed in the present study could be used in future investigations considering other sampling sites along Uruguay River.


Assuntos
Characidae/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Characidae/metabolismo , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Caraciformes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Brânquias/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Metais/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007194, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176680

RESUMO

Coordinated motion and collective decision-making in fish schools result from complex interactions by which individuals integrate information about the behavior of their neighbors. However, little is known about how individuals integrate this information to take decisions and control their motion. Here, we combine experiments with computational and robotic approaches to investigate the impact of different strategies for a fish to interact with its neighbors on collective swimming in groups of rummy-nose tetra (Hemigrammus rhodostomus). By means of a data-based agent model describing the interactions between pairs of H. rhodostomus (Calovi et al., 2018), we show that the simple addition of the pairwise interactions with two neighbors quantitatively reproduces the collective behavior observed in groups of five fish. Increasing the number of interacting neighbors does not significantly improve the simulation results. Remarkably, and even without confinement, we find that groups remain cohesive and polarized when each agent interacts with only one of its neighbors: the one that has the strongest contribution to the heading variation of the focal agent, dubbed as the "most influential neighbor". However, group cohesion is lost when each agent only interacts with its nearest neighbor. We then investigate by means of a robotic platform the collective motion in groups of five robots. Our platform combines the implementation of the fish behavioral model and a control system to deal with real-world physical constraints. A better agreement with experimental results for fish is obtained for groups of robots only interacting with their most influential neighbor, than for robots interacting with one or even two nearest neighbors. Finally, we discuss the biological and cognitive relevance of the notion of "most influential neighbors". Overall, our results suggest that fish have to acquire only a minimal amount of information about their environment to coordinate their movements when swimming in groups.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Animais , Characidae/metabolismo , Characidae/fisiologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Biológicos , Movimento , Robótica , Comportamento Social , Software , Natação
3.
J Vis Exp ; (156)2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092048

RESUMO

Articles Discussed: Stahl, B. A. et al. Manipulation of Gene Function in Mexican Cavefish. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (146) (2019). Peuß, R. et al. Gamete Collection and In Vitro Fertilization of Astyanax mexicanus. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (147) (2019). Worsham, M. et al. Behavioral Tracking and Neuromast Imaging of Mexican Cavefish.Journal of Visualized Experiments. (147) (2019). Jaggard, J.B., Lloyd, E., Lopatto, A., Duboue, E.R., Keene, A.C. Automated Measurements of Sleep and Locomotor Activity in Mexican Cavefish. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (145) (2019). Luc, H., Sears, C., Raczka, A., Gross, J.B. Wholemount In Situ Hybridization for Astyanax Embryos. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (145) (2019). Riddle, M., Martineau, B., Peavey, M., Tabin, C. Raising the Mexican Tetra Astyanax mexicanus for Analysis of Post-larval Phenotypes and Whole-mount Immunohistochemistry. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (142) (2018).


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Characidae/fisiologia , Técnicas Genéticas , Animais
4.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 213: 106272, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987325

RESUMO

In Brazil, fishing in continental waters is prohibited from November to February, the rainy season, when most commercially important fish species are reproductively active. Brycon nattereri is a native species to the Paraná, Tocantins, and São Francisco River basins in Brazil and is on the national list of species threatened with extinction. The goal of this study was to analyse the main reproductive variables of B. nattereri from the Lourenço Velho River, located in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil. From 2013-2016, 326 specimens (156 females and 170 males) were caught bimonthly using gill nets. Biometric data, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and fecundity were determined for each specimen. The gonadal maturation stages and the breeding season were established. There were relatively greater GSI values for males and average values were similar to those of females, an uncommon feature in Neotropical freshwater fish. The greatest frequencies of mature fish occurred from April to July in the dry season, which is when there are least ambient temperatures. The fecundity for body weight varied from 16,300 to 62,800 oocytes per female and fully developed vitellogenic oocytes had a mean diameter of 1175 ± 278.87 µm. These results indicate that B. nattereri breeds in the dry season when the water temperature is colder and, therefore, protection from fishing of this species during this season needs to be established.


Assuntos
Characidae/fisiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Reprodução/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Comércio , Feminino , Masculino , Rios , Estações do Ano , Maturidade Sexual
5.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(1): 395-403, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748988

RESUMO

Fluorescent protein (FP) transgenesis is used in the ornamental aquarium trade to produce new colour morphs in tropical fish. Understanding whether such genetic modification could alter ability to survive temperate waters, or interactions with native fish, should such fish be released to natural systems is critical in developing policy on their commercial use. We examined the competitive foraging ability and cold tolerance of unrelated pet-trade sourced adult green FP transgenic tetra and non-transgenic white tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), as well as white non-transgenic and green FP transgenic juvenile progeny of these groups. FP transgenesis did not affect the foraging success or aggressive behaviour in either adult or juvenile fish, indicating FP transgenesis may not influence potential hazards through this pathway. During a cold temperature tolerance trial, adult green tetras had greatly diminished cold tolerance relative to unrelated adult white fish, while sibling juvenile offspring of these groups had intermediate cold tolerance between adult fish groups that were not affected by FP transgenesis. This data suggests background genetics, rearing history and/or life stage may play larger roles in cold tolerance than FP transgenesis in this species. Unexpectedly, both adult and juvenile white tetras were 3.8 times more likely to take refuge in shelters when temperature declined than green tetras. These data indicate FP transgenic fish may pose equal or lesser risk than non-transgenic fish, should they be released to natural environments. Results also demonstrate that unrelated pet-trade sourced fish may not always be appropriate models for examining effects of FP transgenesis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Comportamento Animal , Characidae/genética , Characidae/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e166205, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122181

RESUMO

In freshwater fish with external fertilization, sperm sampling can be contaminated with urine, which triggers motility and gives rise to decreased fertilization success. The maintenance of freshwater fish in hyperosmotic conditions may reduce urine production and improve sperm quality. Thus, the aim of this work was to verify if acute exposure to various NaCl concentrations improves sperm quality in the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Spermiation was induced using a single dose of carp pituitary gland (5 mg kg-1) and the males were maintained at various NaCl concentrations: NaCl 0.00% (control), NaCl 0.45% (hypoosmotic), NaCl 0.9% (isosmotic) and NaCl 1.0% (hyperosmotic) for 6 h at 26 °C. Sperm was collected and verified for activation by urine and motility traits. At 0.00%, 0.45%, and 0.90%, the sperm was motile just after sampling, indicating activation by urine. Surprisingly, at hyperosmotic conditions, no activation was observed. Other sperm and motility parameters did not show any statistical differences, including sperm viability (P = 0.7083), concentration (P = 0.9030), total motility (P = 0.6149), VCL (curvilinear velocity; P = 0.1216), VAP (average path velocity; P = 0.1231) and VSL (straight-line velocity; P = 0.1340). Our results indicate that acute maintenance at hyperosmotic conditions eliminates sperm activation by urine and maintains sperm quality. Such a new procedure is interesting for both basic and applied sciences, including reproductive practice in fish.(AU)


Em peixes de água doce com fertilização externa, a amostragem de espermatozoides pode ser contaminada pela urina, o que desencadeia motilidade e gera menor sucesso na fertilização. A manutenção de peixes de água doce em condições hiperosmóticas pode reduzir a produção de urina e melhorar a qualidade do esperma. Assim, o presente trabalho foi delineado para verificar se a exposição aguda a várias concentrações de NaCl melhora a qualidade do esperma no tetra-amarelo Astyanax altiparanae. A espermiação foi induzida usando uma dose única de hipófise da carpa (5 mg kg-1) e os machos foram mantidos em várias concentrações de NaCl: NaCl 0,00% (controle), NaCl 0,45% (hipoosmótico), NaCl 0,9% (isosmótico) e NaCl 1,0% (hiperosmótico) por seis horas a 26 °C. O esperma foi colhido e verificado quanto à ativação por urina e traços de motilidade. Em 0,00%, 0,45%, 0,90% os espermatozóides eram móveis logo após a amostragem, indicando ativação pela urina. Surpreendentemente, em condições hiperosmóticas, nenhuma ativação foi observada. Outros parâmetros espermáticos e de motilidade não mostraram diferenças estatísticas, incluindo viabilidade espermática (P = 0,7083), concentração (P = 0,9030), motilidade total (P = 0,6149), VCL (Velocidade Curvilinear; P = 0,1216), VMD (Velocidade Média de Deslocamento; P = 0,1230) e VLR (Velocidade em linha Reta; P = 0,1340). Nossos resultados indicam que a manutenção aguda em condições hiperosmóticas elimina a ativação do esperma pela urina e mantém a qualidade do esperma. Esse novo procedimento é interessante para as ciências básicas e aplicadas, incluindo a prática reprodutiva em peixes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Osmose , Salinidade , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Characidae/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática
7.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e190093, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135375

RESUMO

Several organisms match their skin color to the prevalent background color, granting crypsis against predators. The rate at which body color changes occur varies among organisms as a result of physiological constraints and adaptation to variation in contrasts between objects and the environmental background. Faster darkening of body color is favored in environments that show higher amounts of contrast between common objects and the prevailing background. Soil types in Amazon forest streams (igarapés) create distinct environments with respect to the amount of contrast, a result of the amount of sand and clay, which offers different contrasts against dead leaves. Here, we investigated differences in the rates of color change among populations of the sailfin tetra (Crenuchus spilurus) that represent lineages that live in regions of different soil types. Populations inserted into blackwaters (sandy soil) showed higher rates of color darkening in response to exposure to a dark environment composed by dead leaves. We propose that natural selection stemming from predation can favor faster color change rate in environments where there is higher variability of contrasts between leaf litter and soil, which is common in most blackwater streams.(AU)


Diversos organismos combinam sua coloração corporal com a cor de fundo predominante no ambiente, conferindo cripticidade contra predadores. A taxa na qual as mudanças de coloração corpórea ocorrem varia entre os organismos como resultado de restrições fisiológicas e adaptação à variação de contrastes entre objetos e o ambiente. O escurecimento mais rápido da cor do corpo é favorecido em ambientes que mostram maiores quantidades de contraste entre objetos comuns e o fundo predominante. Tipos de solo em igarapés da floresta amazônica criam ambientes distintos em relação à quantidade de contraste, resultado da quantidade de areia e argila, que oferece diferentes contrastes contra folhiço submerso. Nós investigamos as diferenças nas taxas de mudança de cor entre populações do tetra-colibri Crenuchus spilurus que representam linhagens que vivem em regiões de diferentes tipos de solo. Populações inseridas em águas pretas (solo arenoso) apresentaram maiores taxas de escurecimento da cor em resposta à exposição ao ambiente escuro de folhiço submerso. Nós propomos que a seleção natural decorrente da predação pode favorecer uma taxa de mudança de cor mais rápida em ambientes onde há maior variabilidade de contrastes entre o folhiço submerso e o solo, o que é comum na maioria dos igarapés de águas pretas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Seleção Genética , Solo , Adaptação , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Characidae/fisiologia
8.
J Therm Biol ; 86: 102434, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789229

RESUMO

Temperature is a primary factor affecting species' ability to thrive in a particular ecological niche, but thermal conditions have changed dramatically in recent decades. Fishes shift their thermal tolerance range with a maximum and minimum temperature correlated to their recent thermal acclimation history, and species can show a reduced temperature quotient (Q10) following chronic thermal acclimation. Neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi) and Black Neon tetra (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi) are popular hobbyist aquarium fishes, and both species are examples of freshwater teleosts native to South American river systems that are potentially affected by changing thermal conditions. We acclimated these species to three different constant temperatures (26 °C, 29 °C, and 31 °C) for 15.4 ±â€¯2.1 days, then measured acute critical thermal maxima (CTMax) and acute oxygen consumption rate (Mo2) at each acclimation temperature. We also estimated chronic lethal thermal maximum (CLT) for both species following a 2-week acclimation to 30.4 °C. Mean CTMax of both species were found to increase with acclimation temperature from 38.5 to 39.6 °C for Neon tetra and from 39.5 to 41.0 °C for Black Neon tetra, gaining 0.24 (Neon tetra) or 0.29 °C (Black Neon tetra) of tolerance per 1 °C of acclimation. However, Black Neon tetra demonstrated consistently higher CTMax (1.0-1.4 °C). CLT was lower for Neon tetra (33.5 °C), compared to Black Neon tetra (35.9 °C). Mean Mo2 were statistically similar across acclimation temperatures within species; Q10 between 26-31 °C were 1.92 and 1.22 for Neon and Black Neon tetra, respectively. Neon and Black Neon tetras physiologically acclimated to changing thermal demands, and although they demonstrate robust CTMax responses, CLT responses indicated both species are unable to survive temperatures 4-5 °C above current average natural values. The demonstrated metabolic plasticity and CTMax values provide a moderate cushion for both species to combat changing temperatures due to climate change, but CLT values suggest vulnerability to projected climate trends.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Characidae/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Animais , Mudança Climática , Temperatura
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686133

RESUMO

Both the lateral line and the inner ear contribute to near-field dipole source detection in fish. The precise roles these two sensory modalities provide in extracting information about the flow field remain of interest. In this study, evoked potentials (EP, 30-200 Hz) for blind Mexican cavefish were measured in response to a dipole source. Greatest sensitivity was observed at the lower and upper ends of the tested frequency range. To evaluate the relative contributions of the lateral line and inner ear, we measured the effects of neomycin on EP response characteristics at 40 Hz, and used the vital dye DASPEI to verify neuromast ablation. Neomycin increased the latency of the EP response up until 60 min post-treatment. DASPEI results confirmed that neuromast hair cell death was significant in treated fish over this timeframe. These results indicate that the inner ear, whether it is sound pressure or particle motion detection, makes a significant contribution to the dipole-induced EP in blind cavefish at near-field low frequencies where the lateral line contribution would be expected to be strongest. The results from this study imply that under some circumstances, lateral line function could be complemented by the inner ear.


Assuntos
Characidae/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Sistema da Linha Lateral/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Hidrodinâmica , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia
10.
Elife ; 82019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670659

RESUMO

Sequential developmental events, starting from the moment of fertilization, are crucial for the acquisition of animal body plan. Subtle modifications in such early events are likely to have major impacts in later morphogenesis, bringing along morphological diversification. Here, comparing the blind cave and the surface morphotypes of Astyanax mexicanus fish, we found heterochronies during gastrulation that produce organizer and axial mesoderm tissues with different properties (including differences in the expression of dkk1b) that may have contributed to cavefish brain evolution. These variations observed during gastrulation depend fully on maternal factors. The developmental evolution of retinal morphogenesis and hypothalamic patterning are among those traits that retained significant maternal influence at larval stages. Transcriptomic analysis of fertilized eggs from both morphotypes and reciprocal F1 hybrids showed a strong and specific maternal signature. Our work strongly suggests that maternal effect genes and developmental heterochronies that occur during gastrulation have impacted morphological brain change during cavefish evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Characidae/embriologia , Characidae/fisiologia , Gastrulação/fisiologia , Prosencéfalo/fisiologia , Animais , Characidae/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Olho/embriologia , Feminino , Gástrula/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/embriologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Prosencéfalo/embriologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 639-645, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001491

RESUMO

Abstract In order to evaluate aspects of reproductive biology of the "pequira" ( Bryconamericus stramineus) in the elevator of the Funil Dam - MG, fish capture was carried out from November 2008 to January 2009 and 317 individuals were collected. The mean standard length (SL) of the population was 4.96 cm and mean weight 1.80 g. The females had SL of 5.0 cm, while males had a SL of 4.6 cm. A sex ratio of 2.20: 1 (females: male) was observed. Our results show that 73% of the individuals analyzed were considered adults. The species presented low fecundity, mean of 470.9 oocytes per female and a mean diameter of 221.08 μm, with an increase in oocyte diameter over the evaluation period. The length of the first gonadal maturation was estimated at 5.0 cm. The results obtained in this work suggest that the reproductive cycle of the species occurs in the analyzed period. Although this species does not have migratory reproductive habits, the presence of adults in the reproductive stage was observed in the transposition area, which suggests a search for new environments for spawning.


Resumo Com o objetivo de avaliar aspectos da biologia reprodutiva da pequira Bryconamericus stramineus no elevador da represa do Funil - MG foram realizadas capturas entre os meses de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, sendo coletados 317 indivíduos. O comprimento padrão (CP) médio da população foi de 4,96 cm e peso médio de 1,80 g. As fêmeas apresentaram CP de 5,0 cm, enquanto que os machos obtiveram um CP de 4,6 cm. Foi observada proporção sexual de 2,20:1(fêmeas:macho). Dos indivíduos analisados, 73% foram considerados adultos. A espécie apresentou baixa fecundidade, com média de 470,9 ovócitos por fêmea e diâmetro médio de 221,08 μm, ocorrendo aumento no diâmetro de ovócitos com o decorrer do tempo no período avaliado. O comprimento de primeira maturação gonadal foi estimado em 5,0 cm. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho sugerem que o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie ocorre no período analisado. Embora esta espécie não tenha hábitos reprodutivos migratórios, a presença de adultos no estágio reprodutivo foi observada na área de transposição, o que sugere a busca de novos ambientes para a reprodução.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Characidae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Razão de Masculinidade , Brasil , Rios , Fertilidade
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 669-677, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001474

RESUMO

Abstract Cheirodon interruptus is a ubiquitous small characid that inhabits the Pampean region and commonly used as bait. Its vast market is supplied from the wild population causing a significant environmental impact. In this study, we assess the effect of photoperiod on ovarian maturation in order to evaluate its potential as a tool to manipulate reproduction under artificial conditions. Four treatments in triplicate (light: dark, L: D) were tested: 24L: 0D, 12L: 12D, 0L: 24D and a progressive photoperiod corresponding to the daily photoperiod increments in wild during winter-spring transition, accelerated three times. The experiment was conducted for 45 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte mean diameter, vitellogenic oocyte proportions, plasma estradiol concentrations (E2), condition factor (Kn) and standard length were estimated. Values of mean GSI, oocyte diameter, vitellogenic oocyte proportions and E2 concentration were maximum in the progressive treatment indicating vitellogenesis stimulation. In turn the same parameters were minimum in the 24L: 0D, revealing the vitellogenesis inhibition. This study showed that photoperiodic regime play an important role in the onset of ovarian maturation in C. interruptus.


Resumo Cheirodon interruptus é um pequeno caracídeo amplamente distribuído na região Pampeana e comumente usado como isca. Seu vasto mercado se abastece de populações silvestres causando um impacto ambiental significativo. Neste estudo, investigamos o efeito do fotoperíodo no amadurecimento do ovário para avaliar o potencial deste fator como ferramenta para manipular a reprodução em condições artificiais. Quatro tratamentos foram testados por triplicado (luz: escuro, L: D): 24L: 0D, 12L: 12D, 0L: 24D e um fotoperíodo progressivo que simula as mudanças das horas luz na natureza e na transição de inverno a primavera, acelerado três vezes. O experimento se realizou durante 45 dias. O índice gonadossomático (GSI), o diâmetro médio dos ovócitos, a proporção de ovócitos vitelogênicos, as concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol (E2), o fator de condição (Kn) e o comprimento padrão foram estimados. Os valores médios de GSI, o diâmetro dos ovócitos, as proporções de ovócitos vitelogênicos e a concentração de E2 foram maximizados no fotoperíodo progressivo, indicando estimulação de vitelogênesis. Por outro lado, esses mesmos parâmetros resultaram mínimos no tratamento 24L: 0D, revelando um efeito inibidor da vitelogênesis. Este estudo mostrou que as variações de fotoperíodo exercem um papel importante no início vitelogênesis reprodutiva em C. interruptus .


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Characidae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Ritmo Circadiano , Estradiol/sangue
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4231, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530801

RESUMO

Acoustic communication allows the exchange of information within specific contexts and during specific behaviors. The blind, cave-adapted and the sighted, river-dwelling morphs of the species Astyanax mexicanus have evolved in markedly different environments. During their evolution in darkness, cavefish underwent a series of morphological, physiological and behavioral changes, allowing the study of adaptation to drastic environmental change. Here we discover that Astyanax is a sonic species, in the laboratory and in the wild, with sound production depending on the social contexts and the type of morph. We characterize one sound, the "Sharp Click", as a visually-triggered sound produced by dominant surface fish during agonistic behaviors and as a chemosensory-, food odor-triggered sound produced by cavefish during foraging. Sharp Clicks also elicit different reactions in the two morphs in play-back experiments. Our results demonstrate that acoustic communication does exist and has evolved in cavefish, accompanying the evolution of its behaviors.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Characidae/fisiologia , Acústica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Cavernas , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(9): 2563-2573, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418011

RESUMO

Organisms living in the subterranean biome evolve extreme characteristics including vision loss and sensory expansion. Despite prior work linking certain genes to Mendelian traits, the genetic basis for complex cave-associated traits remains unknown. Moreover, it is unclear if certain forms of genetic variation (e.g., indels, copy number variants) are more common in regressive evolution. Progress in this area has been limited by a lack of suitable natural model systems and genomic resources. In recent years, the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, has advanced as a model for cave biology and regressive evolution. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide screen for in-frame indels using alignments of RNA-sequencing reads to the draft cavefish genome. Mutations were discovered in three genes associated with blood physiology (mlf1, plg, and wdr1), two genes associated with growth factor signaling (ghrb, rnf126), one gene linked to collagen defects (mia3), and one gene which may have a global epigenetic impact on gene expression (mki67). With one exception, polymorphisms were shared between Pachón and Tinaja cavefish lineages, and different from the surface-dwelling lineage. We confirmed the presence of mutations using direct Sanger sequencing and discovered remarkably similar developmental expression in both morphs despite substantial coding sequence alterations. Further, three mutated genes mapped near previously established quantitative trait loci associated with jaw size, condition factor, lens size, and neuromast variation. This work reveals previously unappreciated traits evolving in this species under environmental pressures (e.g., blood physiology) and provides insight to genetic changes underlying convergence of organisms evolving in complete darkness.


Assuntos
Characidae/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Mutação INDEL , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavernas , Characidae/classificação , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Characidae/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10530, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324839

RESUMO

Biomarkers are frequently used in ecotoxicology as they allow to study toxicant effects happening at low concentrations of exposure. However, most sublethal studies only evaluate cellular biomarkers which lack evident ecological relevance. We used a multibiomarker approach to estimate the toxic effects of ethoprophos, an organophosphate insecticide commonly used in banana plantations, on the tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Characidae). We measured biomarkers at sub-individual (cellular) and individual (metabolism, behavior) levels and examined relationships among these responses. A sublethal exposure to ethoprophos caused a significant (54%) reduction of brain Cholinesterase (ChE) activity, reflecting the pesticide's high neurotoxicity. However, other biomarkers like oxidative stress, biotransformation reactions, and resting metabolic rate were not affected. Exposure to ethoprophos modified antipredator behaviors such as escape response and detection avoidance (light/dark preference): exposed fish escaped slower from a simulated attack and preferred brighter areas in a novel tank. The relationship between ChE activity and reaction time suggests that pesticide-induced ChE inhibition reduces escape ability in fish. Our results provide evidence that impacts of organophosphate pesticides on fish ecological fitness can occur even with short exposures at very low concentrations.


Assuntos
Characidae/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Comportamento Predatório , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Colinesterases/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estuários , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Luz , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Organofosfatos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0217915, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291277

RESUMO

Knodus nuptialis n. sp. is described from the Rio Curuá drainage, Rio Xingu basin, Brazil. It can be diagnosed from its congeners by having dentary teeth decreasing gradually in size posteriorly, outer premaxillary teeth row with five cusps, 12-15 branched anal-fin rays and a single humeral spot. The species presents notable sexual dimorphism consisting of densely concentrated nuptial tubercles on head, body, and fins, gill-gland, and bony hooks in the anal fin of mature males. It was found that these sexually dimorphic features are useful and functional in males of the new species only during the reproductive season and after this period, they become atrophied, and eventually disappear. The list of characiform species presenting breeding tubercles is updated and nine species and two genera of the Characidae, Deuterodon and Bryconacidnus, are for the first time reported to have breeding tubercles.


Assuntos
Characidae/anatomia & histologia , Characidae/classificação , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Characidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Brânquias/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242252

RESUMO

The diploid genotypes of males are widely thought to determine sperm phenotypes, yet recent work shows that the haploid genetics of the individual sperm cell also contributes significantly. We tested seven sperm phenotypes, flagellar length and six behaviors, looking for correlations between genetic and phenotypic variability. While flagellar length appears to be controlled by the diploid genotype of the source, variation in three of the behavioral phenotypes, linearity, wobble, and progression are significantly correlated with the heterozygosity of the male producer. Because males that are more genetically variable produce a sperm set that is more diverse in its haploid genotypes, we suggest that the correlations may reflect significant haploid genetic control of sperm swimming behaviors.


Assuntos
Characidae/genética , Characidae/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Characidae/classificação , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Haploidia , Heterozigoto , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , Microscopia de Vídeo , Fenótipo , Motilidade Espermática/genética , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Cauda do Espermatozoide/ultraestrutura , Espermatozoides/citologia
19.
J Vis Exp ; (145)2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958465

RESUMO

Across phyla, sleep is characterized by highly conserved behavioral characteristics that include elevated arousal threshold, rebound following sleep deprivation, and consolidated periods of behavioral immobility. The Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus (A. mexicanus), is a model for studying trait evolution in response to environmental perturbation. A. mexicanus exist as in eyed surface-dwelling forms and multiple blind cave-dwelling populations that have robust morphological and behavioral differences. Sleep loss has occurred in multiple, independently-evolved cavefish populations. This protocol describes a methodology for quantifying sleep and locomotor activity in A. mexicanus cave and surface fish. A cost-effective video monitoring system allows for behavioral imaging of individually-housed larval or adult fish for periods of a week or longer. The system can be applied to fish aged 4 days post fertilization through adulthood. The approach can also be adapted for measuring the effects of social interactions on sleep by recording multiple fish in a single arena. Following behavioral recordings, data is analyzed using automated tracking software and sleep analysis is processed using customized scripts that quantify multiple sleep variables including duration, bout length, and bout number. This system can be applied to measure sleep, circadian behavior, and locomotor activity in almost any fish species including zebrafish and sticklebacks.


Assuntos
Characidae/fisiologia , Locomoção , Sono , Animais , Automação , Evolução Biológica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fenótipo
20.
J Vis Exp ; (146)2019 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009008

RESUMO

Cave-dwelling animals have evolved a series of morphological and behavioral traits to adapt to their perpetually dark and food-sparse environments. Among these traits, foraging behavior is one of the useful windows into functional advantages of behavioral trait evolution. Presented herein are updated methods for analyzing vibration attraction behavior (VAB: an adaptive foraging behavior) and imaging of associated mechanosensors of cave-adapted tetra, Astyanax mexicanus. In addition, methods are presented for high-throughput tracking of a series of additional cavefish behaviors including hyperactivity and sleep-loss. Cavefish also show asociality, repetitive behavior and higher anxiety. Therefore, cavefish serve as an animal model for evolved behaviors. These methods use free-software and custom-made scripts that can be applied to other types of behavior. These methods provide practical and cost-effective alternatives to commercially available tracking software.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cavernas , Characidae/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Mecanorreceptores/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Sono , Vibração
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