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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 36-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835603

RESUMO

Consumer preference for the mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods promotes public support for the implementation of GM food policies. This study analyzes consumers' preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Survey data were collected through a self-administered survey covering 804 randomly sampled urban residents in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Using a logit model, this analysis examines the impacts of influential factors on consumers' preference for traceability. The results show that about 56.5% of the respondents have a positive preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Factors increasing the preference for traceability include a better perception of the attributes of nutrition benefit and potential health risk, perceived inadequacy of simple mandatory labels, more attention paid to food labels, and distrust in the agencies overseeing GM food safety. Enhancing consumers' perceptions of GM-related attributes and awareness of food labels will help improve the mandatory labeling management of GM foods.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Óleo de Soja , China , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 57, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives. The public health emergency management system in China has played an essential role in handling the response to the outbreak, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence, it is necessary to conduct an overall analysis of the development of the health emergency management system in China. This can provide a reference for scholars to aid in understanding the current situation and to reveal new research topics. METHODS: We collected 2247 international articles from the Web of Science database and 959 Chinese articles from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domain analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network analysis, and co-word network analysis. RESULTS: The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while the first Chinese article was published in 2005. The research institutions producing these studies mainly existed in universities and health organizations. Developed countries and European countries published the most articles overall, while eastern China published the most articles within China. There were 52 burst words for international articles published from 1999-2018 and 18 burst words for Chinese articles published from 2003-2018. International top-ranked articles according to the number of citations appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, and 2016, while the corresponding Chinese articles appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the regional and economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research is often related to timely issues mainly by focusing on emergency preparedness and monitoring of public health events, while China has focused on public health emergencies and their disposition. International research began on terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics, and infectious diseases. China considered severe acute respiratory syndrome as the starting research background and the legal system construction as the research starting point, which was followed by the mechanism, structure, system, and training abroad for public health emergency management.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Internacionalidade
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2854186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015160

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the role of short-term low-dose glucocorticoids in mild COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional, single-center study in Kunming, China. A total of 33 mild COVID-19 cases were divided into two treatment groups (with and without glucocorticoids, methylprednisolone, were used in this setting), and the absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocyte count; CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell counts; and the time to achieve negative transformation of a nucleic acid pharyngeal swab were recorded. Peripheral blood lymphocyte and T cell counts were compared between the treatment group and 25 healthy individuals. At the point of time when there was a 50% accumulation conversion rate (positive to negative nucleic acid on pharyngeal swab), and the nucleic acid turned negative in half of the patients in two groups, the peripheral blood lymphocyte and T cell counts were compared between treatment groups. Results: The mean cumulative time for the 50% negative conversion rate of the nucleic acid in the pharyngeal swab was 17.7 ± 5.1 days and 13.9 ± 5.4 days in the glucocorticoid group and the nonglucocorticoid group, respectively. The absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte count and the T cell subset count in the glucocorticoid group were lower than those in the nonglucocorticoid group. When the nucleic acid turned negative in half of the patients, the absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocyte count and CD4+ T cells of the glucocorticoid group and the nonglucocorticoid group was not significantly different; the CD3+ and CD8+ T cells in the glucocorticoid group were lower than those in the nonglucocorticoid group. The absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte count, CD3+ T cells, and CD4+ T cells in the glucocorticoid group were lower than those of the healthy group during the whole disease period, and CD8+ T cells returned to normal at 19-21 days of the disease period. There was no significant difference between the nonglucocorticoid group and the healthy group for absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte and CD8+ T cells; moreover, CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells were lower in the nonglucocorticoid group than those in the healthy group from the day of admission to the 18th day and returned to normal at the period of 19-21 days. The absolute peripheral lymphocyte count (P = 0.048, effect size d = 0.727) and T cell subset count (CD3: P = 0.042, effect size d = 0.655; CD4: P < 0.01, effect size d = 0.599; and CD8: P = 0.034, effect size d = 0.550) in the nonglucocorticoid group were higher than those in the glucocorticoid group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusions: This study found that the use of short-term, low-dose glucocorticoids does not negatively influence the clinical outcome, without affecting the final clearance of viral nucleic acid in mild COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 676, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025262

RESUMO

Long-term aerosol optical thickness (AOT) composited data (2002-2017) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft was used to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of aerosol in Xiamen city by using wavelet analysis, and the relationship between the surface mass concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and the AOT was analyzed by using linear regression. The results showed that AOT increased gradually from 2002 to 2011, and then decreased. AOT displayed a significant 9-month periodicity in AOT was inferred wavelet analysis. AOT also showed significant annual variability in response to changes in weather and aerosol pollution. We observed highest AOT values in April, with a monthly mean of 1.00 ± 0.18. Lowest values were observed in December, with a mean AOT of 0.52 ± 0.11. Multi-year monthly AOT fluctuations were lowest in January with a low variation coefficient (0.14), and the largest fluctuations appeared in July with a high variation coefficient (0.29). Higher AOT values (~ 1.1) were predominantly located in the southern urban areas of Xiamen and lower AOT values (~ 0.3) were mainly located in northern rural regions. The aerosol pollution was serious in April with the smallest spatial variation coefficient of 0.25, and the highest spatial variation coefficient appeared in July. Highest intraannual variability predominantly occurred in the high-value areas in the center of Xiamen. AOT values remained high in Xiamen Island throughout the year with a multi-year mean of 0.87. There was a moderate correlation between ground-based PM2.5 and MODIS AOT. Therefore, we confirm the suitability of MODIS AOT to accurately estimate PM2.5 concentration and evaluate the temporal and spatial characteristics of air quality in Xiamen.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , China , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998292

RESUMO

This study applied a qualitative approach to investigate the underlying influences on consumers' green food consumption from the intention generation phase to intention execution phase in the perspectives of purchase intention and the intention-behaviour gap (IBG). Additionally, the impact of the "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) pandemic on consumers' green food purchases was explored. Research data were derived from semi-structured in-depth interviews with 28 consumers and analyzed using grounded theory. The findings identified factors that influenced intentions and the IBG in the process of consumers' green food purchases. Specifically, these findings reported that health consciousness, perceived attributes, environmental consciousness, social influence, family structure, and enjoyable shopping experiences were identified as major drivers for generating consumers' green food purchase intentions. High prices of green food, unavailability issues, mistrust issues, and limited knowledge were factors triggering the gap between green food purchase intentions and behaviours. In addition, the results revealed that the COVID-19 crisis increased consumers' green food purchase intentions, whereas the IBG widens as a result of issues of unavailability, price, and panic. These findings will help stakeholders build future policy and suitable strategies to better promote green food consumption in the Chinese context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Intenção , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Verduras/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 665, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001326

RESUMO

With economic development and the acceleration of urbanization, China's energy demand has gradually increased and brought a lot of energy-related CO2 emissions. Energy-related CO2 emissions are affected by a variety of factors. Quantifying the correlation between energy-related CO2 and driving factors and constructing the driving factor system are conducive to predict the future energy-related CO2 emissions and analyze the impact of driving factors. In this paper, the improved grey relational analysis (IGRA) was proposed to screen the influencing factors of energy-related CO2 emissions considering the sample difference, and the factor analysis (FA) was used to reduce dimensionality of the influencing factors. Then, a carbon dioxide emission forecasting model based on the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFO) and the least square support vector machine (LSSVM) was proposed. Empirical analysis results of Hebei show that the LSSVM optimized BFO significantly improves the accuracy of energy-related CO2 emissions forecasting, and IGRA-FA-BFOLSSVM model is significantly better than BP, PSOBP, SVM, and LSSVM models. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the proposed model is 0.374%. The forecasting results of the supplementary case show that the model has better generalization ability. In addition, education and technological progress have proven to be important drivers of energy-related CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, the research results can also offer more breakthrough points for policy makers to control carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise Fatorial
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007985

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. The rapid transmission rate of the virus, as well as the lack of effective medications and vaccines, has posed serious challenges to controlling the spread of the disease. Dealing with this public health crisis has required major changes in people's behavior, including the adoption of social distancing measures such as avoiding meeting with family members and friends, crowded places, and public transportation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the adoption of these behaviors in China and Israel. We relied on the 3Cs model that has been used to predict the adoption of a specific preventive behavior (vaccinations) with the goal of testing its applicability to other preventive behaviors such as in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The model indicates that confidence in social institutions, complacency (fear of and assessments about the risk of becoming ill) and constraints (levels of self-efficacy and confidence in being able to engage in the behaviors) are predictors of adopting preventive behaviors. Data were collected in China and Israel through an online survey of the population (n = 1406). We used latent variables and structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses derived from the 3Cs model. The findings indicate that there are some differences in the types of preventive behaviors adopted in the two countries. In Israel, higher levels of confidence predicted the adoption of avoidant behaviors and more constraints predicted engaging in fewer avoidant behaviors. In China, more constraints also contributed to the adoption of fewer avoidant behaviors, but people's level of confidence fully mediated this result. The multi-group analysis indicated that the conceptualized model fits the Chinese and Israeli data reasonably well. The findings suggest that the 3Cs model can be generalized from getting vaccinated to adopting avoidant behaviors and that the model can be used across cultures and countries.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Israel , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007008

RESUMO

Given the global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), strict discharge standard is of great significance for the prevention and control of the epidemic, thus, the purpose of this study is to formulate more strict and scientific discharge standards. A total of 845 patients with mild and general COVID-19 who were considered to be discharged from hospital were included in this study. The median time from the onset of COVID-19 to the occurrence of two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests of these patients was 21 days. 223 of the 845 patients were tested again after two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests and 17.49% of the patients were positive. Moreover, 82.51% (184 of 223) of these patients experienced negative results from three consecutive nucleic acid tests, the median time from the onset of COVID-19 to the occurrence of three consecutive negative nucleic acid tests was 23 days (range: 3-56 days), and 38 of which were further tested after three consecutive negative nucleic acid tests, while about 5.26% (2 of 38) patients showed positive nucleic acid test results. Thus, we suggested that the patient should be negative for at least 3 consecutive nucleic acid tests before discharge, and the test time should be no earlier than the 23rd day since the onset of the disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 803-808, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental contamination degree of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, to offer gui-dance for the infection control and to improve safety practices for medical staff, by sampling and detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from the air of hospital wards, the high-frequency contact surfaces in the contaminated area and the surfaces of medical staff's protective equipment in a COVID-19 designated hospital in Wuhan, China. METHODS: From March 11 to March 19, 2020, we collected air samples from the clean area, the buffer room and the contaminated area respectively in the COVID-19 wards using a portable bioaerosol concentrator WA-15. And sterile premoistened swabs were used to sample the high-frequency contacted surfaces in the contaminated area and the surfaces of medical staff's protective equipment including outermost gloves, tracheotomy operator's positive pressure respiratory protective hood and isolation clothing. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid of the samples were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. During the isolation medical observation period, those medical staff who worked in the COVID-19 wards were detected for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid with oropharyngeal swabs, IgM and IgG antibody in the sera, and chest CT scans to confirm the infection status of COVID-19. RESULTS: No SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in the tested samples, including the 90 air samples from the COVID-19 wards including clean area, buffer room and contaminated area, the 38 high-frequency contact surfaces samples of the contaminated area and 16 surface samples of medical staff's protective equipment including outermost gloves and isolation clothing. Moreover, detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by oropharyngeal swabs and IgM, IgG antibodies in the sera of all the health-care workers who participated in the treatment for COVID-19 were all negative. Besides, no chest CT scan images of medical staff exhibited COVID-19 lung presentations. CONCLUSION: Good ventilation conditions, strict disinfection of environmental facilities in hospital wards, guidance for correct habits in patients, and strict hand hygiene during medical staff are important to reduce the formation of viral aerosols, cut down the aerosol load, and avoid cross-infection in isolation wards. In the face of infectious diseases that were not fully mastered but ma-naged as class A, it is safe for medical personnel to be equipped at a high level.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , Equipamentos de Proteção , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle
11.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 881-885, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviors of teachers and students in a medical college in Beijing and their influencine factors, and to provide evidence for nutrition education and promotion. METHODS: The subjects of this study were teachers, as well as first-year and second-year graduate students, and first-year to third-year undergraduate students. The teachers and students were respectively sampled by stratified cluster sampling with equal proportion. t-test or ANOVA was used to compare the means between the groups, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) score. RESULTS: The average score of nutrition knowledge was 5.7±1.5. The knowledge rate of nutrition was 57.3%. The average score of nutritional attitudes was 8.3±3.0. The mean nutritional behavior score was 5.1±2.0. The average nutritional KAP score was 19.1±4.6, with the teachers 19.9±5.2 higher than the students 18.9±4.5; the female 19.5±4.5 higher than the male 18.4±4.5; All the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The scores of nutritional attitudes, nutritional behavior and total KAP scores of doctoral students were significantly higher than those of the undergraduate and postgraduate students (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The nutrition attitudes of teachers and students is relatively correct, the nutrition knowledge needs to be further strengthened, and there are some unreasonable aspects in the nutrition behaviors. Gender, identity and degree are the main influencing factors of the nutrition score of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. It is necessary to carry out nutritional education in schools to improve the nutrition knowledge of teachers and students, correct bad eating habits, and promote the construction of healthy China action.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1322-1333, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016441

RESUMO

Antibiotics and estrogens are recognized as emerging contaminants in the water environment because of their potentially adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. The concentrations of four steroid estrogens (17α-estradiol, 17ß-estradiol, estrone, and estriol) and eight antibiotics (norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, metronidazole, sulfapyridine, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole) in the Chaohu Lake basin in Anhui province, China, were analyzed along with adjacent wastewater. The levels of the target antibiotics and estrogens were below detection limits (not detected [nd])-89.86 and nd-118.09 ng L-1 , respectively, in the lake water. All of the target antibiotics and estrogens were detected in sediment, and the concentrations ranged widely (nd-35,544 and nd-16,344 ng kg-1 , respectively). Antibiotics and estrogens varied spatially in the study area and mostly came from untreated wastewater. Antibiotics and estrogens were associated with water parameters such as pH and total nitrogen. A significant positive correlation was observed between estriol and levofloxacin concentrations (r = .65; p < .01), indicating that levofloxacin from the same source might have inhibited the microbiological degradation of estriol in the surface water. Overall, the estrogens pose a more severe risk than antibiotics to the Chaohu Lake system. However, co-occurrence of antibiotics may affect the fate of estrogens in the same lake media. More attention should be given to estrogens than to antibiotics in wastewater-affected lake systems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Lagos/análise
13.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 452, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of cases of pneumonia caused by novel ß-coronavirus emerged in Hubei Province, China, at the end of 2019 and demonstrated great potential for transmission. At present, known independent risk factors include age, diabetes, and other chronic diseases, which may be similar to the patients with chronic wound; thus, we try to explore the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and management recommendation of patients with chronic infective wounds during the COVID-19 epidemic period. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective observational study, we included all cases with chronic infective wounds that came to our hospital between the full outbreak of the COVID-19 in China (January 23, 2020) and the latest date prior to posting (20 April 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, consultation history, and clinical outcomes (lesion cured, uncontrolled, amputated, etc. as of May 10, 2020) were collected for all individuals. Patients were subdivided into gangrene, traumatic infection, and other types of soft tissue infection wound (including bedsores, gout ruptures, stab wounds, and so on) according to the causes of wound, and their disease-related information were compared group by group. RESULTS: Among the total 81 patients with chronic infective wounds, 60% were male, with a mean age of 60.8 years (SD 18.6), including 38 (47%) patients with traumatic infection, 29 (36%) gangrene cases, and 14 (17%) other soft tissue infection wounds. Common comorbidities are hypertension (32%), diabetes (32%), cardiovascular disease (24%), and kidney injury (12%), and the patients with gangrenes have the most comorbidities. As of May 10, 2020, there were 78 patients discharged, and their average stay time is 15.8 days (SD 14.2), while people still at the hospital is 39.7 days (SD 8.7) much longer than the discharged and also has more comorbidities. But there is no significant difference in the hospitalization time of three types of wounds. And fortunately, none of all the patients were infected by coronavirus. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with chronic wounds are severely ill with high risk of infection and poor prognosis; therefore, management of patients with chronic wounds should be improved.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023103

RESUMO

Health rumors often mislead people and cause adverse health behaviors. Especially during a public health emergency, health rumors may result in severe consequences for people's health and risk governance. Insight into how these rumors form and harm people's health behavior is critical for assisting people in establishing scientific health cognition and to enhance public health emergency responses. Using the case study with interview data of a salient purchase craze led by a health rumor during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, this article aimed to illustrate the process of how a piece of information becomes a health rumor. Furthermore, we identify factors that cause people to believe rumors and conduct behavior that leads to a purchase craze. Results show that a public misunderstanding of the unique psychology of uncertainty, cultural and social cognition, and conformity behavior jointly informs people's beliefs in rumors and further causes purchase craze behavior. We developed a simplified model to demonstrate how an ordinary news report can lead to a rumor. Based on this model, some implications of effective health communication are suggested for managing rumors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16384, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009426

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak is becoming a public health emergency. Data are limited on the clinical characteristics and causes of death. A retrospective analysis of COVID-19 deaths were performed for patients' clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and causes of death. In total, 56 patients (72.7%) of the decedents (male-female ratio 51:26, mean age 71 ± 13, mean survival time 17.4 ± 8.4 days) had comorbidities. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) and sepsis were the main causes of death. Increases in C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and lactic acid and decreases in lymphocytes were common laboratory results. Intergroup analysis showed that (1) most female decedents had cough and diabetes. (2) The proportion of young- and middle-aged deaths was higher than elderly deaths for males, while elderly decedents were more prone to myocardial injury and elevated CRP. (3) CRP and LDH increased and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ and CD8+ cells decreased significantly in patients with hypertension. The majority of COVID-19 decedents are male, especially elderly people with comorbidities. The main causes of death are ARF and sepsis. Most female decedents have cough and diabetes. Myocardial injury is common in elderly decedents. Patients with hypertension are prone to an increased inflammatory index, tissue hypoxia and cellular immune injury.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Sepse/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Causas de Morte , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Sepse/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/etiologia
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 632-637, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012863

RESUMO

Problem: On 21 January 2020, the city of Taizhou, China, reported its first imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case and subsequently the number of cases rapidly increased. Approach: To organize the emergency responses, the government of Taizhou established on 23 January 2020 novel headquarters for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak, by coordinating different governmental agencies. People at high risk of acquiring COVID-19, as well as probable and confirmed cases, were identified and quarantined. The government closed public venues and limited gatherings. The Taizhou Health Commission shared information about identified COVID-19 patients and probable cases with affected agencies. To timely track and manage close contacts of confirmed cases, Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention did epidemiological investigations. Medical institutions or local centers for disease control and prevention reported confirmed cases to the national Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Local setting: Taizhou, a city in Zhejiang province with about 6 million residents, reported 18 confirmed COVID-2019 cases by 23 January 2020, which ranked it third globally in number of cases after Wuhan and Xiaogan cities in the Hubei province. Relevant changes: In total, 146 confirmed cases (85 cases imported and 61 cases through community transmission) and no deaths due to COVID-19 had been reported in Taizhou by 1 June 2020. Between 16 February and 1 June 2020, no confirmed case had been reported. Lesson learnt: Identifying and managing imported cases and people at risk for infection, timely information sharing, limiting gatherings and ensuring collaborations between different agencies were important in controlling COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017421

RESUMO

The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan has significantly impacted the economy and society globally. Countries are in a strict state of prevention and control of this pandemic. In this study, the development trend analysis of the cumulative confirmed cases, cumulative deaths, and cumulative cured cases was conducted based on data from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China from January 23, 2020 to April 6, 2020 using an Elman neural network, long short-term memory (LSTM), and support vector machine (SVM). A SVM with fuzzy granulation was used to predict the growth range of confirmed new cases, new deaths, and new cured cases. The experimental results showed that the Elman neural network and SVM used in this study can predict the development trend of cumulative confirmed cases, deaths, and cured cases, whereas LSTM is more suitable for the prediction of the cumulative confirmed cases. The SVM with fuzzy granulation can successfully predict the growth range of confirmed new cases and new cured cases, although the average predicted values are slightly large. Currently, the United States is the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also used data modeling from the United States to further verify the validity of the proposed models.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , China/epidemiologia , Previsões , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(40)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034281

RESUMO

BackgroundThe natural history of disease in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained obscure during the early pandemic.AimOur objective was to estimate epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and assess the relative infectivity of the incubation period.MethodsWe estimated the distributions of four epidemiological parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a large database of COVID-19 cases and potential transmission pairs of cases, and assessed their heterogeneity by demographics, epidemic phase and geographical region. We further calculated the time of peak infectivity and quantified the proportion of secondary infections during the incubation period.ResultsThe median incubation period was 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9‒7.5) days. The median serial and generation intervals were similar, 4.7 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.3) and 4.6 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.1) days, respectively. Paediatric cases < 18 years had a longer incubation period than adult age groups (p = 0.007). The median incubation period increased from 4.4 days before 25 January to 11.5 days after 31 January (p < 0.001), whereas the median serial (generation) interval contracted from 5.9 (4.8) days before 25 January to 3.4 (3.7) days after. The median time from symptom onset to discharge was also shortened from 18.3 before 22 January to 14.1 days after. Peak infectivity occurred 1 day before symptom onset on average, and the incubation period accounted for 70% of transmission.ConclusionThe high infectivity during the incubation period led to short generation and serial intervals, necessitating aggressive control measures such as early case finding and quarantine of close contacts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 704-709, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045779

RESUMO

The achievements and breakthroughs in scientific field have provided scientific evidence for the relationship amongst diet, nutrition and chronic diseases, including oral diseases. Thus many international organizations and the governments of most countries were pushed to pay their attention to the prevention of chronic diseases by dietary patterns. From 1989 to 2018, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization organized expert consultations for many times to issue a series of global strategies and action plans on diet and health. The governments of China, Japan and US had produced the Dietary Guidelines for Residents. The results showed that the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases had been decreased by following the dietary guidance. However, the scientific achievements did not seem to produce tremendous enhancement in public health for various reasons. In the present article, the authors analyses the relationship between contemporary dietary patterns and oral health, and make suggestions on preventing and controlling oral diseases via dietary patterns for policy makers and dental professionals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Política Nutricional , China , Japão , Saúde Pública
20.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 722-728, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045782

RESUMO

Concerning the complexities of many difficult oral diseases, how to make comprehensive diagnosis and carry out optimal treatment with high quality for an oral disease has always been the focus of clinical work. Oral multidisciplinary team (OMDT) provides new therapeutic approach for the complicated oral diseases. It is an effective supplement to the traditional specialty-oriented dental treatment mode and becomes the developmental trend of stomatology. Many difficult cases were reported to achieve good results by using multidisciplinary approach in recent years, but the complete concept system and the operation mode of OMDT have not been formed yet. On the basis of previous studies and years of clinical exploration, the author puts forward the concept of OMDT in both narrow sense and broad sense. The OMDT system was elaborately constructed and implemented from the aspects of objectives, essential requirements, organizational structure, operation mode, management framework, system guarantee, quality control and effect evaluation. To build a standardized and mature OMDT system will promote the overall level of stomatology in China.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca , Medicina Bucal , China , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
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