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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(7): 961-970, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The worldwide incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing. AIM: To determine the national incidence of AP between 2013 and 2018. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of hospital discharge records available at the web page of the Statistical and Information Service of the Chilean Ministry of Health. We recorded the number of patients discharged with a diagnosis of AP, excluding chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, between 2013 and 2018. We also recorded length of hospital stay, age, etiology, and lethality. Rates of raw and age-adjusted incidence were calculated. RESULTS: During the study period, 46,420 patients with AP were discharged, with an incidence rate ranging between 39 and 43.7/100,000 inhabitants, and a non-significant increase along time of 8.6%. There are important differences between the average adjusted rates of Northern (Arica to Metropolitan) and Southern regions (O'Higgins to Magallanes), with rates of 36.9 and 53.6/100,000 inhabitants respectively (p < 0.01). The average hospital stay was 11 days. Two thirds of cases were aged between 20 and 64 years. The case fatality was 4.2%, with no decrease between 2013 and 2018. The mortality rate was 1.6/100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of AP is 42.6/100,000 inhabitants, with geographical differences from North to South, which can be associated with the high frequency of biliary tract disease in aboriginal ethnic groups. The age distribution and length hospital stay were stable over time.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(7): 971-979, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely eye fundus examinations are essential to prevent the consequences of retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. AIM: To assess the coverage rate (CR) of eye fundus examination in the Chilean diabetic population, between 2011 and 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of monthly statistical summaries of the Cardiovascular Health Program published online by the Chilean Ministry of Health. The number of patients aged 15 years or more with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the number of those who had an eye fundus examination within the same year, were obtained. Data was analyzed at a national and regional level. RESULTS: The national eye fundus examination CR was 19.1% in 2011. In 2016, the figures became significantly higher, reaching 32.5%. In 2019, the highest value of 36.5% was recoded although not significantly different from 2016. The highest average annual CR was observed in Ñuble Health Service (49.5%), and the lowest in Central Metropolitan Service (15%). The highest CR positive absolute and relative variation between 2011 and 2019 was observed in Viña del Mar Quillota Health Service (38.9 and 489% respectively), and the lowest negative variation was observed in Araucania Norte Health Service (-8.42 and -24.21% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There is a low eye fundus examination CR in Chile, with important differences between regional health services.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Chile/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Humanos
3.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(7): 1004-1013, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a public health problem in the world. In Chile, suicide rates increased since 1990 with regional differences in rates. AIM: To analyze the geographical distribution of deaths due to suicide that occurred in the Region of Araucanía between the years 2004-2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The geographic distribution of suicide in the Araucania Region at district level (2004-2015) was analyzed using death data available at the web page of the Ministry of Health. Socio-demographic variables of suicide were characterized. The spatial distribution of suicide rates was represented using cartography, and suicide spatial clusters were identified through spatial-temporal exploration. RESULTS: There were 1,562 suicides, 86% in men, with a mean rate of 13.07 x105 inhabitants. The highest rates were registered in people aged over 70 years. Most individuals committing suicide were active workers. Hanging was the most common method to accomplish suicide. The territories from the coastal area in Cautín, and Nahuelbuta registered the highest suicide rates. Two statistically significant conglomerates with high incidence of suicide cases were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The use of geographic methods and the disaggregation of suicide cases at district level, allowed the identification of territorial variability in the distribution of suicide rates within the Araucanía Region. Spatial patterns of areas with high suicide risk were found.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Distribuição por Sexo
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(7): 1023-1030, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia generally refrain from manifesting somatic symptoms, and may not complain of pain. Therefore these patients may have an insensitivity to pain. AIM: To determine the prevalence of chronic pain in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) was answered by 79 outpatients with schizophrenia with a mean age of 47 years (67% men) attended at a public hospital in Chile. RESULTS: Chronic pain, defined as lasting more than six months, was reported by 15.2 % of patients. Acute pain was reported by 63% of patients. No significant differences were observed in sociodemographic characteristics or duration of illness between patients with acute or chronic pain. The assessment of the different pain dimensions showed a predominance of sensory and affective components, with pain rating indexes of 0.82 and 0.71, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the prevalence of pain among people with schizophrenia, is similar to that of the general population.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Esquizofrenia , Chile/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Prevalência , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(7): 1047-1057, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the twentieth century, Chile experienced an important reduction in general mortality. AIM: To describe both general and infant mortality of Chile from 1909 to 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of information about births and deaths published by the Chilean National Institute of Statistics for the period between 1909 and 2017. RESULTS: Both general and infant mortality rates declined sharply from the 1930s to the late 1990s. However, during the last few years, general mortality rates increased slightly. This is the first increase in over a century. Another positive aspect is that there was a dramatic decrease in mortality rate gaps across Chilean regions, for both general and infant mortality. However, intraregional inequalities in infant mortality continue to be a detrimental factor. CONCLUSIONS: Public health efforts should be carried out to further reduce socioeconomic and regional gaps in adult and infant mortality in Chile.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Saúde Pública , Academias e Institutos , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade
6.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 665-671, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), have a peak in frequency during winter. AIM: To assess the existence of seasonal variation in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of death report databases available at the website of the Chilean Ministry of Health. The seasonality of deaths due to AMI (codes ICD-10 I21, I22, I23) occuring in Chile between 2001-2016 were analyzed using a geometric model assuming a sinusoidal cyclic pattern. RESULTS: During the period 2001-2016, a total of 94,788 deaths due to AMI were registered, corresponding to 93,349 corrected deaths. Of the latter, 29.2% occurred in winter, 24.9% in spring, 24.0% in autumn and 21.8% in summer. The geometric model showed a marked sinusoidal pattern for the aggregated data. The peak-to-low ratio of deaths was 1.41 (95% CI 1.38-1.44). The peak of deaths occurred during July in 14 out of 16 years analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, deaths due to AMI have a marked seasonal pattern, characterized by a higher number of deaths in winter and a lower number in summer.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Chile/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estações do Ano
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 682-688, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loxoscelism is an important public health problem in Chile and South America, due to the higher rate of cutaneous-visceral involvement. The diagnosis of loxoscelism is mostly clinical without established diagnostic criteria. There is little evidence to support any treatment used in this condition. AIM: To characterize the clinical features and epidemiology of loxoscelism among patients consulting at the Emergency and Dermatology Services of a clinical hospital between 2013 and 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of patients registered in the electronic clinical record system with a confirmed diagnosis of loxoscelism. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory tests and treatment variables were analyzed. RESULTS: We reviewed data from 200 patients. Ninety-four percent presented cutaneous loxoscelism and 5.5% cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Systemic symptoms were present in 73% of patients with cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Patients who developed systemic symptoms had an 18 times higher risk of developing cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Laboratory abnormalities were more common in patients with cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Not all patients with hematuria had cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Most patients required analgesia. Anti-loxosceles serum was not used in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Many questions remain to be answered regarding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Studies are required to validate diagnostic criteria for loxoscelism, predictors for visceral involvement and response to treatment.


Assuntos
Picaduras de Aranhas , Venenos de Aranha , Aranhas , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dor , Picaduras de Aranhas/diagnóstico , Picaduras de Aranhas/epidemiologia , Picaduras de Aranhas/terapia
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 698-707, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legumes are low cost and high-quality nutritional foods. In Chile, a twice per week legume consumption is recommended to promote health and prevent disease. AIM: To characterize the consumption of legumes according to sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in the Chilean adult population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analysis of data from 5,473 participants of the 2016-2017 National Health Survey. The compliance with legume consumption was studied in population groups, according to sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, through logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Only 24% of all participants (51.4% of women) fulfilled legume intake recommendations. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the participants who were less likely to comply with the recommendation were widowers (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.58 [95% confidence intervals (CI): (0.40; 0.85]). On the contrary, people between 70-80 years (OR: 1.78 [95% CI: 1.11; 2.88]), those who resided in rural areas (OR: 1.62 [95% CI: 1.25; 2.10]) and those who resided in the Maule region (OR: 2.11 [95% CI: 1.37, 3.25]) had a higher likelihood of compliance. CONCLUSIONS: One out of four Chileans complied with the recommendations of legume consumption. Even though the results differed when stratified by sex, it is highlighted that living in rural areas increased the probabilities of an adequate legume consumption.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Dieta , Promoção da Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 716-723, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is the second death cause in Chile. The Chilean National Cancer Act will secure treatment and labor protection for people diagnosed with cancer. AIM: To answer questions regarding the media portrayal of cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through data-mining and the conduction of content analysis, 2,523 news titles about cancer were analysed. The news titles were obtained from 345 Chilean digital media which published cancer related news on Twitter between January and December 2019. An attempt was made to answer two research questions, namely are cancer incidence and mortality rates portrayed in a corresponding magnitude in the Chilean digital media? and what words are commonly used for this purpose? RESULTS: There is not a coherence between the incidence and mortality of the main cancer types in Chile and the amount of content published in communication media. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with international studies. We should expect the delivery of complete, timely and effective information about cancer in communication media, aiming to educate the population and reinforce prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Mídias Sociais , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(7): 980-988, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2 pandemic (COVID-19) has caused intense changes in lifestyles, feeding, and nutrition habits. AIM: To analyze food insecurity and eating habits during the period of quarantine in a group of Chilean individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 2,767 households with questions about the sociodemographic composition of the household, household food purchasing habits in the quarantine period for COVID-19, and perception of food insecurity. RESULTS: More than 60% of households (p < 0.01) were worried about not having enough food, especially when children under 18 years of age lived in them. This perception increased in urban households (p < 0.01) and those located in the Central-Southern and Southern regions (p < 0.01). During the pandemic, the consumption of healthy products such as milk increased in 50% of households, legumes in 72%, eggs in 79%, fruits in 54%, vegetables in 67% and water in 81%. There was also a lower consumption of unhealthy and ultra-processed foods such as hot-dogs in 90% of households, sausages in 73%, sugary drinks in 79% and ice cream in 83%. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in Chile increased the perception of food insecurity in households with vulnerable conditions. However, the consumption of healthier foods increased.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias , Adolescente , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Verduras
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639829

RESUMO

The spatial and temporal behavior of the occurrence of forest fires in Chile was evaluated in the presence of COVID-19 and mobility restrictions. The fire period from 2015-2016 to 2020-2021 was considered and statistics on mobility restrictions were granted by the Government of Chile. The analysis was developed at different scales of geographic perception. At the national and regional levels, the global behavior of the occurrence was determined, and later at the communal level, the political territorial unit, to determine internal variations attributable to the mobility dynamics in the quarantine period. In the process, the meteorological background of the fire activity was also considered. The results indicate that it is possible to rule out a meteorological effect, based on the variation of the moisture content of fine fuel. There was also no statistical association between the humidity of the fuel and the variation in the occurrence of fires. It is concluded that the communes that presented the greatest mobility of people before the pandemic were those that obtained the greatest reduction in fires. The variation in mobility, the product of restriction measures, is a statistical predictor of the increase or decrease in fires.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Chile/epidemiologia , Florestas , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E430-E438, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604584

RESUMO

Tobacco Consumption (TC) is one of the main causes of the deterioration of health; however, there are few studies linking its consumption with diet and nutrition among university students. The objective of this study is to test the association of smoking with anthropometry, diet and sleep quality among Chilean university students. Cross-sectional study. University students (n = 1454) from the North, South and Central parts of Chile were evaluated. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy and unhealthy eating habits. Nutritional status was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI). Two surveys were used to assess sleep quality: the Questionnaire of Insomnia and the Epworth Scale. Finally, participants were consulted about Tobacco Consumption: 30% of the students consume tobacco and have a higher score in unhealthy food consumption, less frequent weekly breakfast consumption (< 0.01), lower daily fruit (< 0.01) and vegetables (< 0.05) consumption, higher alcohol consumption (< 0.05) and daily junk food consumption (< 0.05) compared to non-consuming students. Men who consume tobacco present greater insomnia (< 0.001), sleep latency (< 0.001) and daytime sleepiness (< 0.05) compared to non-consumers; and women who consume tobacco have a higher weight (< 0.001) and BMI (< 0.01). When performing logistic regression, tobacco consumption is positively associated with major alcohol consumption (< 0.001), whereas fish (< 0.05) and vegetable (< 0.05) consumption was negatively associated. In conclusion, students of both sexes who smoke have more unfavorable health factors and a poorer quality of life.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Animais , Antropometria , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene do Sono , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Universidades
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 590335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660500

RESUMO

Objectives: This paper reviews the mental health policies that have been implemented in Chile in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the international context of countries' responses. Even before the start of the pandemic, there were significant barriers to access mental health services in Chile, coupled with a scenario of nationwide social unrest and protests that questioned the legitimacy of public institutions; now the rapidly worsening outbreaks of COVID-19 are exacerbating the pre-existing mental health crisis. Methods: We conducted a bibliometric and content analysis of the Chilean mental health public policies implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic and then compared these policies with international experiences and emerging scientific evidence on the mental health impact of pandemics. Results: Our analysis of the policies identifies five crucial points of action developed in Chile: (i) an established framework to address mental health in emergency and disaster situations; (ii) a timely COVID-19 Mental Health Action Plan; (iii) inclusion of mental health in the public health agenda; (iv) development of a presidential strategy during the pandemic for comprehensive mental health and well-being; and (v) emerging research assessing the mental health implications of COVID-19. Conclusions: In Chile, the public policy responses to address the mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic has been characterized by the coordinated implementation of mental health plans, ranging from a health sectoral initiative to inter-agency and intersectoral efforts. However, it is imperative that increased funding is allocated to mental health, and efforts should be made to promote the participation of people with lived experiences and communities in the design and implementation of the proposed actions. This aspect could be of key importance to social peace and community recovery after the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1802, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, reductions in healthcare utilization are reported in different contexts. Nevertheless, studies have not explored specifically gender disparities in access to healthcare in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: To evaluate gender disparities in access to medical in Chile we conducted an interrupted time series analysis using segmented regression. The outcome variable was the number of weekly confirmed cases of a set of oncologic and cardiovascular time-sensitive conditions at a national level. The series contained data from weeks 1 to 39 for 2017 to 2020. The intervention period started at week 12. We selected this period because preventive interventions, such as school closures or teleworking, were implemented at this point. We estimated the level effect using a dummy variable indicating the intervention period and slope effect using a continuous variable from weeks 12 to 39. To test heterogeneity by gender and age group, we conducted a stratified analysis. RESULTS: We observed a sizable reduction in access to care with a slowly recovery for oncologic (level effect 0.323; 95% CI 0.291-0.359; slope effect 1.022; 95% CI 1.016-1.028) and cardiovascular diseases (level effect 0.586; 95% CI 0.564-0.609; slope effect 1.009; 95% CI 1.007-1.011). Greater reduction occurred in women compared to men, particularly marked on myocardial infarction (level effect 0.595; 95% CI 0.566-0.627 versus 0.532; 95% CI 0.502-0.564) and colorectal cancer (level effect 0.295; 95% CI 0.248-0.35 versus 0.19; 95% CI 0.159-0.228). Compared to men, a greater absolute reduction was observed in women for oncologic diseases, excluding sex-specific cancer, (1352; 95% CI 743-1961) and cardiovascular diseases (1268; 95% CI 946-1590). CONCLUSION: We confirmed a large drop in new diagnoses for time-sensitive conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. This reduction was greater for women. Our findings should alert policy-makers about the urgent need to integrate a gender perspective into the pandemic response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infarto do Miocárdio , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258288, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is highly prevalent among Chilean adolescents, and the damage it causes at the neurobiological, psychological, and social levels is known. However, there are no validated screening instruments that also assess risk and protective factors for this population in Chile, which is essential for evaluating future prevention interventions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychometric properties of the European Drug Addiction Prevention Trial Questionnaire (EU-Dap) questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 13 schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. The sample included 2261 adolescents ranging from 10 to 14 years old. Linguistic and cultural adaptation was assessed using focus groups with adolescents, the construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis, and measures of its reliability were also determined. Furthermore, the associations regarding risk and protective factors with substance use were explored. RESULTS: Substance use questions were well understood and seemed to adequately capture the consumption of different drugs. Regarding the subscales of risk and protective factors, the analyses showed that most subscales had good psychometric properties, and few needed some degree of improvement (e.g., some items were removed). After the changes, most final subscales had good or adequate goodness of fit adjustments and good or acceptable internal consistency. Finally, the main associated factors with the substance use outcomes were: future substance use and school bonding for tobacco use; negative beliefs about alcohol, future substance use, school bonding and refusal skills for alcohol use; and negative beliefs about marihuana, positive attitudes towards drugs, risk perception, and substance abuse index for marihuana use. Normative beliefs increased the risk for all substances use. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the EU-Dap is a valid and reliable instrument, and it may help to evaluate the effectiveness of drug use prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Proteção , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Cultura , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(4): 512-522, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652397

RESUMO

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a nonmotile, sporulated, aerobic or facultative anaerobic gram-negative diplococcus, catalase and oxidase positive. Sexually transmitted infections caused by this microorganism were established as public health problem since the 19th century, representing a great threat to human health due to its high prevalence and multi-resistance to antimicrobials. In recent decades, reports of strains resistant to penicillin, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracycline, macrolides, and more recently to cephalosporins and azithromycin have increased. Such a panorama has generated concern worldwide, due to the increase in cases of gonorrhea associated with multi-resistant strains. In Chile, from 2010 to 2018, the National Surveillance Program for N. gonorrhoeae was developed in order to characterize this infection in the regions and record antimicrobial resistance. This review presents an updated, systematic bibliographic analysis of the main aspects of this microorganism, its response to antimicrobials, and provides diagnostic and treatment guidelines, while waiting to advance in the understanding of the molecular mechanism and the metabolic and immunological interactions that determine infection, with a view to designing an effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gonorreia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
18.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(4): 523-531, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652398

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent bacterial sexually transmitted disease around the world. Estimated prevalence by WHO is 4,2% for women. Most cases are asymptomatic, but complications in fertility and during pregnancy are possible. The aim of this review is to describe the prevalence of C. trachomatis in Chilean studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection, to describe the possible perinatal complications, to know recommendations about pregnancy screening in other countries, and to discuss the possibility of implementing in Chile.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Chile/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Prevalência
19.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(4): 580-582, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652407

RESUMO

In the Araucanía Region there are no studies on the seroprevalence of leptospirosis in horses. Serological samples from 100 draft horses from Mapuche communities of four communes in the region were analyzed using the microMAT technique. The seroprevalence was 35% for at least one serovar of Leptospira spp. being the most frequent serovars canicola (22%), grippotyphosa (21%), hardjo (13%) and pomona (10%). It was evident that the equine populations studied are exposed to infection by Leptospira spp. and reveal a potential risk of transmission to their owners.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Chile/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682504

RESUMO

In the Metropolitana region of Chile there are 3836 backyard production systems (BPS), characterized as small-scale systems. They act as a source of zoonotic pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), whose prevalence in BPS has not been fully described. The objective of this study was to determine the positivity for both agents in BPS and to establish the risk factors related to their presence. In each BPS, an epidemiological survey was undertaken, and stool samples were collected to detect these pathogens via bacteriological culture and conventional PCR techniques. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression models were applied to establish the risk factors associated with their presence. BPS positivity rates of 11.76% for STEC and 4.7% for S. enterica were observed. The systems showed poor welfare standards and a lack of biosecurity measures. The risk factor analysis concluded that the Gini-Simpson index (p = 0.030; OR = 1.717) and the presence of neighboring intensive poultry or swine production systems (p = 0.019; OR = 20.645) act as factors that increased the risk of positivity with respect to STEC. In the case of S. enterica, exchanging embryonated eggs (p = 0.021; OR = 39) and the presence of debeaked chickens (p = 0.001; OR = 156) were determined as factors that increased the risk of positivity for this agent. For positivity with respect to both pathogens, the Gini-Simpson index (p = 0.030; OR = 1.544) and being INDAP/PRODESAL users (p = 0.023; OR = 15.026) were determined as factors that increased the risk, whereas the type of confinement (p = 0.002; OR = 0.019) decreased it. Epidemiological surveillance of these neglected populations is lacking, highlighting the fact that STEC and S. enterica maintenance on BPS represents a potential threat to public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Animais , Galinhas , Chile/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Suínos
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