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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 324, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of negative attitudes among health professionals towards people with mental illness but there is also a knowledge gap on what training must be given to these health professionals during their education. The purpose of this study is to compare the attitudes of students of health sciences: nursing, medical, occupational therapy, and psychology. METHODS: A comparative and cross-sectional study in which 927 final-year students from health sciences university programmes were evaluated using the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (both MICA-2 and MICA-4) scale. The sample was taken in six universities from Chile and Spain. RESULTS: We found consistent results indicating that stigma varies across university programmes. Medical and nursing students showed more negative attitudes than psychology and occupational therapy students in several stigma-related themes: recovery, dangerousness, uncomfortability, disclosure, and discriminatory behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a relevant description of the attitudes of each university programme for education against stigma in the formative years. Results show that the biomedical understanding of mental disorders can have negative effects on attitudes, and that education based on the psychosocial model allows a more holistic view of the person over the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Espanha
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e240484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105648

RESUMO

The Cautín River is closely related with the economic development of Temuco city, (38°S; Chile). Existing knowledge of the Cautín River is limited to information about its biological characteristics as a reference for the evaluation and assessment of water quality. The object of this study was to develop taxonomic characterisation of the benthic macroinvertebrates along the main course of the Cautín River, and to study the community structure using correlation analysis between community parameters. To carry out this research, the macroinvertebrate community was studied in 10 sampling sites distributed along the main course of the river. The samples were taken in summer (1997 and 2000), when optimal hydrological conditions existed. Analysis of the samples showed that the benthic fauna was composed of 56 taxa, the dominant group being insects with 48 taxa. Three main sectors were recognised in the course of the Cautín River: high, middle and low. Each sector has restricted-distribution species, while other species are widely distributed along the river. These distribution patterns seem to be influenced by dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, altitudinal distribution and anthropo-cultural activity, present at every sampling site. Finally, this research provides a first approach to the biology of the Cautín River. Further studies could be planned on the basis of this knowledge to investigate water quality indicators based on macroinvertebrate communities.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Chile , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065219

RESUMO

This article shows the levels of technostress in primary and secondary education teachers in Chile, in the context of educational telework that Chile has adopted in connection with the health crisis by COVID-19. The information has been collected with the use of the RED-TIC scale, previously used in this country, whose validity and reliability of the instrument has been treated, for this case, with confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) with a national coverage sample of 3006 teachers. The results show that 11% of teachers reveal techno anxiety and 7.2%, techno fatigue. Combining both manifestations, we find that 6.8% of teachers are techno stressed. Finally, fatigue and anxiety factors are higher for female teachers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Teletrabalho
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 35(suppl 01): e054, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076078

RESUMO

Dental caries remains highly prevalent in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). However, this disease can be controlled through interventions that implement evidence-based strategies in an affordable manner and that target all population groups instead of the most affluent only. Therefore, the aim of this report was to summarize the main scientifically documented community interventions and strategies based on restriction of sugars consumption, use of fluoride, and the use of occlusal sealants for caries control in LACC. A critical literature review was carried out in a systematic manner that included defined search strategies, independent review of the identified publications, and compilation of results in this report. Three systematic searches were conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases to identify studies related to community interventions and strategies for caries control in LACC. Of the 37 publications identified, twenty-six focused on fluoride use, eight on occlusal sealant use, and three on the restriction of sugar consumption. Documented community interventions for sugars restriction were scarce in the region and were based on food supplementation, sugar replacement, and education. Thus, local and/or national policies should prioritize investment in upstream, coherent, and integrated population-wide policies such as taxes on sugary drinks and stronger regulation of advertising and promotion of sugary foods and drinks mainly targeting children. The main fluoride-based strategies used drinking water, refined domestic salt, cow milk, toothpaste and, to a lesser extent, mouth-rinses, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gels, and varnishes to deliver fluoride to the population. Evidence of fluoride use was seen in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Studies reporting the use of occlusal sealants were mainly located in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela. Community interventions restricting sugar consumption should be implemented at the individual level and through public policies. The use of fluoride must be monitored at the local, regional, and national levels so as to achieve maximum anti-caries effect while also minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis. Moreover, fluoridated water and salt programs, used as a mutually exclusive community level strategy for caries control, should expand their benefits to reach non-covered areas of the LACC while also simultaneously providing adequate surveillance of the fluoride concentration delivered to the population. Regulating the concentration of soluble fluoride (for anti-caries effect) in dentifrice formulations is also necessary in order to provide the population with an effective strategy for disease control. Targeting culturally appropriate, economically sustainable caries control interventions to rural populations and native ethnic groups such as indigenous people, quilombolas (African-origin), and riverside Amazonian people remains a crucial challenge.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Argentina , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Chile , Colômbia , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Guatemala , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Nicarágua , Panamá , Peru , Uruguai
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063860

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose and validate with data extracted from the city of Santiago, capital of Chile, a methodology to assess the actual impact of lockdown measures based on the anonymized and geolocated data from credit card transactions. Using unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) semantic topic discovery, we identify temporal patterns in the use of credit cards that allow us to quantitatively assess the changes in the behavior of the people under the lockdown measures because of the COVID-19 pandemic. An unsupervised latent topic analysis uncovers the main patterns of credit card transaction activity that explain the behavior of the inhabitants of Santiago City. The approach is non-intrusive because it does not require the collaboration of people for providing the anonymous data. It does not interfere with the actual behavior of the people in the city; hence, it does not introduce any bias. We identify a strong downturn of the economic activity as measured by credit card transactions (down to 70%), and thus of the economic activity, in city sections (communes) that were subjected to lockdown versus communes without lockdown. This change in behavior is confirmed by independent data from mobile phone connectivity. The reduction of activity emerges before the actual lockdowns were enforced, suggesting that the population was spontaneously implementing the required measures for slowing virus propagation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Chile , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071535

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a great impact on mental health in society. Considering the little attention paid by scientific studies to either students or university staff during lockdown, the current study has two aims: (a) to analyze the evolution of mental health and (b) to identify predictors of educational/professional experience and online learning/teaching experience. (2) Methods: 1084 university students and 554 staff in total from four different countries (Spain, Colombia, Chile and Nicaragua) participated in the study, affiliated with nine different universities, four of them Spanish and one of which was online. We used an online survey known as LockedDown, which consists of 82 items, analyzed with classical multiple regression analyses and machine learning techniques. (3) Results: Stress level and feelings of anxiety and depression of students and staff either increased or remained over the weeks. A better online learning experience for university students was associated with the age, perception of the experience as beneficial and support of the university. (4) Conclusions: The study has shown evidence of the emotional impact and quality of life for both students and staff. For students, the evolution of feelings of anxiety and depression, as well as the support offered by the university affected the educational experience and online learning. For staff who experienced a positive professional experience, with access to services and products, the quality-of-life levels were maintained.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Chile , Colômbia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Nicarágua , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha , Estudantes , Universidades
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 110-118, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasingly large proportion of clinical trials is being conducted at non-traditional geographic regions such as Latin America. However, concerns have been raised that hosting countries may lack adequate research regulations and that clinical trials may not address local health needs. In this context, Chile has been hosting a relatively large proportion of clinical trials and has introduced new regulatory protections. AIM: To study trends and characteristics of clinical trials in Chile, including the effects of regulatory protections and whether clinical trials are aligned with the local burden of diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from clinical trials on pharmaceutical products registered over the last decade in Chile's Institute of Public Health was reviewed. Clinical trials were analyzed according to sponsorship, phase, disease studied, and whether distribution of trials according to diseases was aligned with the local burden of diseases measured in disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS: Most of the 876 clinical trials analyzed were funded by external pharmaceutical companies and corresponded to late-phase trials. The most commonly studied disease groups were neoplasms, musculoskeletal disorders, other noncommunicable diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes and kidney diseases, neurological disorders, and circulatory diseases. The distribution of clinical trials was partially aligned with the distribution of major causes of disease burden. The introduction of new regulatory protections was followed by changes in the number of trials studying certain disease groups associated with a high burden. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical trials conducted in Chile over the last decade are largely funded by external pharmaceutical companies. Their distribution is partially aligned with local disease burden. The introduction of regulatory protections was followed by changes in the distribution of diseases studied.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Chile , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , América Latina , Saúde Pública
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 7-12, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of the phospholipase A2 receptor antigen and its highly specific autoantibody (anti-PLA2R Ab) was useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with membranous nephropathy (MN). Thus, some international guidelines recommend not performing renal biopsy in patients with positive serum anti-PLA2R Ab. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of anti-PLA2R Ab in serum and renal tissue samples from Chilean patients with primary MN. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients aged 50 ± 14 years (20 males) with biopsy-proven primary MN plus a negative workup for secondary causes were included. Measurements of serum and renal histologic anti-PLA2R Ab were performed. The relationship between the findings of serum and tissue anti-PLA2R Ab was evaluated. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (54 %) had anti-PLA2R Ab presence in serum and 19 patients (68%) had positive anti-PLA2R Ab in the renal biopsy. All patients with positive serum anti-PLA2R Ab had positive antibodies on immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: Serum anti-PLA2R Ab is potentially useful in the diagnosis of patients with suspected primary MN in Chilean population.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2 , Autoanticorpos , Biópsia , Chile , Humanos , Rim , Masculino
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 45-51, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The statistical significance α = 0.05 is the cut-off point used to decide whether a hypothesis is statistically significant. When p-value is less than 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis. Although this criterion has been used for almost a century to generate new knowledge, there is currently an international discussion about the need to decrease the significance to α = 0.005. AIM: To determine the effects that changing the p value would have on the sample size of different types of studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of formulas for calculating the sample size of cross-sectional and comparative studies were used to create case scenarios. RESULTS: By changing α = 0.05 to α = 0.005, the sample sizes in cross-sectional studies would double and in comparative studies would increase between 60% and 70%, depending on the statistical power chosen. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the sample size implications, the change in the level of significance would have important effects on the Chilean science. The cost of a randomized clinical trial could increase by at least 27% to 32%. This increase could be similar for cross-sectional studies. With an investment of less than 0.4% of gross domestic product in science and technology, national scientific research would become more expensive, distributing the few available resources among fewer projects. This effect should be considered in any discussion about national budget for science and technology.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Amostra , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 52-61, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is an essential nutrient for cellular homeostasis and life. Drinking ≥ 6 glasses (1.5 L/day) is the recommendation of daily water intake (RIAD). AIM: To characterize water intake, according to sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyles variables, in the Chilean adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of data from 5,520 participants of the 2016-17 National Health Survey. Compliance with RIAD by population groups according to sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics was studied through logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Only 27.8% of the national population met the RIAD. Women, people over than 56 years of age, housewives, retired people, widowers, and non-smokers were less likely to meet the RIAD. The likelihood of not complying with RIAD in these segments of the population ranged from 28% to 62%. Conversely, participants who presented a higher likelihood of meeting RIAD were those who co-habiting, had a medium and higher educational level, followed a diet plan, and those who reported a good health and well-being. The likelihood of meeting with the RIAD for these population groups ranged from 47% to 116%. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of meeting the RIAD varied according to different sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables. Therefore, public policies for promoting water consumption should be focused on all age groups, but especially in those groups with the highest risk of underconsumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
11.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 62-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A health system is successful when it maintains a healthy population and provides health services that are effective, equitable and safe. AIM: To design a system based on specific indicators to monitor equity in health care access in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Primary information about five dimensions of access to health was collected, namely health policies, characteristics of the health system, characteristics of the population at risk, utilization of health services and consumer satisfaction. Subsequently, inequalities in access between different social groups were identified. Finally, after collecting and filtering access indicators used in other systems and existing literature, the most relevant ones were selected to monitor each identified barrier. RESULTS: A system composed of 26 indicators, classified in the five dimensions of the framework was devised. It allows us to monitor those barriers with a greater impact on the population. For some specific indicators, population groups were disaggregated to carry out specific surveillances. CONCLUSIONS: The design of a multidimensional monitoring system for health access allows us to complement measures usually focused on a specific concept of access (such as utilization, coverage, etc.) with other dimensions. It includes those barriers that are relevant for the Chilean population. It also allows comparisons with other health systems and the generation of evidence to improve public policies.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Chile , Política de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Política Pública
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 103-109, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and sedentariness are independent risk factors for mortality. Physical inactivity is defined as engaging in insufficient moderate/vigorous physical activity (i.e. not meeting the WHO's recommendations). Sedentariness is defined according to sedentary behavior; evidence suggests that > 8 h/d could serve to consider a person as sedentary. The Chilean National Health Survey 2016-2017 (NHS), using a single question (Question-NHS), considered as "sedentary" those who did not engage in sports or physical activity for ≥ 30 min, ≥ 3 times/wk. Thus, it attempted to estimate sedentariness without considering sedentary behavior. AIM: To determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentariness in Chile, and to contrast such results with the Question-NHS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 5564 participants of the 2016-2017 NHS, aged ≥ 18 years. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine moderate/vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior. We defined physical inactivity as having < 600 MET × min/wk of moderate/vigorous physical activity, and sedentariness as having > 8 h/d of sedentary behavior. RESULTS: The prevalences [95% confidence intervals] of physical inactivity and sedentariness were 32% [29-34] and 6% [5-7] respectively, while 3% [2-4] were both physically inactive and sedentary. The Question-NHS classified 88% [86-89] as "sedentary", but among them, 35% were physically inactive and 6% were sedentary. CONCLUSIONS: One third of adults are inactive, one out of ten is sedentary, and one out of twenty is inactive and sedentary. The Question-NHS overestimates the population at risk.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069124

RESUMO

The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) and prolonged sedentary behavior (SB) were high before the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Measures that were taken by governments (such as home confinement) to control the spread of COVID-19 may have affected levels of PA and SB. This cross-sectional study among South American adults during the first months of COVID-19 aims to (i) compare sitting time (ST), screen exposure, moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) before and during lockdown to sociodemographic correlates and (ii) to assess the impact of lockdown on combinations of groups reporting meeting/not-meeting PA recommendations and engaging/not-engaging excessive ST (≥7 h/day). Bivariate associations, effect sizes, and multivariable linear regressions were used. Adults from Argentina (n = 575) and Chile (n = 730) completed an online survey with questions regarding demographics, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases. Mean reductions of 42.7 and 22.0 min./day were shown in MPA and VPA, respectively; while increases of 212.4 and 164.3 min./day were observed in screen and ST, respectively. Those who met PA recommendations and spent <7 h/day of ST experienced greatest changes, reporting greater than 3 h/day higher ST and more than 1.5 h/day lower MVPA. Findings from the present study suggest that efforts to promote PA to South American adults during and after COVID-19 restrictions are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Argentina , Chile , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Postura Sentada
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with sociodemographic parameters and lifestyle during COVID-19 confinement in Mexico, Chile, and Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study, with 742 observations of online surveys in 422, 190, and 130 individuals from Mexico, Chile, and Spain, respectively. Sociodemographic data, presence of comorbidities, food habits, and physical activity (PA) patterns were evaluated. The HRQoL was evaluated according to the SF-36 Health Survey. The multilinear regression analysis was developed to determine the association of variables with HRQoL and its physical and mental health dimensions. RESULTS: The female sex in the three countries reported negative association with HRQoL (Mexico: ß -4.45, p = 0.004; Chile: ß -8.48, p < 0.001; Spain: ß -6.22, p = 0.009). Similarly, bad eating habits were associated negatively with HRQoL (Mexico: ß -6.64, p < 0.001; Chile: ß -6.66, p = 0.005; Spain: ß -5.8, p = 0.032). In Mexico, PA limitations presented a negative association with HRQoL (ß -4.71, p = 0.011). In Chile, a sedentary lifestyle (h/day) was linked negatively with HRQoL (ß -0.64, p = 0.005). In Spain, the highest associations with HRQoL were the presence of comorbidity (ß -11.03, p < 0.001) and smoking (ß -6.72, p = 0.02). Moreover, the PA limitation in Mexico (ß -5.67, p = 0.023) and Chile (ß -9.26, p = 0.035) was linked negatively with mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The bad eating habits, PA limitations, female sex, comorbidity presence, and smoking were parameters linked negatively with HRQoL.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , México/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 927, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precarious work is a broad definition for non-standard employment, often including unstable and insecure positions where workers permanently experience uncertainty; these types of jobs are growing steadily around the planet. Since the coup d'état in 1973, Chile has experienced a series of structural economic changes framed by neoliberal ideas cemented in the "Constitution of Pinochet." Precarious work in Chile is a direct consequence of these ideas. This multidimensional phenomenon has progressively been entering employment areas where it was not previously present. As a result, there has been a rise in work precarization and its full impact on health is not well known. The goal of this study was to estimate the association of work precariousness with mental health outcomes in Chilean workers. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Chilean Survey of Work and Health 2009-2010 (ENETS). Only valid records of salaried workers (excluding hourly-only or commission-only workers) in the private sector without missing values were included (n = 1900). After applying appropriate sampling weights, 1,461,727 workers were represented. Mental health was estimated as anxiety/depression levels using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A multilevel multivariate generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with negative binomial and log link distribution was used to study the association between precariousness and depression/anxiety. RESULTS: Looking at the overall precariousness scale (range from zero to four), we observed an increase of approximately 34% in the depression/anxiety score (scale range from 0 to 36) for every unit on the precarious work overall scale (Relative Risk = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.28, 1.42) controlling for age, sex, and occupational group. CONCLUSION: Precarious work was associated with anxiety and depression as measured with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Controlling for demographic variables changed neither the direction nor the magnitude of the association.


Assuntos
Depressão , Emprego , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112372, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940371

RESUMO

Floating marine debris (FMD) were abundantly reported in the Northern Chilean Patagonia in 2009 where sea-based activities (mussel and salmon aquaculture) are responsible for most of them. Identifying the sources of FMD is important to take the necessary actions to diminish their abundance. In 2019 eleven transects were opportunistically conducted to evaluate the abundance, spatial distribution and composition of FMD in the same area, and to compare them with the previous study using the same methodology. FMD identified were classified into the same six categories from the previous study, however "Others" category were now the dominant one indicating that new pollutants have been increasing during the last decade. Inside the "others" category, plastics buoy and other floating devices, that normally are used by the salmon aquaculture, were the main items. Similarly than the previous study, styrofoam and domestic plastics were also the other most abundant items. In general, also, an increase in abundance compared with the previous study was found. The highest abundances were similarly found in the "Golfo de Corcovado" zone ranging from 50 to 230 items km-2. Our results, as well as the previous study, confirm that sea-based activities are still responsible for the FMD found in the Northern Patagonia. To avoid the origin of this contamination it is urgent to implement public policies that effectively reduce FMD, and hold the aquaculture industries responsible.


Assuntos
Poluentes da Água , Poluição da Água , Chile , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 611152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046385

RESUMO

The extreme north of Chile presents a subtropical climate permissive of the establishment of potential disease vectors. Anopheles (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis is distributed from the south of the United States to the north of Argentina and Chile, and is one of the main vectors of malaria in Latin America. Malaria was eradicated from Chile in 1945. Nevertheless, the vector persists in river ravines of the Arica and Tarapacá regions. The principal effect of climate change in the north of Chile is temperature increase. Precipitation prediction is not accurate for this region because records were erratic during the last century. The objective of this study was to estimate the current and the projected distribution pattern of this species in Chile, given the potential impact due to climate change. We compiled distributional data for An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis and constructed species distribution models to predict the spatial distribution of this species using the MaxEnt algorithm with current and RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, using environmental and topographic layers. Our models estimated that the current expected range of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis extends continuously from Arica to the north of Antofagasta region. Furthermore, the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 projected scenarios suggested that the range of distribution of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis may increase in longitude, latitude, and altitude limits, enhancing the local extension area by 38 and 101%, respectively, and local presence probability (>0.7), from the northern limit in Arica y Parinacota region (18°S) to the northern Antofagasta region (23°S). This study contributes to geographic and ecologic knowledge about this species in Chile, as it represents the first local study of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis. The information generated in this study can be used to inform decision making regarding vector control and surveillance programs of Latin America. These kinds of studies are very relevant to generate human, animal, and environmental health knowledge contributing to the "One Health" concept.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9849, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972582

RESUMO

Several studies have examined the transmission dynamics of the novel COVID-19 disease in different parts of the world. Some have reported relationships with various environmental variables, suggesting that spread of the disease is enhanced in colder and drier climates. However, evidence is still scarce and mostly limited to a few countries, particularly from Asia. We examined the potential role of multiple environmental variables in COVID-19 infection rate [measured as mean relative infection rate = (number of infected inhabitants per week / total population) × 100.000) from February 23 to August 16, 2020 across 360 cities of Chile. Chile has a large climatic gradient (≈ 40º of latitude, ≈ 4000 m of altitude and 5 climatic zones, from desert to tundra), but all cities share their social behaviour patterns and regulations. Our results indicated that COVID-19 transmission in Chile was mostly related to three main climatic factors (minimum temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity). Transmission was greater in colder and drier cities and when atmospheric pressure was lower. The results of this study support some previous findings about the main climatic determinants of COVID-19 transmission, which may be useful for decision-making and management of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Altitude , Pressão Atmosférica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Temperatura , Tundra
20.
Environ Res ; 198: 111284, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality from lung and heart disease. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does short term exposure to ambient air pollution influence COVID-19 related mortality? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: Using time series analyses we tested the association between daily changes in air pollution measured by stationary monitors in and around Santiago, Chile and deaths from laboratory confirmed or suspected COVID-19 between March 16 and August 31, 2020. Results were adjusted for temporal trends, temperature and humidity, and stratified by age and sex. RESULTS: There were 10,069 COVID-19 related deaths of which 7659 were laboratory confirmed. Using distributed lags, the cumulative relative risk (RR) (95% CI) of mortality for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in CO, NO2 and PM2.5 were 1.061 (1.033-1.089), 1.067 (1.023-1.103) and 1.058 (1.034-1.082), respectively There were no significant differences in RR by sex.. In those at least 85 years old, an IQR increase in NO2 was associated with a 12.7% (95% CI 4.2-22.2) increase in daily mortality. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that daily increases in air pollution increase the risk of dying from COVID-19, especially in the elderly.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Chile/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2
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