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1.
Zootaxa ; 4852(5): zootaxa.4852.5.1, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056393

RESUMO

We provide a list of coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species from the island territories of Chile. We report a total of 68 records, coming from ten islands, including 42 species corresponding to more than 35% of the species of the country. This paper presents the first Coccinellidae records for the Islas Desventuradas, Isla Mocha and Isla Tenglo. Contrary to what has been reported on other islands and other taxonomic groups in Chilean islands, the level of coccinellid endemism is low (8%), with only one and two species endemic to the Juan Fernández archipelago and Isla de Chiloé, respectively, and probably a fourth species from the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The presence of species with worldwide distribution and of agricultural relevance is strong in the Chilean oceanic islands, particularly in Rapa Nui. The fauna of the continental islands is very similar to the one in the nearby continental areas and composed of native species. Further surveys of Coccinellidae and other insects are required for the islands of Chile, especially for several of them in which there are no records.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Chile , Ilhas
2.
Zootaxa ; 4852(3): zootaxa.4852.3.9, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056419

RESUMO

To date, only one species of Temnocephala is known from Chile, Temnocephala chilensis, and three from southern Argentina (Patagonia), namely T. chilensis, Temnocephala dionii, and Temnocephala mexicana. Here we describe a new species of Temnocephala and provide an updated description of T. chilensis based on material found on an anomuran crab (Aeglidae) from southern Chile. Additional hosts and localities are reported for both species in southern Argentina and Chile, and a diagnostic key for all species of Temnocephala hosted on Aegla and Parastacidae is included as well. In southern Chile, both T. chilensis and the new species were found on the crayfish Samastacus spinifrons and on the anomuran crabs Aegla abtao and Aegla alacalufi; in addition, the new species was found on Aegla manni, and T. chilensis on Aegla rostrata. In southern Argentina, T. chilensis and the new species were found on Aegla riolimayana and S. spinifrons. Based on their shared traits (morphology of the penial stylet, host preferences and geographic distribution), the temnocephalans hosted in Aegla are tentatively gathered into two clusters, the Chilensis and Axenos groups.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Platelmintos , Turbelários , Animais , Argentina , Chile
3.
Medwave ; 20(9): e8039, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031358

RESUMO

Introduction: SARS CoV-2 pandemic is pressing hard on the responsiveness of health systems worldwide, notably concerning the massive surge in demand for intensive care hospital beds. Aim: This study proposes a methodology to estimate the saturation moment of hospital intensive care beds (critical care beds) and determine the number of units required to compensate for this saturation. Methods: A total of 22,016 patients with diagnostic confirmation for COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed between March 4 and May 5, 2020, nationwide. Based on information from the Chilean Ministry of Health and ministerial announcements in the media, the overall availability of critical care beds was estimated at 1,900 to 2,000. The Gompertz function was used to estimate the expected number of COVID-19 patients and to assess their exposure to the available supply of intensive care beds in various possible scenarios, taking into account the supply of total critical care beds, the average occupational index, and the demand for COVID-19 patients who would require an intensive care bed. Results: A 100% occupancy of critical care beds could be reached between May 11 and May 27. This condition could be extended for around 48 days, depending on how the expected over-demand is managed. Conclusion: A simple, easily interpretable, and applicable to all levels (nationwide, regionwide, municipalities, and hospitals) model is offered as a contribution to managing the expected demand for the coming weeks and helping reduce the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/provisão & distribução , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Zootaxa ; 4845(1): zootaxa.4845.1.8, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056789

RESUMO

Psectrascelis is one of the most specious genus of darkling beetles of South America, comprising 82 species that inhabit arid and semiarid environments. The species are distributed mainly in Argentina and Chile. In general, the taxonomy of several species in this group has been difficult to approach. An example is Psectrascelis pilosa Solier and Psectrascelis conjugens Fairmaire, species morphologically similar which presents a rather poor original description and mislabelled. These species are distributed sympatrically in coastal terraces at the northern side of Huasco river, northern Chile. We collected several specimens of Psectrascelis on the southern side of Huasco river which are morphologically similar to P. pilosa. Morphological and genetic analysis support the description of the species Psectrascelis ammophila sp. nov., which is more closely related to Psectrascelis elongata and Psectrascelis pilipes specularis than other morphologically similar species (Psectrascelis pilosa and Psectrascelis conjugens). The importance of the Huasco river as barrier and the evolutionary convergence is discussed to explain the crypsis and the phylogenetic pattern found.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Abelhas , Evolução Biológica , Chile , Filogenia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4786(3): zootaxa.4786.3.4, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056473

RESUMO

We review and summarize the present knowledge of the Neotropical genus Euthycerina Malloch, 1933. Habitus and male terminalia are described and figured in detail for the first time. Euthycerina uachi sp. nov. is described, based on two males and four females from two locations in the province of Valdivia, Chile. An illustrated key is given for the three described species of Euthycerina, together with maps, phenology plots, and a summary of diagnostic characters that will enable researchers to confidently identify all species of Euthycerina.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Chile , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Zootaxa ; 4766(1): zootaxa.4766.1.2, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056604

RESUMO

A catalog of the Bibionidae of Chile is provided. We present all valid names and synonyms for the 33 species and 2 genera known from the country, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type locality and references. The geographical distribution of the species known from Chile was compiled from bibliographic data and revised collections. Epiplecia Giard, Heteroplecia Hardy, and Pleciodes Hardy are proposed as junior synonyms of Plecia Wiedeman.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Chile , Nematóceros
7.
Zootaxa ; 4790(2): zootaxa.4790.2.13, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055850

RESUMO

The use of SCUBA diving for marine research in the Chilean fjords has increased the possibility of obtaining information on the sponge assemblages living in this environment. However, much work is still needed to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the benthos of this wide region. As to sponges, just consider that seventeen new species have been recently described by several authors (Hajdu et al., 2013; Fernandez et al., 2016; Bertolino et al., 2019) with detailed information of this benthic fauna for this area. Aim of this work is the description of a new species of Acanthella (Dictyonellidae van Soest, Diaz Pomponi, 1990), Acanthella danerii sp. nov.. It was collected at "Seno Magdalena" (44°61'48.63" S 72°95'83.12" W) (Chilean fjords) by SCUBA, at 20 m depth, on hard substrates of a vertical wall ending on a rocky bottom that slopes down to 32 m during a survey in August 2016.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Chile , Estuários , Oceano Pacífico
8.
Zootaxa ; 4809(1): zootaxa.4809.1.9, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055954

RESUMO

A catalog of the Pelecorhynchidae from Chile is provided. We presented all valid names and synonyms for the 9 species and 1 genus for the country, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type locality and references. The geographical distribution of the species known from Chile was compiled from bibliographic data and revised collections.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Chile
9.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.4, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055745

RESUMO

Diptera is one of the most speciose groups within Insecta, but there are deep gaps in knowledge of the South American faunas. Conopidae, also known as thick-headed flies, inhabit many habitats around the world, and are particularly diverse in the Neotropical region. Despite this, southern South American species of this group are poorly known and many genera are under-represented in museum collections. Only four Neotropical species of Myopa are known, three from Mexico and one from Chile. In this study we describe two new species: Myopa nebulosa sp. nov. distributed from northern Chile to the Maule region of central Chile, and Myopa bozinovici sp. nov. from Mediterranean ecosystems of central Chile. We also re-describe the conspicuous species Myopa metallica Camras and provide an updated key to all Neotropical species of this genus. The natural history of these species is unknown. Myopa species are not abundant and their habitats may be threatened by land change use.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Chile , Ecossistema
10.
Zootaxa ; 4779(1): zootaxa.4779.1.3, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055798

RESUMO

Ogcodes Latreille is the largest genus of Acroceridae. They exhibit a cosmopolitan distribution and parasitize several spider families. Eleven Neotropical species are currently recognized in the genus, with five of them occurring in Chile, though distribution data is limited in this group of rarely collected flies. In this work, we describe a new species, Ogcodes kunkunche sp. nov. Barahona-Segovia from the evergreen forest of Chiloé Island, provide an identification key to the Chilean species of Ogcodes, and include novel distributional data for other species of spider flies (Acrocerinae and Ogcodinae). Based in our results, we suggest that O. kunkunche sp. nov. must be incorporated in the porteri group, due to wing vein reduction. Morphological aspects within Ogcodes, and their evolutionary implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Chile , Florestas , Ilhas
11.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.7, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055872

RESUMO

A new species of amphipod of the family Ischyroceridae is described. Isaeopsis chiloensis n. sp. was discovered in association with the cancrid species Metacarcinus edwardsii and Romaleon setosum, in the inner sea around Chiloé Island, in Southern Chile. This represents the second species of the genus Isaeopsis, a group formerly known only from South African waters.                The new species is characterized principally by the structure of the gnathopods, the propodus of pereopods 3-7 and the ornamentation of the outer ramus of uropod 3. The male gnathopod 2 has a prominent thumb in the posteroproximal margin of the propodus and the pereopods 3-7 are subchelate with the palm armed by a row of at least five strong setae. In addition, the apex of the outer ramus of uropod 3 bears a comb with more than thirty fine teeth. Isaeopsis chiloensis n. sp. is completely described and a series of illustrations is provided.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Braquiúros , Animais , Chile , Masculino
12.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194202

RESUMO

The Chilean healthcare system is composed of public and private sectors, with most of the higher-income population being covered privately. Primary healthcare in the public system is provided in more than 2,500 public primary care centers of different sizes with assigned populations within territories. Private insurance companies have their own healthcare networks or buy services from individual health providers. Patients from the public system receive most medications free of charge in primary care pharmacies embedded in each care center. Private patients must purchase their medicines from community pharmacies. Some government policies subsidize part of the cost of medications, but original medicines remain as the most expensive of Latin America. Three chain pharmacies have more than 90% of the market share, and these pharmacies have negative public perception because of price collusion court sentences. A non-profit, municipal pharmacy model was developed but has limited implementation. Most privately owned independent and chain community pharmacies do not provide pharmaceutical services as there is no remuneration or cover by insurers. The limited number of publicly owned Municipal pharmacies could implement pharmaceutical services in community settings as they are non-profit establishments and have full-time pharmacists but are not resourced for these services. A limited number of pharmaceutical services are almost exclusively provided in public primary care, including medication reviews, pharmaceutical education, home visits and pharmacovigilance services, but several barriers to their implementation remain. A risk-based multimorbidity care model was implemented in 2020 for public primary care with additional employment of part-time pharmacists to provide services. We believe that this model will help pharmacists to optimize their time by prioritizing the much-needed clinical tasks. We propose within this multimorbidity care model that the more time-consuming services are provided to higher risk patients. Pharmacy prescribing i.e. amending or approving changes in medications in primary care for chronic conditions could also be useful for the health system, but pharmacists would require additional training. The landscape for pharmaceutical services for primary care in Chile is promising, but the integration with community pharmacies will not be possible until they are funded by public and private insurance, and the public perception of these establishments is improved


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Farmácias , Farmacêuticos , Assistência Farmacêutica , Prática Profissional , Chile , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 418-426, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Burning coal and firewood generates toxic emissions that are associated with respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, and even death. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between county-level prevalence of household coal and firewood use and health outcomes, including total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality, as well as total and respiratory hospitalization rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ecological study included data on the use of household coal and firewood in 139 counties obtained from the 2015 Chilean National Socio-economic Characterization Survey. Total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality, as well as total and respiratory hospitalization rates, were obtained from the Department of Health Statistics. Poisson models with robust error variance, Pearson linear correlation coefficients, and scatterplots were used to explore associations between household coal and firewood use and morbidity-mortality, stratifying by geographic zone. RESULTS: Total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality and total and respiratory hospitalization rates were 5.7 per 1,000, 552 per 100,000, 157 per 100,000, 92.5 per 1000, and 8.8 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. The median prevalence of coal use for residential cooking, heating, or water heating was 3.64%, while the median prevalence of firewood combustion was 12%. In southern counties, age- and gender-adjusted respiratory mortality increased 2.02 (95% CI: 1.17-3.50), 1.5 (95% CI: 1.11-1.89), and 1.76-fold (95% CI: 1.19-2.60) for each percentage increase in household coal and firewood use for heating, cooking and heating water, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of household coal and firewood used for heating and cooking was positively correlated with respiratory mortality and hospitalization in southern zone counties.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Chile/epidemiologia , Culinária , Feminino , Calefação , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140220, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887000

RESUMO

Human-dominated environments alter the availability and quality of resources for many species, especially for scavengers that have large home ranges and plastic foraging behaviors that enable them to exploit novel resources. Along the western slope of the Andes, the modification of natural landscapes have resulted in significant declines in native prey, the introduction of non-native species, and an increase in the availability of anthropogenic resources. These factors have likely influenced the resources available to Andean condors (Vultur gryphus), however, data are lacking as to how condor's diet vary along their large latitudinal range. We evaluated differences in Andean condor diet along a ~2500 km latitudinal gradient in Chile from the heavily modified Central zone (32-34°S) to the more pristine Austral zone (44-56°S). We assessed diet composition through the identification of prey remains in condor pellets, and carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of condor feathers and their primary prey identified from pellet analysis. Our results identified medium- and large-bodied domesticated mammals (ungulates) and introduced exotic species (lagomorphs) as common prey across the study area. Condors from the Central zone had the largest isotopic niche width, probably related to consumption of anthropogenic resources with distinctly high carbon isotope values indicative of C4-based foods likely acquired from landfills or corn-fed livestock. Isotopic niches for condors from the Southern and Austral zones almost completely overlapped. Andean condor diet is strongly influenced by local conditions determining differential access to prey sources. The high dependence of Andean condors on livestock across a large geographical area, and landfills in more (sub)urban areas, may help stabilize their populations via anthropogenic resources subsidies. Long-term dependence on such resources, however, may have health costs including contaminant exposure and greater mortality risk. These data will help identify potential threats related to resource availability and use, and better inform management and conservation decisions.


Assuntos
Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Chile , Dieta , Plumas , Humanos
16.
Lancet ; 396(10255): 882-883, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979969
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South America has become the epicenter of coronavirus pandemic. It seems that asymptomatic population may contribute importantly to the spread of the disease. Transmission from asymptomatic pregnant patients' needs to be characterized in larger population cohorts and symptom assessment needs to be standardized. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of SARS CoV-2 infection in an unselected obstetrical population and to describe their presentation and clinical evolution. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed. Medical records of pregnant women admitted at the Obstetrics & Gynecology department of Clínica Dávila for labor & delivery, between April 27th and June 7th, 2020 were reviewed. All patients were screened with RT-PCR for SARS CoV-2 at admission. After delivery, positive cases were inquired by the researchers for clinical symptoms presented before admission and clinical evolution. All neonates born from mothers with confirmed SARS CoV-2 were isolated and tested for SARS CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 586 patients were tested for SARS CoV-2 during the study period. Outcomes were obtained from 583 patients which were included in the study. Thirty-seven pregnant women had a positive test for SARS CoV-2 at admission. Cumulative prevalence of confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection was 6.35% (37/583) [CI 95%: 4.63-8.65]. From confirmed cases, 43.2% (16/37) were asymptomatic. From symptomatic patients 85.7% (18/21) had mild symptoms and evolved without complications and 14.3% (3/21) presented severe symptoms requiring admission to intensive care unit. Only 5.4% (2/37) of the neonates born to mothers with a positive test at admission had a positive RT-PCR for SARS CoV-2. CONCLUSION: In our study nearly half of pregnant patients with SARS CoV-2 were asymptomatic at the time of delivery. Universal screening, in endemic areas, is necessary for adequate patient isolation, prompt neonatal testing and targeted follow-up.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Chile/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866153

RESUMO

The decision to allocate time and energy to find multiple sexual partners or raise children is a fundamental reproductive trade-off. The Strategic Pluralism Hypothesis argues that human reproductive strategies are facultatively calibrated towards either investing in mating or parenting (or a mixture), according to the expression of features dependent on the individual's condition. This study seeks to test predictions derived from this hypothesis in a sample of 242 young men (M ± SD = 22.12 ± 3.08) from Chile's 5th Region (33Ö¯ south latitude). Specifically, two predictions were considered that raise questions about the relationship between traits related to physical and psychological attractiveness (fluctuating facial asymmetry and self-perception of attractiveness) and competitive skills (baseline testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability) with short-term reproductive strategies. Our results indicate that psychological features related to the self-perception of physical attractiveness are related to short-term reproductive strategies. However, no evidence was found that fluctuating facial asymmetry, basal levels of testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability were related to short-term reproductive strategies. These results support the existing evidence of the importance of physical attractiveness in calibrating men's reproductive strategies but cast doubts about the role of fluctuating facial asymmetry. They also suggest that traits related to physical attractiveness, in comparison to competitive capabilities, play a more important role in calibrating men's short-term reproductive strategies.


Assuntos
Beleza , Comportamento de Escolha , Reprodução/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22146, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted medical practice, telemedicine emerged as an alternative to outpatient visits. However, it is not known how patients and physicians responded to an accelerated implementation of this model of medical care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to report the system-wide accelerated implementation of telemedicine, compare patient satisfaction between telemedicine and in-person visits, and report provider perceptions. METHODS: This study was conducted at the UC Christus Health Network, a large private academic health network in Santiago, Chile. The satisfaction of patients receiving telemedicine care in March and April 2020 was compared to those receiving in-person care during the same period (concurrent control group) as well as in March and April 2019 (retrospective control group). Patient satisfaction with in-person care was measured using the Net Promoter Score (NPS) survey. Patient satisfaction with telemedicine was assessed with an online survey assessing similar domains. Providers rated their satisfaction and responded to open-ended questions assessing challenges, strategies used to address challenges, the diagnostic process, treatment, and the patient-provider relationship. RESULTS: A total of 3962 patients receiving telemedicine, 1187 patients from the concurrent control group, and 1848 patients from the retrospective control group completed the surveys. Satisfaction was very high with both telemedicine and in-person services. Overall, 263 physicians from over 41 specialties responded to the survey. During telemedicine visits, most providers felt their clinical skills were challenged (61.8%). Female providers felt more challenged than male providers (70.7% versus 50.9%, P=.002). Surgeons, obstetricians, and gynecologists felt their clinical skills were challenged the least, compared to providers from nonsurgical specialties (P<.001). Challenges related to the delivery modality, diagnostic process, and patient-provider relationship differed by provider specialty (P=.046, P<.001, and P=.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic produced high patient and provider satisfaction. Specialty groups perceived the impact of this new mode of clinical practice differently.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/tendências , Adulto Jovem
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