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1.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1462-1471, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589726

RESUMO

Point sources such as wastewater treatment plants, terrestrial agriculture, and aquaculture may release antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic ecosystems. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies attributing environmental ARG abundance to specific sources. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of freshwater trout farms in the release and dissemination of ARGs into the environment. Sediment samples upstream and downstream from five rainbow trout farms were collected over time in southern Chile. A microfluidic quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach was used to quantify an ARG array covering different mechanisms of resistance, and data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear mixed regression models. Surveys were also conducted to obtain information about management practices, including antibiotic use, at the farms. Florfenicol and oxytetracycline were used at these farms, although at different rates. A total of 93 samples were analyzed. In the PCA, , , , , (A), (B), (C), (W), and grouped together. A statistically significant increase in abundance of , , , and several genes was found downstream from the farms compared with upstream sites, and retention ponds had the highest ARG abundance at each site. Antibiotic resistance gene levels returned to baseline at an average distance of 132.7 m downstream from the farms. Although results from this study indicate an influence of trout farms on the presence of ARGs in the immediate environment, the extent of their contribution to ARG dissemination is unknown and deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Truta , Animais , Chile , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Água Doce , Genes Bacterianos
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 432-442, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531671

RESUMO

A total of thirty Austral thrushes Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Turdidae) carcasses were brought to the Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, to be examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Ectoparasites were found on 20% (6/30) of the thrushes and belonged to species Brueelia magellanica Cichino, 1986 (Phthiraptera), Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 (Phthiraptera) and Tyrannidectes falcklandicus Mironov & González-Acuña, 2011 (Acari). Endoparasites were isolated from 26.6% (8/30) of the birds and identified as Lueheia inscripta Westrumb, 1821 (Acanthocephala), Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus Goeze, 1782 (Acanthocephala), Wardium sp. sensu Mayhew, 1925 (Cestoda), Dilepis undula (Cestoda) Schrank, 1788, and Zonorchis sp. (sensu Travassos, 1944) (Trematoda). To our knowledge, all endoparasites collected in this study are new records in T. falcklandii and expand their distributional range to Chile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Chile , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
3.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, September 2019
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51516

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir las características sociodemográficas, necesidades de salud, derivaciones efectivas realizadas y evaluación inmediata de la población migrante internacional que participó en el Programa de Atención Inicial al Migrante durante el primer año de ejecución (entre mayo y diciembre del año 2016), implementado en el Centro de Salud Familiar Ignacio Domeyko, Santiago de Chile. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo. Se diseñó e implementó una intervención para dar bienvenida a migrantes internacionales, que contemplaba la evaluación integral inicial, el diagnóstico de situación y detección de necesidades y derivación a otras atenciones, y la entrega de información. Para el análisis se describen, por medio de medidas de tendencia central y frecuencias absolutas y relativas, las características sociodemográficas, el proceso migratorio, las necesidades de salud, el cumplimento de derivaciones a un año de seguimiento y los resultados de la encuesta de satisfacción usuaria. Resultados. Se inscribieron 436 personas, de las cuales asistieron 270 (61,9%). El 80% eran mujeres, provenientes en su mayoría de Perú y Venezuela. La principal derivación realizada fue a control de embarazo (32,6%), seguido de planificación familiar (30%) y servicios sociales (27,04%). A un año de seguimiento, las derivaciones para controles cardiovasculares alcanzaron 100% de cumplimiento, 97,7% para embarazo y 87,7% para servicios sociales. El menor cumplimiento en las derivaciones fue a salud mental (11,1%). Conclusiones. Esta intervención, pionera en Chile, permitió dar bienvenida y proporcionar información clave a la población migrante internacional, así como también realizar derivaciones basadas en necesidades de salud y promover la inserción de la población inmigrante al sistema de salud chileno.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Describe sociodemographic characteristics, health needs, effective referrals, and immediate evaluation of international migrants who participated in the Initial Care for Migrants program during its first year of implementation (May to December 2016) at the Ignacio Domeyko Family Health Center in Santiago, Chile. Methods. Descriptive study. An intervention was designed and implemented to welcome international migrants. It included an initial comprehensive evaluation, a situation assessment, identification of needs, referral to other health services, and transfer of information. Statistical analysis was performed, using measures of central tendency and absolute and relative frequencies to describe sociodemographic characteristics, migratory processes, health needs, and effective referrals after one year of monitoring, as well as the results of a user satisfaction survey. Results. 436 people were registered, of whom 270 (61.9%) participated; 80% were women, mostly from Peru and Venezuela. The largest number of referrals were to pregnancy services (32.6%), followed by family planning (30%) and social services (27.04%). After one year of monitoring, there was 100% compliance for referrals to cardiovascular testing, 97.7% for pregnancy, and 87.7% for social services. The lowest compliance was for referrals to mental health services (11.1%). Conclusions. This intervention, the first of its kind in Chile, welcomed international migrants and provided them with key information, while providing referrals based on health needs and promoting the inclusion of the immigrant population in the Chilean health system.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever as características sociodemográficas, necessidades em saúde, encaminhamentos efetivados e avaliação imediata da população migrante internacional que participou do Programa de Atenção Inicial ao Migrante no primeiro ano da sua implementação (entre maio e dezembro de 2016) no Centro de Saúde Familiar Ignacio Domeyko, na cidade de Santiago, no Chile. Métodos. Estudo descritivo com base em uma intervenção que foi concebida e implementada para acolher populações migrantes internacionais. A intervenção consistiu de uma avaliação inicial completa, diagnóstico da situação, identificação das necessidades em saúde e encaminhamento a outros serviços de atendimento, além de um componente informativo. A análise se baseou em medidas de tendência central e frequências absolutas e relativas usadas para descrever características sociodemográficas, processo migratório, necessidades em saúde, efetivação dos encaminhamentos em um ano de acompanhamento e resultados da pesquisa de satisfação dos usuários. Resultados. Dos 436 inscritos, 270 participaram do programa (61,9%). Destes, 80% eram mulheres e a maioria era proveniente do Peru e da Venezuela. Os principais encaminhamentos efetivados foram ao atendimento pré-natal (32,6%), planejamento familiar (30%) e serviços sociais (27,04%). Após um ano de acompanhamento, os encaminhamentos para avaliação cardiovascular foram efetivados em 100%, para atenção pré-natal em 97,7% e para serviços sociais em 87,7%. O encaminhamento à atenção de saúde mental foi o menos efetivado (11,1%). Conclusões. Esta foi uma intervenção pioneira no Chile que possibilitou acolher e instruir as populações migrantes internacionais, além de realizar encaminhamentos a serviços conforme as necessidades em saúde e promover a inserção da população imigrante no sistema de saúde chileno.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Sistemas de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Chile , Migrantes , Sistemas de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
Waste Manag ; 100: 240-248, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561024

RESUMO

In this study, beverage wastewater (BW) and extended aeration sewage sludge were assessed as co-substrates with both mixed sludge and thermally hydrolyzed sludge as substrates in an anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) process. The methodology is an integrated methodology that comprises a batch test (BMP) and semicontinuous reactor along with microbial diversity analysis. The results showed that in batch conditions, neither significant synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed on the maximum potential (P) due to the cosubstrates presence. However, synergistic effects on a kinetic parameter (Rm) were observed when BW was used as cosubstrate. Process instability was observed in semi-continuous mode with cosubstrate BW, which was not predicted by the BMP test. As demonstrated in this study, the BMP approach is also not suitable for predicting continuous performance in real systems; however, it can be used to screen an array of substrates. In semi-continuous mode, one can expect to reach values between 50 and 60% of the biogas potential and 20-40% of the maximum production rate achieved in batch tests. The agreement between batch and semi-continuous results is also dependent on the type of inoculum used. The microbial diversity of the system was more influenced by the reactor stability than the presence of cosubstrates. To predict the performance (and stability) of real anaerobic digesters, dynamic models should be employed.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Chile
5.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(3): 94-98, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019299

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: El sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel ha demostrado un fuerte efecto supresor endometrial de mucha utilidad en gran variedad de problemas ginecológicos. Existen numerosos estudios y revisiones del sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel que avalan su uso en sangrado uterino anormal, como también bastantes publicaciones que demuestran su costo-efectividad. No se encontraron publicaciones latinoamericanas. El objetivo del estudio es desarrollar un modelo para valorar el beneficio en costos del uso del dispositivo como manejo alternativo del sangrado uterino anormal. Métodos : Se realizó modelo fármaco-económico que ayudará a comparar costos y efectividad de sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel, inserción, controles clínicos más ultrasonido transvaginal al mes, y anuales, y se comparó con los costos directos de histerectomía. Los costos de histerectomía se obtienen mediante GRD-WinSIG en Chile y los costos reales directos en Costa Rica. El modelo es básicamente comparar los costos de la inserción de sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel más las fallas del tratamiento versus histerectomías. Resultados: El modelo permite demostrar que al utilizar el sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel como alternativa a la histerectomía en pacientes seleccionadas, se produce un ahorro en costos, aun asumiendo el costo de las fallas. Estos modelos no consideran los costos asociados a las complicaciones eventuales de todo acto quirúrgico, de tal forma que el ahorro generado por el uso del sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel podría ser mayor. Conclusión: La inclusión del sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel en guías de práctica clínica permite la posibilidad de disminuir las histerectomías en pacientes refractarias a tratamiento médico convencional, y que cumplan con criterios de inclusión y exclusión estrictos. El modelo permitió demostrar que al utilizar el sistema intrauterino con levonorgestrel como alternativa a la histerectomía, se produce un gasto que es solo un tercio del generado al realizar histerectomías.


Summary Objective: The intrauterine system with levonorgestrel has demonstrated a strong endometrial suppressive effect that is useful in a wide variety of gynecological problems. There are numerous studies and reviews of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system that support its use in abnormal uterine bleeding, as well as numerous publications that demonstrate its cost-effectiveness. As far as we know, there are no Latin American publications in this regard. The objective of the present study was to develop a model to assess the costs benefits of the use of the devices as alternative management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: A pharmacoeconomic model was performed comparing costs and effectiveness with costs of levonorgestrel intrauterine system, insertion, clinical controls plus ultrasounds per month and annually, compared with the direct costs of hysterectomy. Hysterectomy costs were obtained through DRG-WinSIG or direct real costs in Chile and Costa Rica respectively. Results: Our model demonstratde that when using the levonorgestrel intrauterine systsem as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients there is an expenditure of only one third of the costs of performing the hysterectomies in the same patients, even assuming failures with the dispositive. These model did not consider the costs associated with the eventual complications of any surgical act, thus, savings generated by use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in these patients could be even greater. Conclusión: The inclusion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in clinical practice guidelines could allow the possibility of reducing hysterectomies in patients refractory to conventional medical treatment and who meet strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our models demonstrate that when using the levonorgestrel intrauterine system as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients there is a reduction in costs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Análise Custo-Eficiência , Chile , Levanogestrel/uso terapêutico , Costa Rica , Histerectomia Vaginal , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/tendências
6.
Waste Manag Res ; 37(9): 861-862, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423941
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 536, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377907

RESUMO

San Jorge Bay (23° S) is characterised by a permanent coastal upwelling front and a thermal front that influence water circulation into the bay. This bay constantly receives effluents from different mining activities. Several studies have demonstrated different levels of heavy metals in waters and sediments within the bay. The clam Protothaca thaca is a bivalve with sedentary habits, which is distributed along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts and is exploited commercially. During 2010, clams were collected inside the bay: north (La Chimba), centre (Paraíso) and south (Llacolén), as well as from a site outside the bay (Bolsico). Haematological parameters, condition factor index, lesions, parasites and pathogens and heavy metal concentrations in clam tissues were determined. The health indicators of clams inhabiting the bay varied between sites. Clams inside the bay showed higher prevalence and intensity of parasites and lesions than those clams inhabiting the site outside the bay, which could be indicating the presence of some environmental stressor (e.g. heavy metals). This study is the first to evaluate the health status of organisms from San Jorge Bay, and our results support the hypothesis that clams P. thaca can be used to evaluate environmental quality.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Frutos do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Baías , Chile , Meio Ambiente , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Mineração , Parasitos
8.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 193-197, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465190

RESUMO

Objective: The study was to explore elder's feeding process mind construction in different stages of life. Study selection, source and data extraction: Through a qualitative study with a phenomenological focus and using semi-structured interviews and discussion groups, it has been deepened into the perception of the childhood, adulthood and current experience towards the feeding process. As data sources, 28 elders that accomplished with the selection criterions of the investigation participated in it. Their answers were coded through the program NVivo 10 and for the conclusions it was used the content analysis through research triangulation. Data synthesis: For childhood, the feeding process is understood as healthy, associated to the availability of natural products and limited access to manufactured products. Adulthood was not considered as important in their feeding attention, situation that is opposed in their current life cycle, because it is perceived the necessity of a healthy feeding, though related to their health care. Conclusions: It is presented the meaning construction in elder people related to their feeding in key stages of their life, like in the childhood, adulthood and current experience as elder. Childhood and elderly stages are perceived as positive for a healthy feeding process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Chile , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 376-382, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390433

RESUMO

Information about parasites associated with diurnal raptors from Chile is scarce. Between 2006 and 2017, a total of 15 specimens of the Variable hawk, Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) were collected, 14 of them from different localities in the Biobío region and one specimen from the Valparaíso region. An external examination of the plumage was made to collect ectoparasites, and necropsies were performed, focusing primarily on the gastrointestinal tract. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) were found on five (33.3%) of the birds corresponding to three species: 97 specimens of Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874), six specimens of Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny, 1842 and nine belonging to an unidentified species of the genus Craspedorrhynchus Kéler, 1938. Endoparasites found in three (20%) of the birds included round worms (Nematoda) of the genus Procyrnea Chabaud, 1958, and spiny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) of the genus Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911. The species Colpocephalum turbinatum and the genera: Craspedorrhynchus sp., Procyrnea sp. and Centrorhynchus sp. are new records for the Variable hawk.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Falcões/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Ftirápteros/classificação , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chile , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 824-828, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438039

RESUMO

Health facilities are care centers that receive patients with different requirements. The management of patients falls to the clinical staff trained for this activity. However, given the demands of the population, the task of managing beds is sometimes too complicated when carried out manually. In this work, we propose the design and implementation of a technological platform that provides an improved optimization approach. It manages the patient-bed allocation efficiently, by considering hospital resources given the number of units and patient diagnosis. This tool was deployed in hospitals of the Atacama regional health service in Chile, boosting the work of the clinical staff of the health facility.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Assistência ao Paciente , Leitos , Chile , Humanos , Software
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 436-442, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013808

RESUMO

RESUMEN Recomendaciones internacionales indican que se deben consumir diariamente 400 g/día o su equivalente a 5 porciones de frutas, verduras o legumbres. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres en estudiantes universitarios chilenos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio transversal. Fueron evaluados estudiantes universitarios (n= 1454) del norte, centro y sur de Chile. Ellos completaron una encuesta alimentaria que se utiliza para determinar hábitos alimentarios saludables (frutas, verduras y legumbres). El 78% era de sexo femenino. Al analizar la frecuencia de consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres según universidad, sólo frutas y verduras mostraron de diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p< 0,01). El 70% de los estudiantes no cumple con la recomendación de consumo de frutas; 72% con la de verduras y 77% con la de legumbres. En mujeres, un 6,3% del total de la muestra cumple con la recomendación de frutas y en hombres el valor alcanza al 8,4%; en verduras se observa que la recomendación alcanza al 29,5% en mujeres y 21,3% en hombres, y en legumbres, es 2,4% en mujeres y 5% en hombres. Se observa un bajo consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres en universitarios muy lejos de las recomendaciones internaciones.


ABSTRACT International recommendations indicate that 400 g/ day or its equivalent to 5 servings of fruits, vegetables or legumes should be consumed daily. Our aim was to determine patterns of consumption of fruits, vegetables and legumes among Chilean university students. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study. University students (n= 1454) from the north, center and south of Chile were evaluated. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy eating habits (fruits, vegetables and legumes). Seventy-eight percent of participants were women. When analyzing the consumption frequency of fruits, vegetables and legumes according to different universities, only fruits and vegetables showed a statistically significant difference (p< 0.01). Seventy percent of students do not meet recommended amounts for fruit consumption; 72% for vegetables and 77% for legumes. Among women, 6.3% of the total sample met the recommendation for fruit, while, for men, the value was 8.4%; for vegetables, we observed that 29.5 and 21.3% of women and men, respectively, met the recommendation; for legumes, 2.4% of women and 5% of men met the recommendation. There was a low consumption of fruits, vegetables and legumes among university students, with levels far from the international recommendations.


Assuntos
Adulto Jovem , Estudantes , Verduras , Chile , Educação Superior , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Fabaceae , Estudos Transversais
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 460-468, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013811

RESUMO

RESUMEN Una baja ingesta de calcio se ha asociado con mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de una intervención dietoterapéutica con diferentes aportes de calcio dietario sobre el estado nutricional, en estudiantes universitarias con sobrepeso. El diseño fue cuasi-experimental (n= 18) en dos grupos intervenidos durante 8 semanas. El grupo 1 (n= 10) restringió su consumo de lácteos a <3 porciones, mientras que el grupo 2 (n= 8) consumieron 5 porciones diarias (leche fluida UHT descremada). La intervención consideró, para ambos grupos, una restricción de 500 kcal/día respecto de su gasto energético total. Se evaluó el estado nutricional por IMC (kg/m2), circunferencia de cintura (CC) y porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG). Como resultados se obtuvo que, la ingesta de calcio dietario, aumentó en 916,4 mg/día en el grupo de "5 porciones de lácteos", pero disminuyó en −28,9 mg/día en el grupo de "3 porciones de lácteos". Al comparar los grupos, ambos redujeron significativamente (p< 0.05) su peso corporal (-3,6 vs. −3,4 kg), IMC (-1,45 vs. −1,31 kg/m2), CC (-4,5 vs. −6,2 cm) y %MG (-2,5 vs. −2,7 %). Estos resultados sugieren que aumentar el consumo de lácteos a 5 porciones diarias no presenta beneficios adicionales para la mejora del estado nutricional después de 8 semanas de intervención.


ABSTRACT A low intake of calcium has been associated with greater risk of overweight and obesity. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of calcium intake on the nutritional status of overweight female university students. This 8-week intervention included two groups who restricted their calcium intake to <3 portions or 5 portions of dairy products per day (nonfat ultra-high temperature processed milk). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF) were measured at baseline and post-intervention. The intervention considered for both groups a 500 kcal/day restriction based on their total energy expenditure. The main result of this study showed that dietary calcium intake increased to 916.4 mg/day in the group consuming 5 portions per day but decreased (-28.9 mg/day) in the group consuming 3 daily portions. Both the 3 and 5 portion intake groups significantly reduced their body weight (-3.6 vs. −3.4 kg), BMI (-1.45 vs. −1.31 kg/m2), WC (-4.5 vs. −6.2 cm) and BF (-2.5 vs. −2.7%). These findings suggest that 5 dairy portions per day compared to 3 does not have additional benefits for improved nutritional status.


Assuntos
Feminino , Estudantes , Cálcio na Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Educação Superior , Dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Perda de Peso , Chile
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 477-484, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013813

RESUMO

RESUMEN Validar instrumentos de medición de datos es fundamental para constituir conocimiento certero y objetivo respecto a los hábitos en ingesta alimentaria. El artículo pretende adaptar y validar para el contexto de educación superior un cuestionario que originalmente es de atención primaria, y que se transforme en un insumo válido para medir hábitos alimentarios en estudiantes universitarios. Basados en un cuestionario validado por Pino, Díaz y López en el 2011, se ajustaron las preguntas para un contexto de educación terciaria. El instrumento se aplicó a una muestra estratificada de 405 estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad perteneciente al Consejo de Rectores de Chile (CRUCH) de la región del Maule. Los datos fueron procesados mediante el paquete estadístico SPSS 20, y contó con los respectivos resguardos éticos mediante consentimiento informado firmado. Siguiendo los pertinentes análisis estadísticos para la validación del instrumento, podemos dar cuenta de un cuestionario confiable y aceptable (α= 0,815), estableciéndose 10 dimensiones con 35 preguntas. Se concluye un instrumento válido y adaptado para ser aplicado en estudiantes con el fin de identificar sus hábitos alimentarios en educación superior.


ABSTRACT Validating data measurement instruments is essential to establish accurate and objective knowledge regarding dietary habits. This article aims to adapt and validate a questionnaire to measure dietary habits originally designed for the primary care setting for use in the context of higher education. Based on a questionnaire validated by Pino, Díaz and López in 2011, the questions were adjusted for a tertiary education context. The instrument was applied to a sample of 405 undergraduate students of a university belonging to the Council of Rectors of Chile (CRUCH) of the Maule region, stratified by college year. Data were analysed using SPSS 20; signed informed consent was obtained. Following the relevant statistical analysis for the validation of an instrument, 10 dimensions with 35 questions were established. Results indicated that the instrument is trustworthy and acceptable (α= 0.815). We conclude that the instrument is a valid adaptation and can be applied to higher education students in order to identify their eating habits.


Assuntos
Humanos , Chile , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Educação Superior , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2794-2800, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310192

RESUMO

An orange-pigmented, oxidase-positive bacterial strain (I-41R45T), isolated from the kidney of a black rock cod fish sampled in the Chilean Antarctic was studied in a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of the isolate were coccoid and stained Gram-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain I-41R45T with sequences of type strains of most closely related Paracoccus species showed highest sequence similarities to Paracoccus hibiscisoli (98.4 %), Paracoccus marcusii (98.3 %), Paracoccus haeundaensis and Paracoccus carotinifaciens (both 98.2 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other Paracoccus species were below 97 %. The draft genome of strain I-41R45T had a size of 4.59 Mb with a DNA G+C content of 65.26 mol% and included the prediction and annotation of 4426 coding genes, 1973 protein-coding genes and 46 tRNAs. The fatty acid profile of strain I-41R45T consisted mainly of the major fatty acids C18 : 1 ω7c/ω9t/ω12t and C18:0, typical of the genus Paracoccus. DNA-DNA hybridizations between I-41R45T and type strains of P. hibiscisoli, P. marcusiiand P. haeundaensis resulted in similarity values of 45 % (reciprocal 26 %), 66 % (reciprocal 61 %), and 29 % (reciprocal 36 %), respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization results, together with the differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties, showed that strain I-41R45T represents a novel Paracoccus species, for which the name Paracoccus nototheniae sp. nov. (type strain I-41R45T=CCM 8875T=CIP 111632T), is proposed.


Assuntos
Rim/microbiologia , Paracoccus/classificação , Perciformes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chile , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Paracoccus/isolamento & purificação , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Food Chem ; 299: 125117, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288164

RESUMO

This work evaluated nutritional and organoleptic properties of murta, a Chilean native berry, impregnated with Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus and dehydrated by different methods: freeze- (FD), convective- (CD) and vacuum- (VD) drying. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that L. casei localized at the peduncle and near the peduncle of the impregnated fruit. Murta enriched with probiotics contained higher L. casei viable counts after dehydration with FD compared to CD and VD methods. Overall, drying resulted in a decrease in crude fibre and phenolic compounds, which was attributed to L. casei metabolic activity suggesting that murta berries could act as prebiotics for L. casei. Among drying methods, L. casei enriched FD murta presented less alterations in the microstructure, less drying-induced damage and obtained a higher sensory acceptability score than CD and VD murta. Taken together, these results will contribute to the development of functional foods from regional products improving local economy.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Myrtaceae/química , Chile , Dessecação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Myrtaceae/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Sensação , Vácuo
16.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 416-425, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication related adverse events are an important cause of hospital admission or prolonged stay. AIM: To assess medication related adverse events in a hospital discharge database. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Revision of the Chilean hospital discharge database from 2010 to 2017 searching for ICD- 10 diagnostic codes corresponding to medication related adverse events. RESULTS: The number of medication related adverse events was stable across the studied time lapse, but admission length increased. Between 34 and 111 people died every year due to medication related adverse events. Lactating babies, toddlers, adolescents and people over 80 years of age are at greater risk of experiencing these events. CONCLUSIONS: Medication related adverse events are more common than expected.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 437-443, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma has a high rate of curability, even in advanced stages. AIM: To assess the results of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment using the ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy regimen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of a database held by the Chilean Ministry of Health, including all patients treated at accredited cancer treatment centers. RESULTS: Data for 915 patients, median age 35 years (range 15-86 years) and followed for a median of 97 months (range 1-347 months) were analyzed. Forty-one percent had localized disease. Overall survival at five years for localized and advanced stages was 92% and 74%, respectively. The figures for progression free survival were 87% and 64%, respectively. Patients with relapse who received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) had a five year overall survival of 92%, compared to 64% among those who did not undergo this procedure (p < 0.01). The Guarantees in Health Program set up by the Ministry of Health, was associated with earlier stage disease at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The ABVD regimen achieves high rates of cure in localized stages of the disease but the results in advanced stages are not optimal. ASCT significantly improves survival in patients with relapse. The Guarantees in Health Program is associated with earlier diagnosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bleomicina/uso terapêutico , Chile , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vimblastina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 444-450, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If we are able to increase the resolution of complex medical problems at primary health care levels, we would improve the efficiency of the health care systems and would reduce the burden of specialists. AIM: To describe the result of a telemedicine and network management of diabetic retinopathy supervised by an ophthalmological service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diabetic patients attended in primary health care centers of the East Metropolitan Health Service in Santiago, Chile, derived for 45° digital retinographies were evaluated using telemedicine by the ophthalmologists of the base hospital. These professionals screened for diabetic retinopathy and classified it. Those patients with diabetic retinopathy were derived to the base hospital for specialized management. RESULTS: Of 2,566 patients evaluated, 22% had signs of diabetic retinopathy, 75% did not have the condition and 2% could not be evaluated with retinography. Seventy percent of patients with retinopathy, equivalent to only fifteen percent of total diabetics, were referred to the specialists for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This model allowed a reduction of referrals to ophthalmologists, reducing the burden of secondary and tertiary health care systems.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 451-457, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the details of insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in Chile. AIM: To describe clinical features and treatment details of adults with T1D and its association with metabolic control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of patients with T1D treated in a clinical network. Demographic and clinical features, types and doses of insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels were registered. The use flash glucose monitors (FGM) and insulin pumps (CSII) were also recorded. RESULTS: 205 records were reviewed, with T1d lasting 12 ± 10 years. Twenty six percent had hypothyroidism, 1% had celiac disease, 12% had hypertension, 20% had dyslipidemia; 13% had diabetic retinopathy, 2% had diabetic nephropathy, 8% had neuropathy and 2% cardiovascular diseases. Mean body mass index was 25 kg/ m2 and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8%. Eighty-two percent used multiple daily injections, 18% used CSII and 24% used FGM. As basal insulin, 35% used slow acting analogs and 65% used ultra-slow analogs. As rapid acting insulin, 69 patients used Lispro, 79 Aspart and 50 Glulisin. Bolus doses were calculated using only capillary glucose in 22%, while 78% also considered carbohydrate consumption. Variables significantly associated to better control were the use of carbohydrates for dosing rapid insulin (A1c 7,85% vs 8,59%, p = 0,008), use of CSII (A1c 7,36% vs 8,16%, p = 0,008), and basal dose < 0,4 U/kg (A1c 7,81% vs 8,58%, p = 0,003). There were no differences regarding insulin type or use of FGM. CONCLUSIONS: The use of formulas considering carbohydrates for dosing rapid insulin, use of infusion pumps and physiological doses of basal insulin are significantly associated with a better metabolic control in adults with T1d.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Chile , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 458-464, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placing central venous lines under ultrasonographic guidance reduces the complications of the procedure. AIM: To compare prevalences of complications of central venous line placements with or without ultrasonographic guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study that contemplated the comparison of two groups of patients subjected to a central venous line placement at a nephrology service for renal replacement therapy. In one group of 100 patients, the line was placed without ultrasonographic guidance between 2008 and 2012. Between 2015 and 2017 the line was placed in 138 patients using ultrasonographic guidance. The prevalences of complications with both types of procedures were recorded. RESULTS: The frequency of complications of procedures with and without ultrasonographic guidance was 0.7 and 18% respectively (prevalence ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval 0-0.3). Ninety five percent of recorded complications were arterial puncture, followed by hematomas in 10% and pneumothorax in 5%. The higher prevalence of complications was observed in emergency line placement without ultrasonographic guidance. There was a direct association between the number of line placement attempts in a single procedure and the prevalence of complications. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic guidance is associated with a reduction in the prevalence of central venous line complications.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Diálise Renal/métodos , Distribuição por Sexo , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
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