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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371955

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of quinoa protein as the source of antihypertensive peptides through in vitro enzymolysis, there is little evidence supporting the in vivo antihypertensive effect of intact quinoa protein. In this study, in vivo study on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was conducted by administering quinoa protein for five weeks. Gastrointestinal content identification indicated that many promising precursors of bioactive peptides were released from quinoa protein under gastrointestinal processing. Quinoa protein administration on SHRs resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure, a significant increase in alpha diversity, and microbial structure alternation towards that in non-hypertension rats. Furthermore, blood pressure was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of genera in quinoa protein-treated SHRs, such as Turicibacter and Allobaculum. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota in quinoa protein-treated SHRs shared more features in the composition of genera with non-hypertension rats than that of the captopril-treated group. These results indicate that quinoa protein may serve as a potential candidate to lower blood pressure and ameliorate hypertension-related gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium quinoa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
2.
Food Chem ; 365: 130619, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407490

RESUMO

There is an increase in demand for sausages in developing countries, however, accessibility and cost of binders are a challenge. Amaranth and quinoa flours were evaluated for use as alternative binders to corn-starch. Proximate composition, functional and thermal properties of the flours were determined. Water holding capacity (WHC) and cooking losses of the sausages made with the flours as binders were also evaluated. To determine acceptability, sensory evaluation was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Flours showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) on protein, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, and fat content. There were also significantly different on functional properties except emulsion stability and pH. Thermal properties of flours also had a significant difference (p < 0.05). Quinoa and corn-starch sausages were compared and amaranth aroma was disliked. As such, it was concluded that quinoa and amaranth can be used as alternative binders in sausage production.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária , Farinha/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Amido
3.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105685, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364069

RESUMO

Protein oxidation leads to covalent modification of structure and deterioration of functional properties of quinoa protein. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasonic treatment on the functional and physicochemical properties of quinoa protein oxidation aggregates. In this concern, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was selected as oxidative modification of quinoa protein. The microstructure of quinoa protein displayed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that oxidation induced extensive aggregation, leading to carbonylation and degradation of sulfhydryl groups. Aggregation induced by oxidation had a negative effect on the solubility, turbidity, emulsifying stability. However, according to the analysis of physicochemical properties, ultrasonic significantly improved the water solubility of quinoa protein. The quinoa protein treated by ultrasonic for 30 min exhibited the best dispersion stability in water, which corresponded to the highest ζ-potential, smallest particle size and most uniform distribution. Based on the FT-IR, SDS-PAGE and surface hydrophobicity analysis, the increase of α-helix, ß-turn and surface hydrophobicity caused by cavitation effect appeared to be the main mechanism of quinoa protein solubilization. In addition, the hydrophobic region of the protein was re-buried by excessive ultrasonic treatment, and the protein molecules were reaggregated by disulfide bonds. Microstructural observations further confirmed that ultrasonic treatment effectively inhibited protein aggregation and improved the functional properties of quinoa protein.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Amidinas/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oxirredução
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445686

RESUMO

Quinoin is a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) we previously isolated from the seeds of pseudocereal quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and is known as a functional food for its beneficial effects on human health. As the presence of RIPs in edible plants could be potentially risky, here we further characterised biochemically the protein (complete amino acid sequence, homologies/differences with other RIPs and three-dimensional homology modeling) and explored its possible defensive role against pathogens. Quinoin consists of 254 amino acid residues, without cysteinyl residues. As demonstrated by similarities and homology modeling, quinoin preserves the amino acid residues of the active site (Tyr75, Tyr122, Glu177, Arg180, Phe181 and Trp206; quinoin numbering) and the RIP-fold characteristic of RIPs. The polypeptide chain of quinoin contains two N-glycosylation sites at Asn115 and Asp231, the second of which appears to be linked to sugars. Moreover, by comparative MALDI-TOF tryptic peptide mapping, two differently glycosylated forms of quinoin, named pre-quinoin-1 and pre-quinoin-2 (~0.11 mg/100 g and ~0.85 mg/100 g of seeds, respectively) were characterised. Finally, quinoin possesses: (i) strong antiviral activity, both in vitro and in vivo towards Tobacco Necrosis Virus (TNV); (ii) a growth inhibition effect on the bacterial pathogens of plants; and (iii) a slight antifungal effect against two Cryphonectria parasitica strains.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/enzimologia , Saporinas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saporinas/fisiologia , Sementes/enzimologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204777

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds are currently the most investigated class of functional components in quinoa. However, great variability in their content emerged, because of differences in sample intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics; processing-induced factors; as well as extraction procedures applied. This study aimed to optimize phenolic compound extraction conditions in black quinoa seeds by Response Surface Methodology. An ultrasound-assisted extraction was performed with two different mixtures; and the effect of time; temperature; and sample-to-solvent ratio on total phenolic content (TPC) was investigated. Data were fitted to a second-order polynomial model. Multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal conditions for TPC. Three-dimensional surface plots were generated from the mathematical models. TPC at optimal conditions was 280.25 ± 3.94 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1 dm upon extraction with aqueous methanol/acetone, and 236.37 ± 5.26 mg GAE 100 g-1 dm with aqueous ethanol mixture. The phenolic profile of extracts obtained at optimal conditions was also investigated by HPLC. The two extracting procedures did not show different specificities for phenolic compounds but differed in the extraction yield.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126474, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186425

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has a serious negative impact on crop growth and human food security. This study investigated the alleviating effect of ß-cyclocitral, a potential heavy metal barrier, on Cd stress in quinoa seedlings and the associated mechanisms. Our results showed that ß-cyclocitral alleviated Cd stress-induced growth inhibition in quinoa seedlings and promoted quinoa seedling root development under Cd stress. Moreover, it maintained the antioxidant system of quinoa seedlings, including the enzymatic, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and nonenzymatic, i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA), antioxidants, which eliminate the damage from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results showed that ß-cyclocitral could reduce the amount of Cd absorbed by roots. Furthermore, we systematically identified five transporter families from the quinoa genome, and the RT-qPCR results showed that ZIP, Nramp and YSL gene families were downregulated by ß-cyclocitral to reduce Cd uptake by roots. Thus, ß-cyclocitral promoted the growth, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant capacity of the aboveground parts of quinoa seedlings. Taken together, these results suggested that the ß-cyclocitral-induced decrease in Cd uptake may be caused by the downregulation of several selected transporter genes.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Plântula , Aldeídos , Antioxidantes , Cádmio/toxicidade , Catalase/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Diterpenos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Funct Plant Biol ; 48(9): 948-962, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092279

RESUMO

GRAS, a key transcription factor in plant growth and development, has not yet been reported in quinoa. Therefore, this study used the latest quinoa genomic data to identify and analyse GRAS genes in quinoa: 52 GRAS genes were identified in quinoa, these being unevenly distributed on 19 chromosomes. Fragment duplication and tandem duplication events were the main reasons for the expansion of the GRAS gene family in quinoa. Protein sequence analysis showed that there were some differences in amino acid numbers and isoelectric points amongst different subfamilies, and the main secondary structures were α-helix and random coil. The CqGRAS gene was divided into 14 subfamilies based on results from phylogenetic analysis. The genes located in the same subfamily had similar gene structures, conserved motifs, and three-level models. Promoter region analysis showed that the GRAS family genes contained multiple homeostasis elements that responded to hormones and adversity. GO enrichment indicated that CqGRAS genes were involved in biological processes, cell components, and molecular functions. By analysing the expression of CqGRAS genes in different tissues and different treatments, it was found that GRAS genes had obvious differential expression in different tissues and stress, which indicates that GRAS genes had tissue or organ expression specificity and thus might play an important role in response to stress. These results laid a foundation for further functional research on the GRAS gene family in quinoa.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063252

RESUMO

Innate immunity plays a determinant role in high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. This study compares the effects of immunonutritional bioactives from Chenopodium quinoa (WQ) or Salvia hispanica L. (Ch) when used to partially replace wheat flour (WB) into bread formulations. These flours were chosen to condition starch and lipid content in the products as well as because their immunonutritional activity. To be administered with different bread formulations, HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were distributed in different groups: (i) wild type, (ii) displaying inherited disturbances in glucose homeostasis, and (iii) displaying dietary iron-mediated impairment of the innate immune TLR4/TRAM/TRIF pathway. We analyze the effects of the products on glycaemia and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), plasmatic triglycerides, intestinal and hepatic gene expression and variations of myeloid (MY), and lymphoid (LY) cells population in peripheral blood. Our results show that feeding animals with WQ and Ch formulations influenced the expression of lipogenic and coronary risk markers, thus attaining a better control of hepatic lipid accumulation. WQ and Ch products also improved glucose homeostasis compared to WB, normalizing the HOMA-IR in animals with an altered glucose and lipid metabolism. These positive effects were associated with positive variations in the peripheral myeloid cells population.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Farinha , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Salvia , Animais , Glicemia/imunologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-18, jun. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284378

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad crónica que conlleva a la aparición de enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Pacientes con sobrepeso, obesidad o DM2 presentan generalmente un perfil lipídico con niveles sanguíneos elevados de colesterol, triglicéridos, LDL (lipoproteínas de baja densidad) y VLDL-c (lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad unidas al colesterol) y niveles bajos de HDL-c (lipoproteínas de alta densidad). Pseudocereales como Amaranthus caudatus (Amaranto), Chenopodium quinoa (Quinua) y Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) presentes en la región Andina de Bolivia, tienen propiedades potencialmente nutracéuticas, con un alto contenido de macronutrientes y diversos fitoquímicos con actividad biológica como alcaloides de quinolizidina, saponinas, triterpenos y γ-conglutina. OBJETIVO: determinar el efecto del consumo de un producto natural elaborado a base de granos de Amaranto, Quinua y Tarwi (AQT), sobre el perfil lipídico en pacientes con obesidad y DM2. MÉTODO: estudio clínico preliminar controlado, prospectivo, doble ciego y cruzado realizado en el Área de Farmacología del Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco Bioquímicas de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. RESULTADOS: el consumo de un producto elaborado a base de harinas de Amaranto, Quinua y Tarwi (AQT) durante 3 meses, promovió la disminución significativa de colesterol, triglicéridos, LDL y VLDLc en pacientes diabéticos (DM2) con sobrepeso (IMC>25), sin embargo, los niveles de HDL-c no sufrieron cambios significativos. CONCLUSIÓN: por tanto, el producto AQT tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre el perfil lipídico en pacientes con sobrepeso u obesidad y con riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares y DM2.


INTRODUCTION: obesity is a chronic disease that leads to the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Overweight, obese or T2DM patients generally have a lipid profile with high blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL-c (very low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein of cholesterol). Pseudocereals such as Amaranthus caudatus (Amaranth), Chenopodium quinoa (Quinoa) and Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) present in the Andean region of Bolivia, have potentially nutraceutical properties, with a high content of macronutrients and various phytochemicals with biological activity such as quinolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and γ-conglutin. OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect due to natural product intake made with Amaranth, Quinoa and Tarwi (AQT) on the lipid profile in patients with obesity and T2DM. METHOD: controlled, prospective, double blinded and crossed Preliminary Clinical Assay, performed in the Pharmacology Area of Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco Bioquímicas from Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. RESULTS: the intake of a product made from Amaranth, Quinoa and Tarwi (AQT) flour for 3 months, promoted a significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-c in overweight diabetic patients (DM2) (BMI> 25) However, HDL-c levels did not undergo significant changes. CONCLUSION: therefore, the AQT product has beneficial effects on the lipid profile in patients who are overweight or obese and at risk of cardiovascular disease and T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Triticum , Amaranthus , Chenopodium quinoa , Lipídeos , Obesidade
10.
Food Chem ; 363: 130250, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120052

RESUMO

Quinoa seed proteins are of prime importance in human nutrition and in plant breeding for cultivar identification and improvement. In this study, proteins from seeds of black, red, white quinoa from Peru and white quinoa from Bolivia (also known as royal) were extracted, digested and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The raw mass spectra data were processed for identification and label-free quantification (LFQ) using MaxQuant/Andromeda against a specific quinoa database from The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In total, 1,211 quinoa proteins (85 were uncharacterized) were identified. Inspection and visualization using Venn diagrams, heat maps and Gene Ontology (GO) graphs revealed proteome similarities and differences between the four varieties. The presented data provides the most comprehensive experimental quinoa seed proteome map existing to date in the literature, as a starting point for more specific characterization and nutritional studies of quinoa and quinoa-containing foodstuff.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Proteoma , Cromatografia Líquida , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117348, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020256

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid and its widespread contamination in agricultural soils along with soil salinization has become a serious concern for human health and food security. In the present study, the effect of cotton shell biochar (CSBC) in decreasing As-induced phytotoxicity and human health risks in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown on As-spiked saline and non-saline soils was evaluated. Quinoa plants were grown on As contaminated (0, 15 and 30 mg kg-1) saline and non-saline soils amended with 0, 1 and 2% CSBC. Results showed that plant growth, grain yield, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents of quinoa showed more decline on As contaminated saline soil than non-saline soil. The application of 2% CSBC particularly enhanced plant growth, leaf relative water contents, stomatal conductance, pigment contents and limited the uptake of As and Na as compared to soil without CSBC. Salinity in combination with As trigged the production of H2O2 and caused lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. Biochar ameliorated the oxidative stress by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT). Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risks were greatly decreased in the presence of biochar. Application of 2% CSBC showed promising results in reducing human health risks and As toxicity in quinoa grown on As contaminated non-saline and saline soils. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of biochar in minimizing As accumulation in other crops on normal as well as salt affected soils under field conditions.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Chenopodium quinoa , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
12.
Environ Entomol ; 50(4): 852-859, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960388

RESUMO

Crop diversification often promotes farm sustainability. However, proper management of newly introduced crops is difficult when pests are unknown. Characterizing herbivore dynamics on new crops, and how they respond to agronomic factors, is crucial for integrated pest management. Here we explored factors affecting Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) herbivores in quinoa crops of Washington State. Quinoa is a newly introduced crop for North America that has multiple varieties and a range of agronomic practices used for cultivation. Through arthropod surveys and discussions with growers, we determined that Lygus spp. was the most abundant insect herbivore and likely contributed to low quinoa yields in previous seasons. We assessed how different varieties (Pison and QQ74), irrigation regimes (present and not), and planting methods (direct-seeded and transplanted) affected Lygus population dynamics. Lygus phenology was correlated with timing of quinoa seed-set in July and August, corresponding to a period when quinoa is most susceptible to Lygus. Both irrigation and planting manipulations had significant effects on Lygus abundance. Irrigation reduced Lygus abundance compared with nonirrigated plots in 2018. Planting method had a significant effect on Lygus populations in both 2017 and 2018, but effects differed among years. Variety had a significant effect on Lygus abundance, but only in nonirrigated plots. Overall, our study shows that Lygus is a common insect herbivore in quinoa, and careful selection of variety, planting method, and irrigation regime may be key components of effective control in seasons where Lygus abundance is high.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , Herbivoria , Insetos , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(7): 936-948, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042512

RESUMO

ß-Amylase (BAM) is an important starch hydrolase, playing a role in a variety of plant growth and development processes. In this study, 22 BAM gene family members (GFMs) were identified in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), an ancient crop gaining modern consumer acceptance because of its nutritional qualities. The genetic structure, phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships, and expression patterns of CqBAM GFMs in different tissues, were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses assigned the CqBAMs, AtBAMs, and OsBAMs into four clades. The CqBAM gene family had expanded due to segmental duplication. RNA-seq analysis revealed expression of the duplicated pairs to be similar, with the expression of CqBAM GFM pairs showing a degree of tissue specificity that was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Several CqBAM GFMs were also responsive to abiotic stresses in shoots and/or roots. In conclusion, the BAM gene family in quinoa was identified and systematically analyzed using bioinformatics and experimental methods. These results will help to elucidate the evolutionary relationship and biological functions of the BAM gene family in quinoa.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/genética , beta-Amilase/genética , Evolução Molecular , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma/genética , beta-Amilase/metabolismo
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 164: 222-236, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010782

RESUMO

Soil salinity is one of the most important environmental factors that adversely affect plant growth and productivity. Quinoa emerges as a good food candidate due to its exceptional nutritive value, and its adaptability to various abiotic stresses. This high quinoa potential was investigated in the present study by evaluating the impact of salinity and post-stress restorative processes, in order to test how a pulse of saline water affects the growth and survival of two quinoa genotypes differing in salt resistance, Kcoito (salt sensitive) and UDEC-5 (salt resistant). Plants established in non-saline nutrient solution (hydroponic system) were exposed to a pulse of 0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl salinity for three weeks followed by four weeks in nutrient solution. Both genotypes survived exposure to salinity pulses. After stress removal, only the salt resistant variety UDEC-5 presented a significant stimulation of growth above the level of the non-pulsed treatment. Furthermore, the two varieties showed different responses in physiological, biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Again, the salinity release was highly controlled in pulsed UDEC-5 and more targeted as in Kcoito. In a win-win situation, the NaCl remaining in the tissues was used from UDEC-5 to optimize water uptake (osmotic force), to release vacuolar nutrients to enhance indirectly photosynthesis and to reduce ionic burden. This straightforward adjustment was accompanied by priming-effects such as a high proline accumulation and a balanced oxidative stress defense to scavenge remaining toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), to stabilize enzymes and to be poised and to reduce lipid peroxidation and membrane damage. It can be concluded, that both species can tolerate short periods of exposure to saline conditions and this gives some flexibility of transient or permanent irrigation with saline water. However, taken together all of these markers indicate that only UDEC-5 quinoa can utilize salinity pulses in the applied range to enhance, growth, their antioxidant defense and water relations even above the level of non-pulsed plants.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Antioxidantes , Genótipo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
15.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4060-4071, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977982

RESUMO

A germination treatment was explored in this study as a green strategy to reduce the in vitro starch digestibility of cooked quinoa. The alterations of chemical compositions, starch chain-length distributions (CLDs) and rheological characteristics of quinoa flours after the germination treatment were characterized. Results showed that a significant alteration of amylose CLDs and the starch digestibility was observed for cooked quinoa flours after different germination times. By fitting starch digestograms to the logarithm of slop (LOS) plot and the combination of parallel and sequential kinetics model (CPS), two starch digestible fractions with distinct rate constants were identified. Pearson correlation analysis further found that the observed starch digestive characteristics could be largely explained by the alterations of amylose CLDs caused by the germination treatment. More specifically, the rapidly digestible starch fraction mainly consisted of amorphous amylopectin molecules and amylose intermolecular crystallites. On the other hand, the slowly digestible starch fraction was largely formed by intramolecular interactions among amylose short chains (degree of polymerization (DP) < 500). These results suggest that germination may be a promising way to develop cereal products with slower starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão , Germinação , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Culinária , Hidrogéis , Técnicas In Vitro , Reologia , Viscosidade
16.
Adv Nutr ; 12(4): 1100-1107, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857283

RESUMO

Infants are vulnerable consumers and highly depend on dietary proteins for growth and development during their first months of life. Infant formula (IF) and follow-on formula (FOF) have been developed to meet these requirements, although few protein sources are currently allowed to be used. At the same time, allergies to these available protein sources are becoming more frequent. There is thus a need to explore alternative protein sources for infant nutrition. One alternative could be quinoa, which is a pseudocereal that is naturally free from gluten and has a high protein content and quality. This review assessed the composition, nutritional properties, and applicability of quinoa proteins for IF and FOF as well as the legal framework for their use in the European Union (EU). The protein quality of isolated quinoa proteins (IQPs) is relatively high compared with other plant-based proteins like rice. Besides, during the protein isolation process, unfavorable compounds are mostly removed, ensuring that the final product can comply with the maximum residue concentrations allowed. Overall, IF and FOF are strictly regulated under the Foods for Specific Groups (FSG) Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 and more research is needed before the introduction of IQP in such products is considered, but this review shows it has several promising features that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas na Dieta , União Europeia , Glutens , Humanos , Lactente
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 284, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Night-break (NB) has been proven to repress flowering of short-day plants (SDPs). Long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in plant flowering. However, investigation of the relationship between lncRNAs and NB responses is still limited, especially in Chenopodium quinoa, an important short-day coarse cereal. RESULTS: In this study, we performed strand-specific RNA-seq of leaf samples collected from quinoa seedlings treated by SD and NB. A total of 4914 high-confidence lncRNAs were identified, out of which 91 lncRNAs showed specific responses to SD and NB. Based on the expression profiles, we identified 17 positive- and 7 negative-flowering lncRNAs. Co-expression network analysis indicated that 1653 mRNAs were the common targets of both types of flowering lncRNAs. By mapping these targets to the known flowering pathways in model plants, we found some pivotal flowering homologs, including 2 florigen encoding genes (FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T) and TSF (TWIN SISTER of FT) homologs), 3 circadian clock related genes (EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) homologs), 2 photoreceptor genes (PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA) and CRYPTOCHROME1 (CRY1) homologs), 1 B-BOX type CONSTANS (CO) homolog and 1 RELATED TO ABI3/VP1 (RAV1) homolog, were specifically affected by NB and competed by the positive and negative-flowering lncRNAs. We speculated that these potential flowering lncRNAs may mediate quinoa NB responses by modifying the expression of the floral homologous genes. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the findings in this study will deepen our understanding of the roles of lncRNAs in NB responses, and provide valuable information for functional characterization in future.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , RNA Longo não Codificante , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hipocótilo , Fotoperíodo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 215-229, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862501

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaCl salinity (0, 100 and 300 mM) on the individual response of the quinoa varieties Kcoito (Altiplano Ecotype) and UDEC-5 (Sea-level Ecotype) with physiological and proteomic approaches. Leaf protein profile was performed using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). UDEC-5 showed an enhanced capacity to withstand salinity stress compared to Kcoito. In response to salinity, we detected overall the following differences between both genotypes: Toxicity symptoms, plant growth performance, photosynthesis performance and intensity of ROS-defense. We found a mirroring of these differences in the proteome of each genotype. Among the 700 protein spots reproducibly detected, 24 exhibited significant abundance variations between samples. These proteins were involved in energy and carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, ROS scavenging and detoxification, stress defense and chaperone functions, enzyme activation and ATPases. A specific set of proteins predominantly involved in photosynthesis and ROS scavenging showed significantly higher abundance under high salinity (300 mM NaCl). The adjustment was accompanied by a stimulation of various metabolic pathways to balance the supplementary demand for energy or intermediates. However, the more salt-resistant genotype UDEC-5 presented a beneficial and significantly higher expression of nearly all stress-related altered enzymes than Kcoito.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Salinidade , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteômica , Tolerância ao Sal/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805525

RESUMO

Food proteins and peptides are able to exert a variety of well-known bioactivities, some of which are related to well-being and disease prevention in humans and animals. Currently, an active trend in research focuses on chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, delineating their major pathogenetic role in age-related diseases and in some forms of cancer. The present study aims to investigate the potential effects of pseudocereal proteins and their derived peptides on chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. After purification and attribution to protein classes according to classic Osborne's classification, the immune-modulating, antioxidant, and trypsin inhibitor activities of proteins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds have been assessed in vitro. The peptides generated by simulated gastro-intestinal digestion of each fraction have been also investigated for the selected bioactivities. None of the proteins or peptides elicited inflammation in Caco-2 cells; furthermore, all protein fractions showed different degrees of protection of cells from IL-1ß-induced inflammation. Immune-modulating and antioxidant activities were, in general, higher for the albumin fraction. Overall, seed proteins can express these bioactivities mainly after hydrolysis. On the contrary, higher trypsin inhibitor activity was expressed by globulins in their intact form. These findings lay the foundations for the exploitation of these pseudocereal seeds as source of anti-inflammatory molecules.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Amaranthus/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Fracionamento Químico , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Fagopyrum/química , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Tripsina/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 1726-1736, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844283

RESUMO

In this work, red quinoa was successively subjected to α-amylase steaming, complex enzyme Viscozyme (R) L hydrolysis, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation. The total phenolic compound content (TPC), flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant capacities of the solvent-extractable (free) and bound fractions and the individual phenolic compounds released were determined. Compared to steaming with α-amylase, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of quinoa resulted in approximately 82.6, 26.9, 36.3, and 45.2% increases in the TPC (the sum of free and bound fractions), TFC, DPPH, and ORAC values, respectively. HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS analysis showed that enzymolysis and fermentation increased the content of protocatechuic acid, catechin, procyanidin B2 , and quercetin by 126.3, 101.9, 524, and 296.3%, respectively. Moreover, a major proportion of individual phenolic compounds existed as bound form. The results indicated that complex enzymatic hydrolysis and LAB fermentation were practical and useful to release promising polyphenols. This research provides a basis for the processing of quinoa beverages rich in phenolic compounds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this work, liquefying with α-amylase, hydrolyzing with cellulolytic enzyme mixture, and fermenting with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), successively, were exploited to process quinoa. This is an innovative method of quinoa processing to produce beverage products. Complex enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation with LAB can significantly enhance phenolic compound, especially protocatechuic acid, catechin, procyanidin B2 , and quercetin. In additional, LAB fermentation is very beneficial to improve the antioxidant activity of quinoa. We also found that a major proportion of phenolic compounds existed as bound forms in quinoa.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Fermentação , Flavonoides/análise , Hidrólise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Soluções , Vapor , Água , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
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