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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMO

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Besouros , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Chile , Biodiversidade , Insetos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMO

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Osmeriformes , Chile , Dieta/veterinária , Lipídeos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246889, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285639

RESUMO

Abstract The intertidal rocky shores in continental Chile have high species diversity mainly in northern Chile (18-27° S), and one of the most widespread species is the gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). The aim of the present study is do a first characterization of spatial distribution of E. peruviana in along rocky shore in Antofagasta town in northern Chile. Individuals were counted in nine different sites that also were determined their spectral properties using remote sensing techniques (LANDSAT ETM+). The results revealed that sites without marked human intervention have more abundant in comparison to sites located in the town, also in all studied sites was found an aggregated pattern, and in six of these sites were found a negative binomial distribution. The low density related to sites with human intervention is supported when spectral properties for sites were included. These results would agree with other similar results for rocky shore in northern and southern Chile.


Resumo As costas rochosas entremarés no Chile continental apresentam alta diversidade de espécies, principalmente no norte do país (18-27 ° S), e uma das espécies mais difundidas é o gastrópode Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). O objetivo do presente estudo é fazer uma primeira caracterização da distribuição espacial de E. peruviana no costão rochoso da cidade de Antofagasta no norte do Chile. Os indivíduos foram contados em nove locais diferentes onde também foram determinadas suas propriedades espectrais usando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto (LANDSAT ETM +). Os resultados revelaram que os locais sem intervenção humana marcada apresentam maior abundância em comparação aos locais localizados no município. Também em todos os locais estudados foi encontrado um padrão agregado, sendo que em seis desses locais foi encontrada uma distribuição binomial negativa. A baixa densidade relacionada a sites com intervenção humana é suportada quando as propriedades espectrais para sites foram incluídas. Esses resultados concordariam com outros resultados semelhantes para costões rochosos no norte e no sul do Chile.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Gastrópodes , Chile
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9516, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681035

RESUMO

During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries have implemented non-pharmacologic measures, mainly lockdowns and social distancing, to reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These strategies varied widely across nations, and their efficacy is currently being studied. This study explores demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors associated with the duration of lockdowns applied in Chile between March 25th and December 25th, 2020. Joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data were used. In this case, the number of days under lockdown for each Chilean commune and longitudinal information were modeled jointly. Our results indicate that overcrowding, number of active cases, and positivity index are significantly associated with the duration of lockdowns, being identified as risk factors for longer lockdown duration. In short, joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data permit the identification of factors associated with the duration of lockdowns in Chile. Indeed, our findings suggest that demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors should be used to define both entering and exiting lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chile/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) has been built multidimensionally through social reproduction; it is impacted by the perceptions of each individual and by the relationship between workers and the work environment. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the Work Process and QWL of assisting nurses in public health. METHODS: Research in a critical paradigm, descriptive, exploratory with a qualitative approach. The population corresponds to nurses who work in care work. Semi-structured guiding questions were applied and were analyzed with content analysis. RESULTS: seven participants declared female; all Chilean; seven are young adults; six singles; only one has children, and one has a person dependent on her care; six are heads of household, and five receive help with housework. All have a nursing degree, five have a diploma, but none have a postgraduate. The work process has three subcategories: work object, instrument, organization, and work conditions; the QWL category has six subcategories: definition and perception of QWL, QWL potentiating factors, QWL exhausting factors, QWL improvement strategies, the emotional burden associated with QWL, and health problems. CONCLUSIONS: In this way, the lifestyle built by the assistance in the health area has repercussions on the quality of life and health in general.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Desempenho Profissional , Criança , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
6.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111178, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651039

RESUMO

A Sauvignon Blanc wine was subjected to a maturation period of six months by using four different types of vessels in triplicate: cylindrical stainless steel tanks, oval-shaped polyethylene tanks, cubic-shaped polyethylene tanks, and clay jars. After maturation in the different vessels, wines were bottled using three different closures (natural cork, synthetic cork, and screwcaps). The volatile compound profiles of the wine samples were recorded by SPME-GC-MS throughout vessel maturation as well as after the bottle storage period. In general terms, wines stored in stainless steel tanks showed the highest contents of volatile compounds when compared with the other tested vessels. Moreover, wines from bottles capped with screwcaps showed the highest contents of most of the volatile compounds when compared with the other closures. Moreover, an interaction between the vessel and the closure was observed: when screwcaps were used during bottle aging, the resulting wines were very similar to those matured in stainless steel vessels. These results suggest that the use of screwcaps hides the differences originating from wine composition during maturation in vessels other than stainless steel.


Assuntos
Vinho , Chile , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Polietilenos , Aço Inoxidável , Vinho/análise
7.
Health Syst Reform ; 8(1): e2064793, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666239

RESUMO

A major theoretical issue about health system reform involving decentralization has been whether it promotes equity of health system funding. An article by the principal author and others in 2003 showed that, under certain conditions and policies, decentralization improved the equity of allocation of financial resources to different income levels of municipalities in Colombia and Chile. Another recurring issue has been whether reforms can be sustained over time. In a follow-up study in 2015, we found that the equity of national allocations was sustained even though the allocation rules for intergovernmental transfers and insurance funding sources had changed, as long as per capita allocation rules were retained. Nevertheless, the wealthier municipalities in Chile were able to increase their own source funding contributing to a larger gap between wealthy and poor municipalities, suggesting that in order to assure continued equity some compensation for these funds be included in intergovernmental transfer rules or that local source funding be restricted by national policy. These reforms may be more likely to be sustained if they become embedded in existing financial systems and if they receive support of status quo constituencies.


Assuntos
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Política , Chile , Colômbia , Seguimentos , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267443, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666745

RESUMO

In the past few decades, constitution-making processes have shifted from being undertakings performed by elites and closed off from the public to ones incorporating democratic mechanisms. Little is known, however, about the determinants of voluntary public participation and how they affect the outcomes of the deliberative process in terms of content and quality. Here, we study the process of constituent involvement in the rewriting of Chile's constitution in 2016. A total of 106, 412 citizens in 8, 113 different local encounters voluntarily congregated in groups of ten or more to collectively determine what social rights should be considered for inclusion in the new constitution, deliberating and then articulating in the written word why should be included. We brought our data to statistical regression models at the municipality level, the results show that the main determinants associated with increasing citizen participation are educational level, engagement in politics, support for the government, and Internet access. In contrast, population density and the share of Evangelical Christians in the general population decrease citizen participation. Then, we further analyze the written arguments for each collectively-selected constitutional rights. The findings suggest that groups from socioeconomically developed municipalities (with higher educational levels and where the main economic activities are more distant from natural resources), on average, deliberate consistently more about themes, concepts, and ideas compared to groups from less developed municipalities. These results provide an empirical ground on the driver factors of voluntary citizen participation and on the benefits and disadvantages of deliberative democracy. Hence, results can inform the organization of new deliberative processes.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Política de Saúde , Chile , Governo , Humanos , Política
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058198, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Value-based healthcare (VBHC) is a health system reform gradually being implemented in health systems worldwide. A previous national-level survey has shown that Latin American countries were in the early stages of alignment with VBHC. Data at the healthcare provider organisations (HPOs) level are lacking. This study aim was to investigate how HPOs in five Latin American countries are implementing VBHC. DESIGN: Mixed-methods research was conducted using online questionnaire, semistructured interviews based on selected elements of the value agenda (from December 2018 to June 2020), analyses of aggregated data and documents. Qualitative analysis was performed using NVivo QSR International, 1.6.1 (4830). Quantitative analysis used Fisher's exact test. Univariate analysis was used to compare organisations in relation to the implementation of VBHC initiatives. A p≤0.05 was considered significant. PARTICIPANTS: Top and middle-level executives from 70 HPOs from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. RESULTS: The definition of VBHC varied across participating organisations. Although the value equation had been cited by 24% of participants, its composition differed in most case from the original Equation. Most VBHC initiatives were related to care delivery organisation (56.9%) and outcomes measurement (22.4%) but in most cases, integrated practice unit features had not been fully developed and outcome data was not used to guide improvement. Information, stakeholders buy-in, compensation and fragmented care delivery were the most cited challenges to VBHC implementation. Fee-for-service predominated, although one-third of organisations were experimenting with alternative payment models. CONCLUSIONS: A wide variation in the definition and level of VBHC implementation existed across organisations. Our finding suggests investments in information systems and on education of key stakeholders will be key to foster VBHC implementation in the region. Further research is needed to identify successful implementation cases that may serve as regional benchmark for other Latin American organisations advancing with VBHC.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Colômbia , Humanos , América Latina , México , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Biol Res ; 55(1): 21, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642071

RESUMO

The study of the stress responses in bacteria has given us a wealth of information regarding the mechanisms employed by these bacteria in aggressive or even non-optimal living conditions. This information has been applied by several researchers to identify molecular targets related to pathogeny, virulence, and survival, among others, and to design new prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against them. In this study, our knowledge of these mechanisms has been summarized with emphasis on some aquatic pathogenic bacteria of relevance to the health and productive aspects of Chilean salmon farming (Piscirickettsia salmonis, Tenacibaculum spp., Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Yersinia ruckeri). This study will aid further investigations aimed at shedding more light on possible lines of action for these pathogens in the coming years.


Assuntos
Micrococcaceae , Fatores de Virulência , Aquicultura , Chile
11.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(2): 361-377, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674617

RESUMO

The article analyzes the role played by the National Astronomical Observatory (Observatorio Astronómico Nacional) in the territorial expansion of Chile at the end of the nineteenth century, through the relationship with three geographical explorations associated with this process. It is proposed that the Observatory played a central role in these geographic explorations, helping to obtain precise geographic coordinates to produce accurate maps of the territories annexed to the north and south of Chile. The results allow us to affirm that the National Astronomical Observatory provided strategic services during territorial expansion, and geography was an important part of its institutional scientific work.


El artículo analiza el rol que jugó el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional en la expansión territorial de Chile a fines del siglo XIX, a través de la relación que sostuvo con tres exploraciones geográficas asociadas a este proceso. Se propone que el Observatorio cumplió un papel central para estas exploraciones geográficas, ayudando a obtener coordenadas geográficas precisas en pos de producir mapas exactos de los territorios anexados al norte y sur de Chile. Los resultados permiten afirmar que el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional fue una institución que prestó servicios estratégicos durante la expansión territorial y, a su vez, que la geografía fue parte importante de sus trabajos científicos institucionales.


Assuntos
Astronomia , Astronomia/história , Chile , Geografia
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057555, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical research broadly aims to influence decision-making in order to promote appropriate healthcare. Funding agencies should prioritise research projects according to needed research topics, methodological and cost-effectiveness considerations, and expected social value. In Chile, there is no local diagnosis regarding recent clinical research that might inform prioritisation for future research funding. This research aims to comprehensively identify and classify Chilean health research studies, elaborating evidence gap maps for the most burdensome local conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS and WoS) and perform hand searches to retrieve, identify and classify health research studies conducted in Chile or by authors whose affiliations are based in Chile, from 2000 onwards. We will elaborate evidence matrices for the 20 conditions with the highest burden in Chile (according to the Global Burden of Disease 2019) selected from those defined under the General Regime of the Health Guarantees Act. To elaborate the evidence gap maps, we will consider prioritised interventions and core outcome sets. To identify knowledge gaps and estimate redundant research, we will contrast these gap maps with the available international evidence of high or moderate certainty of evidence, for each specific clinical question. For this purpose, we will search systematic reviews using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required to conduct this project. We will submit our results in both peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. We will aim to disseminate our findings through different academic platforms, social media, local press, among others. The final results will be communicated to local funding agencies and government stakeholders. DISCUSSION: We aim to provide an accurate and up-to-date picture of the research gaps-to be filled by new future findings-and the identification of redundant research, which will constitute relevant information for local decision-makers.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Chile , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos
13.
Science ; 376(6598): 1143-1145, 2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679423

RESUMO

New constitution may help reset relationship between scientists and communities.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Identificação Social , Chile , Constituição e Estatutos , Humanos
14.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 216, 2022 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chile was severely affected by COVID19 outbreaks but was also one of the first countries to start a nationwide program to vaccinate against the disease. Furthermore, Chile became one of the fastest countries to inoculate a high percentage of the target population and implemented homologous and heterologous booster schemes in late 2021 to prevent potential immunological waning. The aim of this study is to compare the immunogenicity and time course of the humoral response elicited by the CoronaVac vaccine in combination with homologous versus heterologous boosters. METHODS: We compared the immunogenicity of two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccines and one homologous or heterologous booster through an ELISA assay directed against the ancestral spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Sera were collected from individuals during the vaccination schedule and throughout the implementation of homologous and heterologous booster programs in Chile. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrate that a two-dose vaccination scheme with CoronaVac induces lower levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies than BNT162b2 in a broad age range (median age 42 years; interquartile range (IQR) 27-61). Furthermore, antibody production declines with time in individuals vaccinated with CoronaVac and less noticeably, with BNT162b2. Analysis of booster schemes revealed that individuals vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac generate immunological memory against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, which can be re-activated with homologous or heterologous (BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1) boosters. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the antibody response with the heterologous booster regime was considerably higher (induction fold BNT162b2: 11.2x; ChAdoX1; 12.4x; CoronaVac: 6.0x) than the responses induced by the homologous scheme. Both homologous and heterologous boosters induced persistent humoral responses (median 122 days, IQR (108-133)), although heterologous boosters remained superior in activating a humoral response after 100 days. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of CoronaVac induces antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain which are lower in magnitude than those induced by the BNT162b2 vaccine. However, the response induced by CoronaVac can be greatly potentiated with a heterologous booster scheme with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 vaccines. Furthermore, the heterologous and homologous booster regimes induce a durable antibody response which does not show signs of decay 3 months after the booster dose.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682438

RESUMO

COVID-19 causes cardiovascular and lung problems that can be aggravated by confinement, but the practice of physical activity (PA) could lessen these effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) with vaccination and PCR tests in apparently healthy Chilean adults. An observational and cross-sectional study was performed, in which 557 people from south-central Chile participated, who answered an online questionnaire on the control of COVID-19, demographic data, lifestyles, and diagnosis of non-communicable diseases. V˙O2max was estimated with an abbreviated method. With respect to the unvaccinated, those who received the first (OR:0.52 [CI:0.29;0.95], p = 0.019) and second vaccine (OR:0.33 [CI:0.18;0.59], p = 0.0001) were less likely to have an increased V˙O2max. The first vaccine was inversely associated with V˙O2max (mL/kg/min) (ß:-1.68 [CI:-3.06; -0.3], p = 0.017), adjusted for BMI (ß:-1.37 [CI:-2.71; -0.03], p = 0.044) and by demographic variables (ß:-1.82 [CI:-3.18; -0.46], p = 0.009); similarly occur for the second vaccine (ß: between -2.54 and -3.44, p < 0.001) on models with and without adjustment. Having taken a PCR test was not significantly associated with V˙O2max (mL/kg/min). It is concluded that vaccination significantly decreased V˙O2max, although it did not indicate cause and effect. There is little evidence of this interaction, although the results suggest an association, since V˙ O2max could prevent and attenuate the contagion symptoms and effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste de Esforço , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Morbidade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vacinação
16.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 171: 30-35, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643804

RESUMO

In Chile, local normative and guidelines place patient-centred care (PCC) as a desirable means and outcome for each level of health care. Thus, a definition of PCC is provided, and for the first time shared decision-making (SDM) is included as an intended practice. During the past five years the country has shown progress on the implementation of PCC. A large pilot study was conducted in one of the Metropolitan Health Services, and now the health authority is committed to escalate a PCC strategy nationwide. From the practice domain, most of the work is being placed on the training of health professionals. Patients' preparation for the clinical encounter is scarce, thereby limiting their potential to participate in their care. At the research domain, the country shows a strengthened agenda that has advanced from a diagnostic phase (including the exploration from social sciences) to a purposeful stage which involves the development of training programs, patient decision aids, international collaborations, and other PCC interventions. The country is now positioned to secure new initiatives to empower patients and allow them to take an active role, as a key component of PCC and SDM.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Participação do Paciente , Chile , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269843, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709241

RESUMO

The classical SEIR model, being an autonomous system of differential equations, has important limitations when representing a pandemic situation. Particularly, the geometric unimodal shape of the epidemic curve is not what is generally observed. This work introduces the ßSEIR model, which adds to the classical SEIR model a differential law to model the variation in the transmission rate. It considers two opposite thrives generally found in a population: first, reaction to disease presence that may be linked to mitigation strategies, which tends to decrease transmission, and second, the urge to return to normal conditions that pulls to restore the initial value of the transmission rate. Our results open a wide spectrum of dynamic variabilities in the curve of new infected, which are justified by reaction and restoration thrives that affect disease transmission over time. Some of these dynamics have been observed in the existing COVID-19 disease data. In particular and to further exemplify the potential of the model proposed in this article, we show its capability of capturing the evolution of the number of new confirmed cases of Chile and Italy for several months after epidemic onset, while incorporating a reaction to disease presence with decreasing adherence to mitigation strategies, as well as a seasonal effect on the restoration of the initial transmissibility conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(7): 367, 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661262

RESUMO

Data regarding PRRSV-2 in South America are scant and a coordinated criterion for molecular characterization is needed. A phylogenetic analysis was performed using a dataset of 76 ORF5 sequences from South America, and results showed the identification of lineage 5 in the early 2000s and the predominance of lineage 1 at least since 2013. Lineage 1 sequences were further classified into sub-lineages according to a recent molecular characterization study of PRRSV-2 in United States. Our results revealed the recent identification in Uruguay of PRRSV-2 ORF5 sequences of lineage 1 sub-lineage C. Two additional sub-lineages were identified in South America, 1G in Chile and 1A in Peru. Continuous updating the molecular epidemiology of circulating viruses with coordinated investigations among countries is required to control and prevent the emergence of genetic variants of PRRSV-2.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Suínos , Estados Unidos
19.
Eval Program Plann ; 92: 102058, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525093

RESUMO

Improving the productivity of higher education in every nation's economy is one of the main challenges faced in the current environment of competition and shrinking public funds. The effective use of resources is a crucial issue in Chile's higher education reform. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely applied to measure efficiency in universities, sometimes focused on teaching or research. Universities function as a complex production process in which teaching and research are linked in the internal structure, share some inputs, and continue across multiple periods. To deal with this complexity, we developed a new DEA model that incorporates network structures, carryover activities, and shared inputs in a dynamic approach. We applied this model to a set of 33 Chilean universities and compared the results to their rankings and accreditation status. Our proposed DEA model has advantages: (a) there are no subjective criteria, and (b) the model considers the internal structure of the university production model, as well as the inputs and outputs over time. The objectivity of the model allows us to evaluate overall efficiency in terms of the quantity and quality of teaching and research, removing exogenous criteria and judgments regarding the performance of higher education institutions. This new quantitative approach could generate disaggregated data to analyze efficiency improvement over time or serve as a benchmarking tool according to the universities' characteristics.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Benchmarking , Chile , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Universidades
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8496, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589975

RESUMO

This study analyzed the frequency and intensity of acute stress among health professionals caring for COVID-19 patients in four Latin American Spanish-speaking countries during the outbreak. A cross-sectional study involved a non-probability sample of healthcare professionals in four Latin American countries. Participants from each country were invited using a platform and mobile application designed for this study. Hospital and primary care workers from different services caring for COVID-19 patients were included. The EASE Scale (SARS-CoV-2 Emotional Overload Scale, in Spanish named Escala Auto-aplicada de Sobrecarga Emocional) was a previously validated measure of acute stress. EASE scores were described overall by age, sex, work area, and experience of being ill with COVID-19. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, the EASE scores were compared according to the most critical moments of the pandemic. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to investigate associations between these factors and the outcome 'acute stress'. Finally, the Kruskal-Wallis was used to compare EASE scores and the experience of being ill. A total of 1372 professionals responded to all the items in the EASE scale: 375 (27.3%) Argentines, 365 (26.6%) Colombians, 345 (25.1%) Chileans, 209 (15.2%) Ecuadorians, and 78 (5.7%) from other countries. 27% of providers suffered middle-higher acute stress due to the outbreak. Worse results were observed in moments of peak incidence of cases (14.3 ± 5.3 vs. 6.9 ± 1.7, p < 0.05). Higher scores were found in professionals in COVID-19 critical care (13 ± 1.2) than those in non-COVID-19 areas (10.7 ± 1.9) (p = 0.03). Distress was higher among professionals who were COVID-19 patients (11.7 ± 1) or had doubts about their potential infection (12 ± 1.2) compared to those not infected (9.5 ± 0.7) (p = 0.001). Around one-third of the professionals experienced acute stress, increasing in intensity as the incidence of COVID-19 increased and as they became infected or in doubt whether they were infected. EASE scale could be a valuable asset for monitoring acute stress levels among health professionals in Latin America.ClinicalTrials: NCT04486404.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Estresse Ocupacional , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Chile , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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