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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
2.
Am J Bot ; 109(9): 1346-1359, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109830

RESUMO

PREMISE: Chenopodium oahuense is a polymorphic Hawaiian endemic plant inhabiting several xeric habitats. Considerable variability in leaf morphology has made comprehensively describing its diversity difficult. Chenopodium oahuense subsp. ilioense is differentiated from C. oahuense subsp. oahuense by smaller, less-lobed, succulent leaves, smaller seeds, and prostrate to scandent habit. The lacking quantification of leaf shape, succulence, and previously unknown heteroblastic leaf transition in C. oahuense subsp. ilioense complicates the morphological boundaries separating subspecies. METHODS: This study used landmark analyses, elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFDs), and traditional shape descriptors measured from 1585 greenhouse-grown plant leaves collected over 18 weeks. Principal component analyses visualized correlations in leaf shape, and linear discriminant analyses predicted classifications, either subspecific or heteroblastic. RESULTS: Identity determination and heteroblastic change visualization were limited in landmark analyses. On the basis of EFDs and shape descriptors, C. oahuense subsp. ilioense was determined to be morphologically differentiated from C. oahuense subsp. oahuense with the Pu'u Ka Pele population as intermediate. The EFDs depicted heteroblastic change, predominantly in lobing. All analyses were restricted in correctly attributing a leaf to the week collected. Shape descriptors generally represented significant heteroblastic change over the growth period. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support significant differentiation between the subspecies, particularly from shape descriptors. Furthermore, we quantified the morphological intermediacy of the Pu'u Ka Pele population. Results suggest this population could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting or a recent hybridization of the two subspecies. Hawaiian Chenopodium is a polymorphic lineage notable for future research in adaptive radiations, phenotypic plasticity, and heteroblasty.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Hawaii , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 222(Pt A): 636-651, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174856

RESUMO

The Chenopodium genus includes >250 species, among which only quinoa, pigweed, djulis, and kaniwa have been explored for starches. Chenopodium is a non-conventional and rich source of starch, which has been found effective in producing different classes of food. Chenopodium starches are characterized by their smaller granule size (0.4-3.5 µm), higher swelling index, shorter/lower gelatinization regions/temperature, good emulsifying properties, and high digestibility, making them suitable for food applications. However, most of the investigations into Chenopodium starches are in the primary stages (isolation, modification, and characterization), except for quinoa. This review comprehensively explores the major developments in Chenopodium starch research, emphasizing isolation, structural composition, functionality, hydrolysis, modification, and application. A critical analysis of the trends, limitations, and scope of these starches for novel food applications has also been provided to promote further scientific advancement in the field.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Chenopodium quinoa , Chenopodium , Amido/química , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Temperatura , Amilose/química
4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(8)2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881674

RESUMO

Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is a crop grown since antiquity in Taiwan. It is a BCD-genome hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) domesticated form of lambsquarters (C. album L.) and a relative of the allotetraploid (AABB) C. quinoa. As with quinoa, djulis seed contains a complete protein profile and many nutritionally important vitamins and minerals. While still sold locally in Taiwanese markets, its traditional culinary uses are being lost as diets of younger generations change. Moreover, indigenous Taiwanese peoples who have long safeguarded djulis are losing their traditional farmlands. We used PacBio sequencing and Hi-C-based scaffolding to produce a chromosome-scale, reference-quality assembly of djulis. The final genome assembly spans 1.63 Gb in 798 scaffolds, with 97.8% of the sequence contained in 27 scaffolds representing the nine haploid chromosomes of each sub-genome of the species. Benchmarking of universal, single-copy orthologs indicated that 98.5% of the conserved orthologous genes for Viridiplantae are complete within the assembled genome, with 92.9% duplicated, as expected for a polyploid. A total of 67.8% of the assembly is repetitive, with the most common repeat being Gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons, which had significantly expanded in the B sub-genome. Gene annotation using Iso-Seq data from multiple tissues identified 75,056 putative gene models. Comparisons to quinoa showed strong patterns of synteny which allowed for the identification of homoeologous chromosomes, and sub-genome-specific sequences were used to assign homoeologs to each sub-genome. These results represent the first hexaploid genome assembly and the first assemblies of the C and D genomes of the Chenopodioideae subfamily.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Chenopodium/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Sintenia
5.
Plant Sci ; 320: 111279, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643618

RESUMO

The survival and adaptation of angiosperms depends on the proper timing of flowering. The weedy species Chenopodium ficifolium serves as a useful diploid model for comparing the transition to flowering with the important tetraploid crop Chenopodium quinoa due to the close phylogenetic relationship. The detailed transcriptomic and hormonomic study of the floral induction was performed in the short-day accession C. ficifolium 459. The plants grew more rapidly under long days but flowered later than under short days. The high levels of abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acids at long days were accompanied by the elevated expression of the genes responding to oxidative stress. The increased concentrations of stress-related phytohormones neither inhibited the plant growth nor accelerated flowering in C. ficifolium 459 at long photoperiods. Enhanced content of cytokinins and the stimulation of cytokinin and gibberellic acid signaling pathways under short days may indicate the possible participation of these phytohormones in floral initiation. The accumulation of auxin metabolites suggests the presence of a dynamic regulatory network in C. ficifolium 459.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Chenopodium/genética , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Salicilatos
6.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408731

RESUMO

Skin aging is a complex process involving photoaging and glycation stress, which share some fundamental pathways and have common mediators. They can cause skin damage and collagen degradation by inducing oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chenopodium formosanum (CF), also known as Djulis, is a traditional cereal in Taiwan. This study investigated the protection mechanisms of CF extract against ultraviolet (UV) radiation and advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced stress. The results indicated that CF extract had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects. It could reduce UV-induced intracellular ROS generation and initiate the antioxidant defense system by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway in human skin fibroblasts. CF extract modulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transformed growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathways to alleviate oxidative stress-induced skin aging. Moreover, the results revealed that CF extract not only promoted collagen synthesis but also improved aging-induced collagen degradation. CF extract attenuated AGEs-induced ROS production and the upregulation of receptor for AGEs (RAGE). The overall results suggest that CF extract provides an effective anti-aging strategy by preventing skin damage from oxidative stress and collagen loss with potent antioxidant, anti-photoaging, and antiglycation activities.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Envelhecimento da Pele , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(11): 4561-4569, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germination is regarded as a natural method for improving the bioavailability of seed nutrients against stress, which enhances the accumulation of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to determine the effect of stress (H2 O2 , catechin, gallic acid, tyrosine, and NaCl) during germination of djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) sprouts on betacyanin, phytochemicals, and antioxidant capacities. RESULTS: The betacyanin and antioxidant activities of the djulis sprouts increased significantly compared to seeds. The lowest betacyanin was found in NaCl-stressed sprouts. The djulis sprouts reported the presence of celosianins I and II (50.72%), which was absent in seeds. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for > 60% of the total phenolic compounds in sprouts, whereas rutin predominated in the seeds. CONCLUSION: Germination under stress may represent an effective natural method for improving the bioactive potential of sprouts, an alternative to use seeds, in the development of bioactive compounds-enriched healthy foods that are good for public health. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Antioxidantes/química , Betacianinas , Chenopodium/química , Germinação , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
8.
Plant Dis ; 106(2): 564-571, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633235

RESUMO

Quinoa is a potential new crop for New England; however, its susceptibility to downy mildew, caused by Peronospora variabilis, is a key obstacle for cultivation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differential resistance within the Chenopodium genus, identify novel sources of resistance for use in future genetic studies or breeding programs, and investigate phylogenetic relationships of P. variabilis isolates from different Chenopodium hosts. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a resistant variety of quinoa to be grown in New England. Field trials conducted at the University of New Hampshire evaluated downy mildew disease severity on 10 Chenopodium accessions representing four species. Disease severity for each treatment was compared and significant differences in disease severity were observed between accessions. C. berlandieri var. macrocalycium ecotypes collected from Rye Beach, New Hampshire and Appledore Island, Maine exhibited the lowest disease severity over the growing season. P. variabilis was isolated from each accession, and COX2 sequences were compared. Phylogenetic analyses suggest no effect of host species on P. variabilis sequence similarity; however, isolates are shown to cluster by geographic location. This research provides the first step in identifying potential New England native sources of resistance to downy mildew within the genus Chenopodium and provides preliminary information needed to further investigate resistance at the genomic level in Chenopodium spp.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Peronospora , New Hampshire , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(51): 15699-15715, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910494

RESUMO

Betalains are water-soluble pigments that may be used as alternatives to artificial colorants in the food industry. In addition, the betalain profile may be of taxonomic significance to some higher plants. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) is an emerging crop grown by Taiwan aboriginal communities, and its various cultivars contain different betalain compositions. To develop an authenticity method for evaluating djulis cultivars, we performed comprehensive betalain profiling with HPLC-Q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). An HRMS method for betalain annotation was developed and used to identify 68 betalains, including 10 betacyanins, 24 betacyanin derivatives, and 34 betaxanthins. The profile of betacyanins and their derivatives could be utilized to classify different cultivars of djulis, while betaxanthins were less informative. Furthermore, the betalain profiles were indicative of the geographic origin of djulis. This HRMS method and analytical platform for betalains may be helpful to guide further investigations of natural pigments in other plants.


Assuntos
Betalaínas , Chenopodium , Betacianinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714855

RESUMO

We evaluated phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous (water) and organic extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) of Chenopodium glaucum. Highest phenolic content 45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g d.w was found in aqueous extract followed by ethyl acetate (41mg GAE/g d.w) and methanol extract (34.46 mg GAE/g d.w). Antibacterial potential of aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum was examined against Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aqueous, methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and S. epidermidis. However, against A. baumannii significantly higher inhibition zone (19 mm and 18.96 mm respectively) was shown by ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Aqueous extract possessed highest growth inhibition (11 mm) against E. coli. Aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed 9 mm, 10 mm, and 10.33 mm zone of inhibition against the K. pneumoniae. For antifungal activity, the extracts were less effective against Aspergillus niger but showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). The antioxidant activity was measured as DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), H2O2 and ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity of free radicals. All the organic extracts of C. glaucum possessed ABTS, DPPH and H2O2 scavenging properties. The highest cytotoxic activity measured as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) against human lungs carcinoma cells was recorded for methanolic (IC50 = 16 µg/mL) and n-hexane (IC50 = 25 µg/mL) extracts, respectively. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed 4 major and 26 minor compounds in n-hexane extract and 4 major and 7 minor compounds in methanol extract of the C. glaucum. It is concluded that aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum would be potential therapeutic agents and could be exploited on a pilot scale to treat human pathogenic diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chenopodium/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 265: 153492, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385120

RESUMO

The transition from vegetative to reproductive phases is the most fundamental and tightly controlled switch in the life of flowering plants. The short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum is a fast cycling annual plant lacking a juvenile phase. It can be induced to flowering at the seedling stage by exposure to a single period of darkness. This floral induction may then be cancelled by a short pulse of red light at midnight called night break (NB), which also inhibits the floral activator FLOWERING LOCUS T LIKE 1 (CrFTL1). We performed a comparative transcriptomic study between C. rubrum seedlings treated by NB and ones growing through uninterrupted night, and found about six hundred differentially expressed genes, including the B-BOX DOMAIN (BBX) genes. We focused on the CrBBX19 and BOLTING TIME CONTROL 1 (BTC1) genes, homologous to the upstream regulators of the BvFT2, a floral inducer in sugar beet. The transcription patterns of the two genes were compatible with their putative role as a sensor of the dark period length optimal for flowering (CrBBX19), and a signal of lights-on (CrBTC1), but the participation of other genes cannot be excluded. The expression profiles of CrBBX19 and the homolog of the core endogenous clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) were highly similar, which suggested their co-regulation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/genética , Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium/genética , Escuridão , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fotoperíodo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Transcriptoma
13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(1(Supplementary)): 197-203, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275843

RESUMO

The current study is focused towards screening for its phytochemicals, phenolic and flavonoid contents of different species of Chenopodium. The plants were also screened for corroborating the traditional use of medicinal plants locally used for pain by determining the extract and their fractions for the in-vivo analgesic activity by using the modern scientific system. Among chloroform fractions, a high level of total phenolic contents was found in chloroform fraction of Chenopodium ambrosioides (ChAm-Chf) with 57.12±1.02 followed by Chenopodium botrys (ChBt-Chf) with 56.79±0.71. High content of flavonoids was found in chloroform fraction of Chenopodium botrys (ChBt-Chf) extract with 78.35±0.84 followed by Chenopodium ambrosioides (ChAm-Chf) with 75.20±0.81. The crude extract Chenopodium album, Chenopodium botrys and Chenopodium ambrosioides (ChAl-Crd, ChBt-Crd and ChAm-Crd) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, chloroform and ethylacetate fractions (ChAl-Chf, ChBt-Chf, ChAm-Chf, ChAl-Et, ChBt-Et and ChAm-Et) at 75 mg/kg caused significant inhibition (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001, n=8) of the analgesic response induced by acetic acid, formalin and hotplate method. Mechanistically, the naloxone overturns completely the analgesic effects of beta-sitosterol (SN2) while partial reversal was observed by ursolic acid (SN1) indicating other possible mechanisms in association with opioid receptors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Chenopodium album , Chenopodium ambrosioides , Descoberta de Drogas , Flavonoides , Camundongos , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(46): 65644-65654, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322811

RESUMO

Due to many uses of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in various industries, the release of these particles in the environment and their effects on living organisms is inevitable. In this study, the role of salicylic acid (SA) pretreatments in modulating the toxicity of ZnO NPs was investigated using a hydroponic system. After pretreatment with different concentrations of SA (0, 25, 75, and 150 µM), Chenopodium murale plants were exposed to ZnO NPs (50 mg L-1). The results showed that exogenous SA increased the length, weight, chlorophyll, proline, starch, and soluble sugars in the plants. Besides, SA pretreatments improved water status in the plants treated with ZnO NPs. In SA-pretreated plants, increased activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was associated with a decline in electrolyte leakage (EL %) and membrane peroxidation. Under NPs stress, SA pretreatments increased the content of phenolic compounds by increasing the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Exogenous SA reduced the translocation of larger amounts of Zn to the shoots, with more accumulation in the roots. This result can be used to produce healthy food from plants grown in environments contaminated with nanoparticles. It seems that all concentrations of SA reduced the symptoms of ZnO NPs toxicity in the plant by strengthening the function of the antioxidant system and increasing the content of some metabolites. Findings also suggest that SA pretreatment can compensate for the growth reduction caused by ZnO NPs.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Antioxidantes , Clorofila , Raízes de Plantas , Ácido Salicílico , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(3): 705-719, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117571

RESUMO

Gold (Au) compounds were used as an effective therapeutic agent for various inflammatory diseases; however, the use of Au compounds becomes limited because of its association with several side effects. Hence, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were developed as a new option for the medical proposes. However, the safety evaluation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in osteoarthritis (OA) treatment remains vague. This study aimed to biosynthesize, characterize and evaluate the therapeutic effects of biosynthesized AuNPs and/or Diacerein® (DIA) in experimental OA. OA was induced by a single injection of monosodium iodoacetate (3 mg/joint) in the intra-articular knee of female rats. Normal rats (N-rats) and OA-rats were treated orally for 5 weeks as follow: untreated N-rats; untreated OA-rats; N-rats received DIA (50 mg/kg b.w); N-rats received AuNPs (30 µg/kg b.w.); N-rats received AuNPs plus DIA; OA-rats received DIA; OA-rats received AuNPs, and OA-rats received AuNPs plus DIA. Blood, knee cartilage, liver and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histological analysis. The synthesized AuNPs were nearly spherical with average size of 20 nm and zeta potential of 33 mV. AuNPs and DIA induced a significant improvement in serum inflammatory cytokines, biochemical parameters, estrogen level, hepatic and renal oxidative markers, hepatic DNA fragmentation, genomic template stability and cartilage joint histology of OA-rats. AuNPs were more effective than DIA and the combined treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that AuNPs are promising for the treatment of OA alone or in combination with DIA.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Ouro/química , Ácido Iodoacético/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Food Chem ; 360: 129951, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989882

RESUMO

The kanihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) Andean grain from the Peruvian Altiplano presents proteins of 15% to 19%. The objective was to obtain purified bioactive antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), hydrolyzed with Alcalase and Pepsin-pancreatin sequential system of protein fractions of kanihua varieties Ramis (KR) and Cupi-Sayhua (KS), and hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) and percentage inhibition (IP) of the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. To obtain AMPs, nutraceuticals, bio-preservatives, and novel ingredients in food design. The results showed 216 hydrolysates (1%, w/v), only 28 presented significant difference compared to controls (IP ≥ 45%, p ≤ 0.05), 4 AMPs were purified by chromatography, glutelins KS 4 h (1:10) stood out with DH 40% and IP 52% and 70% of S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively (p ≤ 0.05), showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 95% for E. coli (p ≤ 0.05), and presented an anionic charge. In conclusion, the simulated digestion in vitro showed higher DH (7%-67%) than Alcalase (13%-54%); the majority were extensive; of 28 hydrolysates with IP ≥ 45% 4 AMPs with important IPs were obtained, and one was anionic.


Assuntos
Chenopodium/embriologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Chenopodium/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0249250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974647

RESUMO

In this study, different probiotics commonly used to produce fermented dairy products were inoculated independently for Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. fermentation. The strain with the highest level of antioxidant activity was selected and the fermentation process was further optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). Lactobacillus plantarum BCRC 11697 was chosen because, compared to other lactic acid bacteria, it exhibits increased free radical scavenging ability and can produce more phenolic compounds, DPPH (from 72.6% to 93.2%), and ABTS (from 64.2% to 76.9%). Using RSM, we further optimize the fermentation protocol of BCRC 11697 by adjusting the initial fermentation pH, agitation speed, and temperature to reach the highest level of antioxidant activity (73.5% of DPPH and 93.8% of ABTS). The optimal protocol (pH 5.55, 104 rpm, and 24.4°C) resulted in a significant increase in the amount of phenolic compounds as well as the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging ability of BCRC 11697 products. The IC50 of the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging ability were 0.33 and 2.35 mg/mL, respectively, and both protease and tannase activity increased after RSM. An increase in lower molecular weight (<24 kDa) protein hydrolysates was also observed. Results indicated that djulis fermented by L. plantarum can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants for preventing free radical-initiated diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/métodos , Chenopodium/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001615

RESUMO

Humans have both intentional and unintentional impacts on their environment, yet identifying the enduring ecological legacies of past small-scale societies remains difficult, and as such, evidence is sparse. The present study found evidence of an ecological legacy that persists today within an semiarid ecosystem of western North America. Specifically, the richness of ethnographically important plant species is strongly associated with archaeological complexity and ecological diversity at Puebloan sites in a region known as Bears Ears on the Colorado Plateau. A multivariate model including both environmental and archaeological predictors explains 88% of the variation in ethnographic species richness (ESR), with growing degree days and archaeological site complexity having the strongest effects. At least 31 plant species important to five tribal groups (Navajo, Hopi, Zuni, Ute Mountain Ute, and Apache), including the Four Corners potato (Solanum jamesii), goosefoot (Chenopodium sp.), wolfberry (Lycium pallidum), and sumac (Rhus trilobata), occurred at archaeological sites, despite being uncommon across the wider landscape. Our results reveal a clear ecological legacy of past human behavior: even when holding environmental variables constant, ESR increases significantly as a function of past investment in habitation and subsistence. Consequently, we suggest that propagules of some species were transported and cultivated, intentionally or not, establishing populations that persist to this day. Ensuring persistence will require tribal input for conserving and restoring archaeo-ecosystems containing "high-priority" plant species, especially those held sacred as lifeway medicines. This transdisciplinary approach has important implications for resource management planning, especially in areas such as Bears Ears that will experience greater visitation and associated impacts in the near future.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/história , Biodiversidade , Plantas/classificação , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colorado , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Multivariada , Rhus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Ars pharm ; 62(1): 52-65, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of diabetes type 2 is increasing worldwide, thus the search of novel alternative ther¬apies is needed. According to their traditional use, we selected five Bolivian plants Chenopodium quinoa (CQ) Ama¬ranthus caudatus (AC), Chenopodium pallidicaule (CP), Lupinus mutabilis (LM) and Smallanthus sonchifolius (SS) that are traditionally used to control glycemia. METHODS: The effect of a single oral administration of Ethanolic (EtOH), hydro-ethanolic (EtOH70) and aqueous (Aq) extracts from all plant species were tested for their effect on blood glucose in non-fasted mice and during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The effect on insulin secretion was evaluated in mice pancreatic islets. RESULTS: EtOH70 extracts of all the plants showed glucose-reducing effect at the highest dose evaluated (2000 mg/ kg b.w.). EtOH70 extracts improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the OGTT in mice fasted for 12 hours. The extracts have different effects on glucose homeostasis since just extracts of AC, LM and CQ but not CP and SS in¬creased insulin secretion as shown on mice pancreatic islets. The phytochemical qualitative characterization of EtOH70 extracts detected phenolic acids and flavonoids in AC, CP and CQ; alkaloids in LM and anthocyanidins in SS. None of EtOH70 extracts tested showed in vitro or in vivo acute toxicity at concentrations where they exhibit glucose lowering effects. CONCLUSIONS: We report here that extracts from AC, CQ, CP, LM and SS exhibit glucose lowering effect while just AC, CQ and LM stimulate directly the insulin secretion


INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2 está aumentando en todo el mundo, por lo que se necesita la búsqueda de nuevas terapias alternativas. Según su uso tradicional, seleccionamos cinco plantas bolivianas Chenopodium quinoa (CQ) Amaranthus caudatus (AC), Chenopodium pallidicaule (CP), Lupinus mutabilis (LM) y Smallanthus sonchifolius (SS) que se usan tradicionalmente para controlar la glucemia. MÉTODOS: Se evaluó el efecto de la administración oral única de extractos etanólicos (EtOH), hidroetanólicos (EtOH70) y acuosos (Aq) de las plantas mencionadas para determinar su efecto sobre la glucosa en sangre en ratones en o sin ayunas y durante la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa oral (PTGO). El efecto sobre la secreción de insulina se evaluó en islotes pancreáticos de ratones. RESULTADOS: Los extractos de EtOH70 de todas las plantas disminuyeron la glucemia a la dosis más alta evaluada (2000 mg / kg b.w.). Los extractos de EtOH70 mejoraron la tolerancia a la glucosa evaluada mediante la PTGO en ratones con ayuno de 12 horas. Los extractos tienen diferentes efectos sobre la homeostasis de la glucosa, ya que solo los extractos de AC, LM y CQ pero no CP y SS aumentaron la secreción de insulina como se muestra en los islotes pancreáticos de los ratones. La caracterización cualitativa fitoquímica de extractos de EtOH70 detectó ácidos fenólicos y flavonoides en AC, CP y CQ, alcaloides en LM y antocianidinas en SS. Ninguno de los extractos de EtOH70 probados mostró toxicidad aguda in vitro o in vivo a concentraciones en las que exhiben efectos reductores de glucosa. CONCLUSIÓN: Los extractos de AC, CQ, CP, LM y SS exhiben un efecto reductor de la glucosa, mientras que solo AC, CQ y LM estimulan directamente la secreción de insulina


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Amaranthus/química , Chenopodium/química , Lupinus/química , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bolívia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(4): e2000914, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606911

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are a promising group of natural products of the aromatic plants due to their various biological effects such as allelopathic, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities. The present study aimed to construct the detailed chemical profile of the EO derived from Deverra tortuosa aerial parts along with assessing its allelopathic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant potentialities. The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The allelopathic activity of the EO was assessed against the germination and seedling growth of the weed Chenopodium murale. Also, the EO was tested against five microbes. The antioxidant activity was determined using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The GC/MS analysis of EO revealed the presence of 86 compounds with a preponderance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Widdrol, ß-phellandrene, piperitol, cubedol, α-terpinene, (E)-10-heptadecen-8-ynoic acid methyl ester, citronellyl tiglate, and m-cymene were the major compounds. A comparative profile was established between the EOs constituents of our study with the documented EOs of D. tortuosa and the other Deverra species around the world via agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal components analysis (PCA). The EO showed a substantial allelopathic activity against C. murale, as well as it showed considerable antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Thereby, the EO of D. tortuosa could be considered as a promising environmental-friendly bioherbicide against weeds. Also, it could be integrated into food preservation due to its potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, further study is recommended for more characterization of the major compounds and evaluation of their activities, either singular or synergistic, and assess their efficiency and biosafety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
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