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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Fezes , Genótipo
3.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

RESUMO

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Assuntos
Jejum , Adulto , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tadalafila/efeitos adversos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 424, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "4 + 7" volume-based procurement is a "large group purchase" led by the Chinese government, with the aim of reducing the price of medicines by trading volume for price. Although the "4 + 7" drugs had passed the national consistency evaluation, the adverse drug reactions need to be further evaluated to ensure the safety of the "4 + 7" drugs with low prices. We aimed to analyze the occurrence characteristics and related influencing factors of adverse reactions of psychiatric drugs under the chinese drug volume-based procurement policy(4 + 7 policy), and provide references for clinical medication. METHODS: 137 cases of adverse drug reactions of four psychotropic drugs reported under the "4 + 7" policy in Wuxi Mental Health Center in 2020 were collected. The gender and age of patients, related "4 + 7" drugs, involving organs / systems, clinical manifestations, distribution of new / serious adverse reactions, clinic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 137 cases of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was the highest in patients aged 61-70 (25.38%). Mainly involved 4 "4 + 7" psychiatric drugs, of which olanzapine tablets caused the most adverse reactions (54, 39.24%). The adverse reactions mainly involved the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic system, among which the digestive system was the most common (61, 44.53%). A total of 8 cases (6.16%) of new and 26 cases of serious adverse reactions were reported, all of which led to the prolongation of disease course. Except for the transient side effects, most of that were improved or cured with no death, disability or teratogenicity after stopping or reducing the dose with symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: Since more and more drugs will be included in "4 + 7" for clinic, clinical pharmacists should strengthen the publicity and training of the knowledge of "4 + 7" drugs, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, and provide timely feedback to the clinic, in order to achieve early prevention, early identification, timely diagnosis and reasonable intervention of the adverse drug reactions under the context of "4 + 7" policy.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Política Pública
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(4): 1017-1024, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Variants in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are recognized as a common and important genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD). However, the impact of variant severity on the clinical phenotype of PD in the Chinese population remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the frequency of GBA-related PD (GBA-PD) and the relationship of GBA variant severity with clinical characteristics in a large Chinese cohort. METHODS: Long-range polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing were performed for the entire GBA gene. GBA variant severity was classified into five classes: mild, severe, risk, complex, and unknown. RESULTS: Among the total 737 PD patients, 47 GBA variants were detected in 79 (10.72%) patients, and the most common GBA variants were R163Q, L444P, and R120W. Complete demographic and clinical data were obtained for 673 patients, which revealed that 18.50% of early onset PD patients had GBA variants. Compared with patients without GBA variants, GBA-PD patients experienced PD onset an average of 4 years earlier and had more severe motor and nonmotor symptoms. Patients carrying severe and complex variants had a higher burden of nonmotor symptoms, especially depression, and more mood/cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms than patients carrying mild variants. CONCLUSIONS: GBA-PD is highly prevalent in the Chinese population. The severity of GBA variants underlies distinct phenotypic spectrums, with PD patients carrying severe and complex variants seeming to have similar phenotypes. PD patient stratification by GBA variant severity should become a prerequisite for selecting specific treatments.


Assuntos
Glucosilceramidase , Doença de Parkinson , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Prevalência
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682465

RESUMO

The environmental pollution that accompanies economic growth has always been of widespread concern. The chemical industry is a highly energy-consuming industry in China, and the pollution this industry causes to the environment cannot be ignored. The paper is based on the Porter hypothesis and uses data from different regions of China. In this paper, we investigate the mediating role of different types of environmental regulation (divided into command-controlled, market-incentive, and voluntary environmental regulation) in positively affecting sustainability performance through green technology innovation (divided into green product innovation, green process innovation, and end-of-line management innovation). The results show that different versions of the Porter hypothesis can be accepted in Chinese chemical enterprises. This finding demonstrates that environmental regulation positively impacts both green technology innovation and sustainability performance. Green technology innovation plays a mediating role between environmental regulation and sustainability performance, especially in East China. However, the mediating effect of green product innovation is not significant. Further study shows that command-controlled environmental regulation has a more significant positive effect on sustainability performance. This suggests that the market-incentive and voluntary environmental regulation tools do not fully play their functional roles. Thus, the paper demonstrates the developmental shortcomings of environmental regulation, green technology innovation, and sustainability performance. This is more conducive to chemical enterprises improving green technology innovation and achieving long-term development and ecological environment protection.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Invenções , China , Poluição Ambiental , Indústrias , Organizações
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682474

RESUMO

Travel costs are critical to the sustainable development of cities. This paper used Urban Household Survey (UHS) data from 2002 to 2014 and constructed a comprehensive city-size index from the perspectives of population and urban space to empirically test the impact of city size on the cost of household travel. The main results are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between city size and the cost of household travel. The internal mechanism is that city size affects the cost of household travel by increasing spatial distance and traffic congestion. (2) Increasing public transportation and per capita road area can restrain the positive impact of city size on the cost of household travel; moreover, the restraining effect of public transportation is stronger than that of per capita road area. (3) The impact of city size on the cost of household travel for sub-provincial cities is smaller than that for ordinary prefecture-level cities; in addition, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between city size and the cost of household travel. This paper deepens the understanding of the impact of city size on travel costs, providing research support for the healthy development of cities in China.


Assuntos
Transportes , Viagem , China , Cidades
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682478

RESUMO

Accessibility to healthcare services is crucial for residents' wellbeing. Numerous studies have revealed significant spatial inequality in healthcare accessibility across various contexts. However, it still remains unclear whether the inequality is caused by the unbalanced spatial distribution of healthcare facilities or by unequal transport access to them. This study decomposes inequality in healthcare accessibility into facility- and transport-driven inequality by comparing scenarios of healthcare accessibility, which consider various combinations of multidimensional components of accessibility using different distance measures. Using a case study in Shenzhen, this study reveals that both facility distribution and transport access substantially contribute to spatial inequality in healthcare accessibility. Facility distribution accounts for 61.3% and 50.8% of the overall accessibility inequality for driving and transit modes, respectively. The remaining inequality is induced by imbalanced mobility provided by transport networks. Furthermore, the impact of transport component on healthcare accessibility is unevenly distributed. This study highlights that both facility- and transport-related countermeasures should be considered to improve the accessibility and equality of healthcare services. It provides transferable methods for quantitatively decomposing facility- and transport-driven inequality in accessibility to healthcare or other facilities.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , China , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682485

RESUMO

AIM: To explore associations between sleep duration and physical fitness (PF) of children aged 3-6 years. METHODS: This study investigated the sleep duration and PF data of children aged 3-6 years by stratified random sampling. The restricted cubic spline model and binary logistic regression analysis were mainly used for the empirical analysis of the correlation effect between sleep duration and PF. The final data had a total of 21,857 children, of which 11,245 (51.45%) were boys and 10,612 (48.55%) were girls. RESULTS: The PF level of the children in this study showed a relatively positive level (pass rate = 93.6%), and 19.7% of them had abnormal sleep duration; the results of the restricted cubic spline showed an inverted U-shaped association between the level of PF and the risk of abnormal sleep duration (X2 = 28.13, p < 0.0001). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that children with abnormal sleep duration were more likely to have a low PF, body morphology and motor ability levels at an OR (95% CI) of 1.077 (1.023-1.133), 1.077 (1.016-1.142) and 1.035 (1.08-1.062), respectively. The results of the bias correlation analysis showed varying degrees of correlation between sleep duration and various components of children's PF. CONCLUSION: Insufficient or excessive amounts of sleep were significantly associated with PF in children, with abnormal sleep duration leading to reduced levels of PF and its components.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Sono , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682487

RESUMO

Exposure to indoor air pollution from cooking with solid fuel has been linked with the health of elderly people, although the pathway to their association is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mediating effects between solid fuel use and self-rated health by using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the baseline data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 7831 elderly people aged >65 years from the CLHLS. SEM was used to analyze the pathways underlying solid fuel use and self-rated health. We estimated indirect effects of sleep quality (ß = -0.027, SE = 0.006), cognitive abilities (ß = -0.006, SE = 0.002), depressive symptoms (ß = -0.066, SE = 0.007), systolic blood pressure (ß = 0.000, SE = 0.000), and BMI (ß = -0.000, SE = 0.000) on the association between solid fuel and the self-rated health using path analysis. Depressive symptoms emerged as the strongest mediator in the relationship between solid fuel use and self-rated health in the elderly. Interventions targeting sleep quality, cognitive abilities, depressive symptoms, systolic blood pressure, and BMI could greatly reduce the negative effects of solid fuel use on the health of the elderly population.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Análise de Mediação , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China/epidemiologia , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682496

RESUMO

Global climate change has aggravated the hydrological cycle by changing both the amount and distribution of precipitation, and this is especially notable in the semiarid Loess Plateau. How these precipitation variations have affected soil carbon (C) emission by the agroecosystems is still unclear. Here, to evaluate the effects of precipitation variation on soil respiration (Rs), a field experiment (from 2019 to 2020) was conducted with 3 levels of manipulation, including ambient precipitation (CK), 30% decreased precipitation (P-30), and 30% increased precipitation (P+30) in rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) agroecosystems on the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed that the average Rs in P-30 treatment was significantly higher than those in the CK and P+30 treatments (p < 0.05), and the cumulative CO2 emissions were 406.37, 372.58 and 383.59 g C m-2, respectively. Seasonal responses of Rs to the soil volumetric moisture content (VWC) were affected by the different precipitation treatments. Rs was quadratically correlated with the VWC in the CK and P+30 treatments, and the threshold of the optimal VWC for Rs was approximately 16.06-17.07%. However, Rs was a piecewise linear function of the VWC in the P-30 treatment. The synergism of soil temperature (Ts) and VWC can better explain the variation in soil respiration in the CK and P-30 treatments. However, an increase in precipitation led to the decoupling of the Rs responses to Ts. The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) varied with precipitation variation. Q10 was positive correlated with seasonal Ts in the CK and P+30 treatments, but exhibited a negative polynomial correlation with seasonal Ts in the P-30 treatment. Rs also exhibited diurnal clockwise hysteresis loops with Ts in the three precipitation treatments, and the seasonal dynamics of the diurnal lag time were significantly negatively correlated with the VWC. Our study highlighted that understanding the synergistic and decoupled responses of Rs and Q10 to Ts and VWC and the threshold of the change in response to the VWC under precipitation variation scenarios can benefit the prediction of future C balances in agroecosystems in semiarid regions under climate change.


Assuntos
Solo , Triticum , China , Chuva , Respiração , Estações do Ano
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682498

RESUMO

Mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) have been developed in hospital settings to allocate and manage medical care services, which is one of the national strategies to improve health care in China. Little is known about the comprehensive effects of hospital-based mHealth app use on client satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the full range of mHealth app use and satisfaction domains among clients attending outpatient clinics. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to February 2021 in twelve tertiary hospitals in Inner Mongolia. After the construction of the mHealth app use, structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Of 1889 participants, the standardized coefficients ß on environment/convenience, health information, and medical service fees were 0.11 (p < 0.001), 0.06 (p = 0.039), and 0.08 (p = 0.004), respectively. However, app use was not significantly associated with satisfaction of doctor-patient communication (ß = 0.05, p = 0.069), short-term outcomes (ß = 0.05, p = 0.054), and general satisfaction (ß = 0.02, p = 0.429). Clients of the study hospitals were satisfied with the services, but their satisfaction was not much associated with mHealth use. The limitation of the mHealth system should be improved to enhance communication and engagement among clients, doctors, and healthcare givers, as well as to pay more attention to health outcomes and satisfaction of clients.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Satisfação Pessoal
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682511

RESUMO

The dual problems of the public crisis from the global epidemic and the deterioration of the ecological environment constrain the economic development in the Yellow River Basin. To promote the sustainable and balanced development in the Yellow River Basin, this paper takes public health, ecological environment, and economic development, as a whole, to study the coordinated development of the Yellow River Basin. Based on coupling coordinated theory, we use the SMI-P method to evaluate the coordinated development index of public health, the ecological environment, and economic development in the Yellow River Basin. Moreover, we use the coordinated regulation and obstacle factor diagnosis to identify the main influencing factors and design regulation methods to optimize the coordinated development index. The results found that (1), during the research period, there is spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the coordinated development level in the Yellow River Basin. From 2009 to 2019, the overall development index increased steadily, while the regional disparity in the coordinated development level was obvious. (2) The ecological environment indicators contribute more to the relevance and obstacle factors, such as the average concentration of fine particulate matter, per capita arable land area, afforestation area, etc. (3) After regulating the overall development level of the Yellow River Basin, we prove that Path 4, which comprehensively considers the relevance and obstacle factors, performs better.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Rios , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682527

RESUMO

Conversion of farmlands to forests and grasslands (CFFG) is one of the major ecological projects with the largest investment, strongest policy, widest coverage and highest degree of participation in China, and even in the world. In order to scientifically evaluate the benefits and dynamic changes, better serve the decision-making, consolidate the achievements and promote the high-quality development of this project, it is of great significance to organize the monitoring and evaluation of its benefits. On the basis of reviewing and summarizing the monitoring and evaluation history of the benefits, this study established an indicator system for comprehensive monitoring and evaluation, composed of three components of benefits, 10 categories and 48 indicators, including 23 indicators of ecological benefits, 11 indicators of economic benefits and 14 indicators of social benefits. These methods of monitoring and evaluation are applied to the systematic and full coverage monitoring and evaluation of the national project of CFFG for the first time. There are four aspects of the innovation of this research: First, it is the first time that a comprehensive ecological, economic and social benefit evaluation indicator system has been established. Second, it is the first time that quantitative evaluation methods have been established. Third, it is the first comprehensive quantitative assessment of the CFFG project. Fourth, this is a full-scale evaluation of the project for the first time. The evaluation results show that the total value of the three benefits from the CFFG project is 2405.046 billion Yuan (354.4129 billion US$)·y-1, of which the ecological benefit is 1416.864 billion Yuan (208.7922 billion US$)·y-1, the economic benefit is 255.486 billion Yuan (37.649 billion US$)·y-1 and the social benefit is 732.696 billion Yuan (107.9717 billion US$)·y-1, accounting for 58.92%, 10.62% and 30.46%, respectively, of the total benefits. Our results provide detailed evaluation of the achievement and benefits of the CFFG project.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pradaria , China , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Investimentos em Saúde
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682532

RESUMO

Air samples were collected by flasks and analyzed via a Picarro G2401 gas analyzer for carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) at the Akedala Atmospheric Background Station in Xinjiang, China, from September 2009 to December 2019, to analyze the changes in the characteristics of atmospheric CO2 and CO and determine the sources. The results show that the annual average CO2 concentration showed an increasing trend (growth rate: 1.90 ppm year-1), ranging from 389.80 to 410.43 ppm, and the annual average CO concentration also showed an increasing trend (growth rate: 1.78 ppb year-1), ranging from 136.30 to 189.82 ppb. The CO2 concentration and growth rate were the highest in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. The CO concentration and growth rate were also the highest in winter due to anthropogenic emissions, ecosystem effects, and diffusion conditions. The main trajectories of CO2 and CO determined by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model were parallel to the Irtysh River valley and then passed through the Old Wind Pass. Furthermore, the main source regions of CO2 and CO at the Akedala Station were eastern Kazakhstan, southern Russia, western Mongolia, and the Xinjiang Tianshan North Slope Economic Zone of China. This study reflects the characteristics of long-term changes in CO2 and CO concentrations at the Akedala station and provides fundamental data for the studies on environmental changes and climate change in Central Asia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Dióxido de Carbono , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estações do Ano
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682534

RESUMO

Eco-efficiency analysis can provide useful information about sustainability in the tourism industry, which has an important role in both global economy recovery and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), generating considerable indirect carbon emissions with respect to the supply chain due to its significant connections to other industries. This study, from the perspective of tourism sectors, including tourism hotels, travel agencies, and scenic spots, integrated the environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIO) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to develop a research framework, analyzing the indirect carbon emissions of the tourism supply chain, evaluating eco-efficiency with respect to both direct carbon emissions and total carbon emissions (including direct and indirect parts), and exploring the driving factors of eco-efficiency of tourism sectors using Tobit regression models. This study took Gansu as a case, a province in China characterized by higher carbon intensity, an underdeveloped economy, and rapid tourism growth. The results demonstrate that (1) tourism hotels contribute the most carbon emissions in tourism sectors, especially indirectly due to the supply chain, with carbon emissions mainly resulting from the manufacturing of food and tobacco; (2) the eco-efficiency of tourism sectors in Gansu presents a U-shaped curve, which is consistent with Kuznets' theory; and (3) energy technology is key to improving the eco-efficiency of tourism sectors. The research results provide a clear path for the reduction of carbon emissions and the improvement of eco-efficiency in Gansu tourism sectors. Against the backdrop of global climate change and the post-COVID-19 era, our research framework and findings provide a reference for similar regions and countries who are in urgent need of rapid tourism development to effect economic recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eficiência , Humanos , Indústrias , Turismo
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 220, 2022 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consequence of the Great Ethiopian Famine (1983-1985) on mortality had been well documented. However, the long term assaults of the famine on adulthood health, particularly on the risk of hypertension, has never been documented. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the association of prenatal-exposure to the Great Ethiopian Famine and hypertension in adulthood and investigate if there existed sex difference in the risk estimate. METHODS: Participants were recruited using multistage stratified random sampling and grouped as prenatal famine exposed and non-exposed cohorts based on their reported date of birth and current age. Independent sample T test was employed to compare continuous outcomes between the groups. A multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between prenatal famine exposure and risk of hypertension in adults. RESULTS: Compared to the non-exposed groups, prenatal famine exposed cohorts had higher systolic blood pressure by 1.05 mmHg, (95% CI 0.29, 4.42) and diastolic by 2.47 mmHg (95% CI 1.01, 3.95). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, both unadjusted (COR = 2.50; 1.575, 3.989) and adjusted model for covariates (OR: 2.306 95% CI (1.426, 3.72) indicated a positive association between prenatal famine exposure and the risk of adult hypertension. However, in sex disaggregated analysis, the positive association was only significant in females (AOR = 3.95 95% CI 1.76, 8.85) indicating nearly four folds of odds of hypertension among females, while the corresponding figure for males was not significant (AOR = 1.201 (0.69, 2.07). CONCLUSIONS: Famine exposure during prenatal period could have differential impact on the development of hypertension based on sex, where adult exposed females had higher risk of hypertension as compared to males. Contextualized primary prevention programs with special focus on gender is critical undertaking in hunger spots and regions with historical famine.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Inanição , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fome Epidêmica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Inanição/complicações , Inanição/epidemiologia
18.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4490335, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720047

RESUMO

Objective: The present research is aimed at determining the efficacy of immediate implantation (II) and delayed implantation (DI) for single-tooth restoration of maxillary anterior teeth. Methods: From February 2019 to June 2020, 80 patients who received single-tooth restoration of maxillary anterior teeth in Suzhou Kowloon Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, were included, among which 38 cases with DI restoration were used as the control group (CG), and the remaining 42 cases with II were used as the research group (RG). The complications that occurred were recorded. Besides, subjective satisfaction (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)), aesthetic effect after anterior teeth trauma restoration (Pink Esthetic Score (PES)), aesthetics of dental hard tissue (White Esthetic Score (WES)), pocket depth assessed by pure titanium periodontal probe, implant stability (Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ)), and oral health-related quality of life (Oral Health Impact Profile- (OHIP-) 14) were evaluated. Attachment height, general look, color, and chewing function were all much higher in RG than in CG, according to the evaluation results. Furthermore, at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery, RG had greater PES, WES, ISQ, and OHIP-14 scores, while the periodontal depth was decreased. In both groups of patients, the incidence of complications was similar, with no discernible differences.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Tempo para o Tratamento , China , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/efeitos adversos , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/métodos , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 247, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was set to investigate the correlation between square dance and musculoskeletal system of early postmenopausal Chinese women. METHODS: Chinese postmenopausal women, who had been without menstruation for 1-10 years from the onset of menopause were recruited from community centers for this study. A standardized structured face-to-face interview was performed to collect demographic information, life styles, personal medical history, diet and menstrual status. Subjects who had been practicing regular square dance without participated in other sports activities for more than 2 years and over 4 h per week (usually more than 45 min per time and more than 5 times per week) were assigned to square dance group. Those postmenopausal women who had not participated in regular exercises (no more than 0.5 h per week) were recruited as the sedentary control group. Bone mineral density (BMD) of spine, total hip and femoral neck was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lower limb muscle strength was measured for the non-dominant leg, body flexibility was measured by a simple trunk bend-and-reach test, and body balance was evaluated using a single-stance test for the non-dominant leg. Independent two-tailed Student's t-test was used for data analysis. RESULTS: 152 subjects from community centers were selected for this study and divided into square dance group (n = 74) and control group (n = 78). The square dance subjects had higher lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.01) and total hip BMD (p = 0.02) than control subjects, but there was no significant difference of femoral neck BMD (p = 0.48) between these two groups. Functional testing indicated that square dance subjects had higher lower limb muscle strength (p < 0.01) and longer single-stance time (p = 0.02) than the control subjects, but there was no significant difference in trunk bend-and-reach (p = 0.12) between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show that postmenopausal Chinese women can get beneficial effects, like higher BMD, stronger lower limb muscle and improved body balance ability on musculoskeletal system by participating in square dance regularly.


Assuntos
Dança , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia
20.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115287, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642807

RESUMO

Unsustainable diet is one of the main reasons for the nutrition-health-environment trilemma. However, information on environment-nutrition-obesity effects associated with food consumption is still limited. This study analyzes these diet-related impacts of different groups classified by various socio-economic attributes: location, gender, age, income, education, and occupation. We applied the samples in China Health and Nutrition Survey and divided them into advantaged group and dis-advantaged group according to the probability of access to more nutritious food. Results show that the advantaged groups had higher and more rapidly increasing dietary and nutrition quality than their counterpart during 1997-2011. On the contrary, the non-advantaged group' body mass index increased faster. Meanwhile, the high-income group as well as government and professional & technological workers have passed the criterion for overweight. The environmental footprints, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and water footprints, of high-income group were higher 89%, 70%, 98%, and 41% than low-income group, respectively. Notably, food consumption sustainability of each group has declined, and the non-advantaged groups' is much more sustainable. We concluded that inequality existed and tends to expand in food consumption and its related impacts of different socio-economic groups. A reformed responsibility allocation system is needed during dietary transition for better environmental management. Strategies to improve dietary quality for advantaged group focus on improving the types of high-quality protein foods, such as milk and seafood, while the non-advantaged group can choose to increase the types of high-quality but relatively cheap foods like vegetables and fruits considering the availability and living cost.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade , China , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Verduras
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