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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 95, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in patients visiting a French STI clinic in the Indian Ocean region to determine whether current STI screening practices should be updated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined all patients who visited the STI clinic between 2014 and 2015. Triplex polymerase chain reaction screening for CT, NG, and MG was performed on urine, vaginal, pharyngeal, and anal specimens (FTD Urethritis Basic Kit, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg). RESULTS: Of the 851 patients enrolled in the study, 367 were women (367/851, 43.2%) and 484 were men (484/851, 56.0%). Overall, 826 urogenital specimens (826/851, 97.1%), 606 pharyngeal specimens (606/851, 71.2%), and 127 anal specimens (127/851, 14.9%) were taken from enrolled patients. The prevalence of urogenital CT and MG was high in women ≤25 years (19/186, 10.21%; 5/186, 2.69%) and in men who have sex with women ≤30 years (16/212, 7.54%; 5/212, 2.36%). Among patients with urogenital CT infection, 13.7% (7/51) had urethritis. All patients with urogenital MG infection were asymptomatic. Men who have sex with men had a high prevalence of pharyngeal CT (2/45, 4.44%) and NG (3/44, 6.81%) and a high prevalence of anal CT (2/27, 7.41%), NG (2/27, 7.40%), and MG (1/27, 3.70%). After excluding patients with concomitant urogenital infection, extragenital infections with at least 1 of the 3 pathogens were found in 20 swabs (20/91, 21.9%) taken from 16 patients (16/81, 19.7%), all of them asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Routine multisite screening for CT, NG, and MG should be performed to mitigate the transmission of STIs in high-risk sexually active populations.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Reunião/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6430, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353937

RESUMO

The trp operon of Chlamydia trachomatis is organized differently from other model bacteria. It contains trpR, an intergenic region (IGR), and the biosynthetic trpB and trpA open-reading frames. TrpR is a tryptophan-dependent repressor that regulates the major promoter (PtrpR), while the IGR harbors an alternative promoter (PtrpBA) and an operator sequence for the iron-dependent repressor YtgR to regulate trpBA expression. Here, we report that YtgR repression at PtrpBA is also dependent on tryptophan by regulating YtgR levels through a rare triple-tryptophan motif (WWW) in the YtgCR precursor. Inhibiting translation during tryptophan limitation at the WWW motif subsequently promotes Rho-independent transcription termination of ytgR, thereby de-repressing PtrpBA. Thus, YtgR represents an alternative strategy to attenuate trpBA expression, expanding the repertoire for trp operon attenuation beyond TrpL- and TRAP-mediated mechanisms described in other bacteria. Furthermore, repurposing the iron-dependent repressor YtgR underscores the fundamental importance of maintaining tryptophan-dependent attenuation of the trpRBA operon.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Óperon/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , RNA de Transferência de Triptofano/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1911-1916, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332296

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcal infections) have increased 63% since 2014 and are a cause of sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility and can facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (1,2). Effective treatment can prevent complications and transmission, but N. gonorrhoeae's ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance influences treatment recommendations and complicates control (3). In 2010, CDC recommended a single 250 mg intramuscular (IM) dose of ceftriaxone and a single 1 g oral dose of azithromycin for treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections of the cervix, urethra, and rectum as a strategy for preventing ceftriaxone resistance and treating possible coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis (4). Increasing concern for antimicrobial stewardship and the potential impact of dual therapy on commensal organisms and concurrent pathogens (3), in conjunction with the continued low incidence of ceftriaxone resistance and the increased incidence of azithromycin resistance, has led to reevaluation of this recommendation. This report, which updates previous guidelines (5), recommends a single 500 mg IM dose of ceftriaxone for treatment of uncomplicated urogenital, anorectal, and pharyngeal gonorrhea. If chlamydial infection has not been excluded, concurrent treatment with doxycycline (100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days) is recommended. Continuing to monitor for emergence of ceftriaxone resistance through surveillance and health care providers' reporting of treatment failures is essential to ensuring continued efficacy of recommended regimens.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Administração Oral , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Gonorreia/complicações , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration has implemented to reduce trachoma since 2001, however, trachoma is still the major public health problem in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. However, credible evidence on the prevalence of trachoma and its associated factors after the implementation of mass drug administration is limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children aged 1-9 years old in mass drug administration graduated and non-graduated districts in the Northwest Amhara Region. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2019. A stratified multistage random sampling was used to select 690 households having children aged 1-9 years. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were employed to identify factors associated with active trachoma. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to assess the degree of association between the independent variables and active trachoma. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of active trachoma was 8.3% (95% CI: 6.2% -10.5%) and showed a significant variation between graduated [3.5% (95% CI: 1.8% -5.6%)] and non-graduated [13% (95% CI: 9.7%-16.8%)] districts. Living in graduated districts (AOR = 7.39, 95% CI: 3.19, 17.09), fly presence in the house (AOR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.43, 6.89), presence of more than two children in the family (AOR = 3.78, 95%CI: 1.79, 7.98), did not wash face daily (AOR = 6.31, 95% CI: 1.81, 21.98), did not use soap during face washing (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.37, 8.15), presence of sleep in eyes (AOR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.42, 7.02) and presence of dirt on child face (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.50) increased the odds of having active trachoma. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of active trachoma was high in the study area and showed a significant variation between graduated and non-graduated districts with mass drug administration. Living in non-graduated districts, fly presence in the house, more than two children in a household, did not wash the face daily, did not use soap during face washing, presence of sleep in eyes, and dirt on the child's face were the significant predictors of active trachoma. Therefore, the identified modifiable factors are the area of intervention to reduce the burden of active trachoma.


Assuntos
Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Tracoma/prevenção & controle
5.
Urologiia ; (5): 5-9, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185339

RESUMO

AIM: To carry out a comparative assessment of the efficiency of combination therapy for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a total of 124 patients with NGU and laboratory-confirmed urogenital infection were included in the study. The diagnostic methods included microscopy of urethral smear, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of uropathogens and laser Doppler flowmetry for evaluating the urethral microcirculation. All patients were randomized into three groups matched for age, clinical manifestations, and disease duration. Patients of the group 1 received targeted antibiotic therapy. In the group 2, local peloid therapy was added, while patients in group 3 additionally received vibromagnetotherapy. The control group consisted of 22 patients aged 18 to 55 years. The study included 2 visits, at the baseline and 4 weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: After the treatment, the frequency of microbiological cure was 89%. In the group 3, more pronounced improvement in main symptoms of NGU was observed. The analysis of microcirculation after treatment in the groups 2 and 3 showed a significant increase in perfusion and modulation of urethral blood flow and a decrease in venous congestion after combined therapy. CONCLUSION: The combined treatment, including antibiotic, peloid therapy, and vibromagnetotherapy, promotes more pronounced clinical improvement, restoration of urethral microcirculation and relief of inflammatory process in patients with NGU and can be recommended for routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Uretrite , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Chlamydia trachomatis , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uretra , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1133-1140, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115201

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the performance of ZNA(ZIP Nucleic Acid) probes and its application in the quantitative detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)nucleic acid. Methods: Use CT positive plasmids to compare the PCR amplification curves of ZNA probes coupled with different ZIP numbers. Compare ZNA probes with other three sets of probes [namely, 29mer ordinary Taqman probes (long-DNA probe), 20mer ordinary Taqman probes (short-DNA probe) and MGB probes] for stability in PCR amplification curves and repeated freezing and thawing, and the difference in the detection rate of low-concentration plasmids. Use CT positive clinical samples to compare the difference in amplification curves between ZNA probes, long-DNA probe, short-DNA probe and MGB probes, and the detection rate of low-concentration samples. Results: (1) The Ct value and fluorescence value of the probes coupled with 5ZIP units are both better than those coupled with a smaller number of ZIPs. And the difference is biggest when compared with only coupled with 1 ZIP unit: Ct value increased by 1.34 (sensitivity increased by 2.37 times), and fluorescence value increased by 30%. (2) The amplification efficiency of the ZNA probe coupled with 5 ZIPs is 2.14-2.64 times that of the preferred ordinary Taqman probe and MGB probe, and the fluorescence value is 17%-90% higher. (3) The probe freeze-thaw stability results show that the ZNA probe has the best stability, and the lowest concentration of Ct value has the smallest deviation (CV% = 1.4), which is better than the other three sets of probes (CV%=1.7-3.7). (4) Using 35 CT positive clinical samples to compare the PCR amplification performance, compared with other three sets of probes, the amplification sensitivity of ZNA probes was increased by 1.60, 0.99 and 1.06 times respectively. And the results of the consistency analysis of the Ct value show that compared with short-DNA probe and MGB probes, ZNA probes have better detection performance for clinical samples. (5) Use low concentration plasmid template (200, 100, 50 and 10 copies/mL respectively) to compare the amplification sensitivity of the four sets of probes, the detection rate of ZNA probe is the best. Especially, at the lowest concentration 10 copies/mL, the detection rate of the other sets of probes is only 15%-20%, but the ZNA probe is still 30%. (6) In 20 clinical samples with different low concentrations (200, 150, 100, and 50 copies/mL), the detection rate of ZNA probes was the highest, which were 100%, 95%, 90%, and 70%, respectively. Conclusions: Through testing of the amplification efficiency, fluorescence value, freeze-thaw stability, the amplification performance of clinical samples and the detection sensitivity of low-concentration samples, ZNA probes coupled with 5 ZIPs show better performance than ordinary Taqman probes and MGB probes. As a new probe technology with flexible design and easy synthesis, ZNA probe can further improve detection sensitivity of low concentration samples in the field of gene expression.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Plasmídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for a rapid diagnostic point of care test to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection to prevent incorrect, lack or excess of treatment resulting from current syndromic management in low-resource settings. An assay to identify NG antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is also highly desirable to facilitate antibiotic stewardship. Here we describe the development of two target product profiles (TPPs): one for a test for etiological diagnosis of NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (TPP1) and one for the detection of NG AMR/susceptibility (TPP2). METHODS: Draft TPPs were initially developed based on a landscape analysis of existing diagnostics and expert input. TPPs were refined via an online Delphi survey with two rounds of input from 68 respondents. TPP characteristics on which <75% of non-industry respondents agreed were further discussed and revised by an expert working group. RESULTS: The need for a test to identify NG in patients with urethral or vaginal discharge was identified as a minimal requirement of TPP1, with a test that can diagnose NG in asymptomatic patients as the optimal requirement. A sensitivity of 80% was considered acceptable, either in context of syndromic management or screening high-risk populations. For TPP2, the agreed minimal requirement was for a test to be used at level 2 healthcare facilities and above, with an optimal requirement of level 1 or above. A lateral flow format was preferred for TPP1, while it was considered likely that TPP2 would require a molecular format. A total of 31 test characteristics were included in TPP1 and 27 in TPP2. CONCLUSIONS: Following the working group revisions, TPPs were posted online for public feedback for two months, and are now finalized. The final TPPs are currently guiding the development of new diagnostics that meet the defined characteristics to reach the market within two years.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação
8.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899480

RESUMO

An effective vaccine is essential for controlling the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we describe an influenza virus-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. We incorporated a membrane-anchored form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) in place of the neuraminidase (NA) coding sequence in an influenza virus also possessing a mutation that reduces the affinity of hemagglutinin for its sialic acid receptor. The resulting ΔNA(RBD)-Flu virus can be generated by reverse genetics and grown to high titers in cell culture. A single-dose intranasal inoculation of mice with ΔNA(RBD)-Flu elicits serum neutralizing antibody titers against SAR-CoV-2 comparable to those observed in humans following natural infection (~1:200). Furthermore, ΔNA(RBD)-Flu itself causes no apparent disease in mice. It might be possible to produce a vaccine similar to ΔNA(RBD)-Flu at scale by leveraging existing platforms for the production of influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus , Chlamydia trachomatis , Fertilidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Gravidez , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vírion
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1363, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia screening in high schools offers a way to reach adolescents outside of a traditional clinic setting. Using transmission dynamic modeling, we examined the potential impact of high-school-based chlamydia screening programs on the burden of infection within intervention schools and surrounding communities, under varying epidemiological and programmatic conditions. METHODS: A chlamydia transmission model was calibrated to epidemiological data from three different settings. Philadelphia and Chicago are two high-burden cities with existing school-based screening programs. Rural Iowa does not have an existing program but represents a low-burden setting. We modeled the effects of the two existing programs to analyze the potential influence of program coverage and student participation. All three settings were used to examine a broader set of hypothetical programs with varying coverage levels and time trends in participation. RESULTS: In the modeled Philadelphia program, prevalence among the intervention schools' sexually active 15-18 years old population was 4.34% (95% credible interval 3.75-4.71%)after 12 program years compared to 5.03% (4.39-5.43%) in absence of the program. In the modeled Chicago program, prevalence was estimated as 5.97% (2.60-7.88%) after 4 program years compared to 7.00% (3.08-9.29%) without the program. In the broader hypothetical scenarios including both high-burden and low-burden settings, impact of school-based screening programs was greater in absolute terms in the higher-prevalence settings, and benefits in the community were approximately proportional to population coverage of intervention schools. Most benefits were garnered if the student participation did not decline over time. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained high student participation in school-based screening programs and broad coverage of schools within a target community are likely needed to maximize program benefits in terms of reduced burden of chlamydia in the adolescent population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Chlamydia trachomatis , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Chicago/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008878, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946535

RESUMO

As an obligate intracellular pathogen, host cell invasion is paramount to Chlamydia trachomatis proliferation. While the mechanistic underpinnings of this essential process remain ill-defined, it is predicted to involve delivery of prepackaged effector proteins into the host cell that trigger plasma membrane remodeling and cytoskeletal reorganization. The secreted effector proteins TmeA and TarP, have risen to prominence as putative key regulators of cellular invasion and bacterial pathogenesis. Although several studies have begun to unravel molecular details underlying the putative function of TarP, the physiological function of TmeA during host cell invasion is unknown. Here, we show that TmeA employs molecular mimicry to bind to the GTPase binding domain of N-WASP, which results in recruitment of the actin branching ARP2/3 complex to the site of chlamydial entry. Electron microscopy revealed that TmeA mutants are deficient in filopodia capture, suggesting that TmeA/N-WASP interactions ultimately modulate host cell plasma membrane remodeling events necessary for chlamydial entry. Importantly, while both TmeA and TarP are necessary for effective host cell invasion, we show that these effectors target distinct pathways that ultimately converge on activation of the ARP2/3 complex. In line with this observation, we show that a double mutant suffers from a severe entry defect nearly identical to that observed when ARP3 is chemically inhibited or knocked down. Collectively, our study highlights both TmeA and TarP as essential regulators of chlamydial invasion that modulate the ARP2/3 complex through distinct signaling platforms, resulting in plasma membrane remodeling events that are essential for pathogen uptake.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydia trachomatis , Proteína Neuronal da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/patologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/metabolismo , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Pseudópodes/genética , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Proteína Neuronal da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
12.
Urologiia ; (4): 36-44, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Assessment of the severity of immunological disorders in patients with hlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and the effectiveness of antibacterial therapy in combination with systemic enzyme therapy for the eradication of pathogenic pathogen and correction of detected violations of the immune system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 84 patients with identified CT infection were divided into 2 clinical groups: group 1 (42 people) received antibiotic therapy with doxycycline monohydrate for 10 days, 100 mg 2 times a day (the first dose of 200 mg) at regular intervals (daily dose of 200 mg, course - 2.0 g.) in combination with phlogenzyme, 3 tablets 2 times a day within 14 days. The second clinical group (42 people) received only doxycycline monohydrate therapy at the same doses as in the first clinical group. In all patients with CT infection (84 people) and in the control group (32 practically healthy people), the activity of immune reac-tions in the body was additionally assessed by the level of cytokines (-INF, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6), circulating immune complexes (CIC), lactoferrin (LF) and 2-macroglobulin in blood serum. RESULTS: The level of CEC in the blood serum of patients with CT infection is significantly higher than the standard indicators (by 1.83 times) compared with the indicators of the control group (106.1+/-5.12 conventional units versus 57.8+/-3.39 conventional units, p<0.05). The level of -IFN in the blood serum of patients with CT infection is 1.64 times lower than in the control (28.9+/-4.15 pkg / ml and 47.3+/-4.26 pkg / ml, p<0.05), and indicators of IL-1 in blood serum - 3.12 times higher; the level of IL-6 is 2.13 times higher (p<0.001); the level of IL-4 is 1.65 times higher (p<0.05). The Lf level in patients with CT infection exceeded 2.37 times the indicator in the control group (1742.0+/-112.15 ng / ml and 732.1+/-36.11 ng / ml, p<0.001), 2-macroglobulin - in 1, 36 times (2.59 - 0.21 mg/l and 1.9 - 0.47 mg / l, p<0.001). The efficiency of clinical and microbiological cure in patients with CT infection, who received complex therapy with doxycycline monohydrate and phlogenzyme, was 97.6%. With monotherapy (doxycycline monohydrate), the effectiveness of clinical and microbiological cure was significantly lower - 78.6%, statistically significant (OR=11.2; 95% CI 1.3-247.9; p=0.007). The fact of a decrease in the activity of Th-2 type of the cellular link of immunity in patients with CT infection receiving systemic enzyme therapy drug was established. DISCUSSION: One of the pathogenetic mechanisms of CT infection is an imbalance in the cytokine profile, which manifests itself in an increase in the level of cytokines of the Th-2 (IL-6) type and a decrease in the Th-1 (-IFN) type. With the predominant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6), the dynamics of CT infection becomes chronic. A decrease in the reserve capacity of the proteolytic enzyme system during CT infection with a subsequent increase in the level of 2-macroglobulins in the blood contributes to the dysregulation of local inflammation processes and the formation of immune disorders. With a long course of CT infection, it is most advisable to use (as a basic pathogenetic therapy) systemic enzyme therapy (phlogenzyme). The effect of systemic enzyme therapy on immune responses in C. trachomatis enhances the activity of the Th-1 type of cytokines (-IFN) and a decrease in the level of 2-macroglobulins and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6) in the blood. Systemic enzyme therapy can significantly increase the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy and reduce the risk of side effects. CONCLUSION: The theoretical argumentation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of disorders in the interaction of the most important functional systems made it possible to substantiate new conceptual approaches to the therapy of CT infection, taking into account the level and specific disorders in the universal systems of homeostasis regulation. In particular, a pathophysiological basis has been provided to substantiate the advisability of combining antibacterial therapy with systemic enzyme therapy drugs to correct systemic immunological disorders in patients with CT infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Citocinas , Doxiciclina , Terapia Enzimática , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including those of the oropharynx. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with oral sex practices and characterized oropharyngeal STIs among a cohort of MSM and TGW in Nigeria. METHODS: From 2013 to 2018, TRUST/RV368 recruited MSM and TGW into HIV/STI diagnosis and treatment at community-based clinics in Nigeria. Participants who completed HIV testing and oral sex questions at enrollment were selected. Cross-sectional analyses with bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Oropharyngeal swab testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) began in 2014 and for those with diagnostic results at enrollment, the unadjusted association of oral sex practices with oropharyngeal STIs was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 1342 participants had a median age of 25 years (interquartile range: 22-29), 58% were living with HIV, and 69% reported oral sex practices. Factors associated with increased odds of engaging in oral sex included living with HIV (adjusted [a]OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8), self-identifying as a woman (aOR:1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), mobile phone ownership (aOR:2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-3.9), receptive anal sex (aOR:1.7, 95% CI:1.3-2.3) and multiple male sexual partners (2 to 4 vs. ≤1, aOR:1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; 5+ vs ≤1, aOR:2.9, 95% CI:1.9-4.3). Oropharyngeal STI prevalence was 7% (52/752) and higher among those who engaged in oral sex compared to those who did not (unadjusted OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.2-5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Oral sex was common and associated with an increased odds of oropharyngeal STIs among MSM and TGW from Nigeria. In the absence of screening and treatment guidelines, condoms continue to be the mainstay for oral STI prevention. A pre-exposure prophylaxis for bacterial STIs would complement current prevention strategies to curb transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/fisiologia , Nigéria , Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008647, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877398

RESUMO

The transmission of trachoma, caused by repeat infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, and many enteropathogens are linked to water quantity. We hypothesized that children living further from a water source would have higher exposure to C. trachomatis and enteric pathogens as determined by antibody responses. We used a multiplex bead assay to measure IgG antibody responses to C. trachomatis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae in eluted dried blood spots collected from 2267 children ages 0-9 years in 40 communities in rural Ethiopia in 2016. Linear distance from the child's house to the nearest water source was calculated. We derived seroprevalence cutoffs using external negative control populations, if available, or by fitting finite mixture models. We used targeted maximum likelihood estimation to estimate differences in seroprevalence according to distance to the nearest water source. Seroprevalence among 1-9-year-olds was 43% for C. trachomatis, 28% for S. enterica, 70% for E. histolytica, 54% for G. intestinalis, 96% for C. jejuni, 76% for ETEC and 94% for C. parvum. Seroprevalence increased with age for all pathogens. Median distance to the nearest water source was 473 meters (IQR 268, 719). Children living furthest from a water source had a 12% (95% CI: 2.6, 21.6) higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and a 12.7% (95% CI: 2.9, 22.6) higher seroprevalence of G. intestinalis compared to children living nearest. Seroprevalence for C. trachomatis and enteropathogens was high, with marked increases for most enteropathogens in the first two years of life. Children living further from a water source had higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and G. intestinalis indicating that improving access to water in the Ethiopia's Amhara region may reduce exposure to these enteropathogens in young children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/sangue , Cryptosporidium/imunologia , Entamebíase/sangue , Giardíase/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/imunologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 589, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimating prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) worldwide is necessary in designing control programs and allocating health resources. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the prevalence of CT in the general population. METHODS: The Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for eligible population-based studies from its inception through June 5, 2019. Q test and I2 statistic were used to calculate the heterogeneity between studies. Random effects models were used to pool the prevalence of CT. Meta regression was performed to explore the possible sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and "trim and fill" method. RESULTS: Twenty nine studies that reported prevalence of CT infection from 24 countries were identified, including a total population of 89,886 persons. The pooled prevalence of CT among the general population was 2.9% (95% CI, 2.4-3.5%), and females had a higher CT prevalence (3.1, 95% CI, 2.5-3.8%) than males (2.6, 95% CI, 2.0-3.2%) (χ2 = 10.38, P <  0.01). Prevalence of CT was highest in region of America (4.5, 95% CI, 3.1-5.9%), especially in Latin America (6.7, 95% CI, 5.0-8.4%), followed by females in region of Africa (3.8, 95% CI, 0.7-6.9%), while South-East Asia had a lowest CT prevalence 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.3%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided the updated prevalence of CT among general population worldwide. General population from Latin America, especially females, and women in Africa should be given priority by WHO when design and delivery CT control programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1239, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are common. To better understand the characteristics of patients frequently infected with CT at our sexually transmitted infection (STI) care services, we assessed the differences between patients repeatedly infected with CT and those who repeatedly tested negative. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of cohort data, we assessed individuals tested for CT at different STI care providers between 2011 and mid-2018 in Southwest Limburg, the Netherlands (n = 17,616). Patients with ≥2 repeat CT infections in the study period were categorized as "patients with repeat CT infections." Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for the binary outcome measure: patients with repeat CT infections versus patients who repeatedly tested negative (reference group). Additional analyses were performed for only the STI clinic population. RESULTS: Patients aged < 25 years (OR: 1.83; 95%CI:1.38-2.43), co-infected with HIV (OR: 2.07; 95%CI: 1.02-4.22) or co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (OR: 5.04; 95%CI: 3.33-7.63) had more repeat CT infections. In additional analyses among exclusively STI clinic visitors, patients with urogenital symptoms (OR: 2.17; 95%CI: 1.41-3.35), and patients notified for STIs (OR: 4.55; 95%CI: 3.17-6.54) had more frequent repeat CT infections. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged < 25 years and patients coinfected with HIV or NG had more frequent repeat CT infections, accounting for ~ 20% of the diagnosed CT infections. These patients are likely at the highest risk for transmitting and acquiring CT. Therefore, testing and retesting this group remains important to enhance CT control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722712

RESUMO

The human vagina harbor a rich microbiota. The optimal state is dominated by lactobacilli that help to maintain health and prevent various diseases. However, the microbiota may rapidly change to a polymicrobial state that has been linked to a number of diseases. In the present study, the temporal changes of the vaginal microbiota in patients treated for sexually transmitted diseases or bacterial vaginosis (BV) and in untreated controls were studied for 26 days. The patients included 52 women treated with azithromycin, tetracyclines or moxifloxacin for present or suspected infection with Chlamydia trachomatis or Mycoplasma genitalium. Women with concurrent BV were also treated with metronidazole. The controls were 10 healthy women of matching age. The microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing, specific qPCRs and microscopy. There was generally good correlation between Nugent score and community state type (CST) and qPCR confirmed the sequencing results. By sequencing, more than 600 different taxa were found, but only 33 constituted more than 1 ‰ of the sequences. In both patients and controls the microbiota could be divided into three different community state types, CST-I, CST-III and CST-IV. Without metronidazole, the microbiota remained relatively stable regarding CST although changes were seen during menstrual periods. Administration of metronidazole changed the microbiota from CST-IV to CST-III in approximately 50% of the treated patients. In contrast, the CST was generally unaffected by azithromycin or tetracyclines. In 30% of the BV patients, Gardnerella vaginalis was not eradicated by metronidazole. The majority of women colonized with Ureaplasma parvum remained positive after azithromycin while U. urealyticum was eradicated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gardnerella vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
18.
New Microbiol ; 43(3): 115-120, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656570

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common agents of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. Here, we evaluated genital and extra-genital C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection prevalence in a cohort of young women attending an STI Outpatients Clinic in Italy. From May 2019 to December 2019, 134 women aged 18-26 years were enrolled. A vaginal, a pharyngeal and a rectal swab for the molecular detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were collected from each patient. Chlamydia-positive samples underwent a molecular genotyping based on pmpH gene. Total prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections was 17.9% and 11.2%, respectively. Chlamydial infections were prevalent in the urogenital (16.4%) and rectal (13.4%) sites, whereas N. gonorrhoeae predominated in the genital (7.4%) and pharyngeal (6%) mucosa. Overall, 5.2% of cases would have been missed if extra-genital sites had not been tested. Notably, 60% of women with a rectal infection did not report anal sex. A history of sexual contacts with a positive partner (P=0.03) and a history of ≥3 partners in the last 6 months (P=0.0075) were highly predictive of a bacterial STI. No cases of lymphogranuloma venereum were found. These data could help set up effective strategies to prevent the spread of STIs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genitália , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(3): 553-567, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) on adverse pregnancy outcomes based on the currently available evidence. METHODS: Multiple databases were comprehensively searched from the available date of inception through December 9, 2019. The effect of C. trachomatis on adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed using pooled odds rations (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Egger's test was used for publication bias. RESULTS: Fifty studies involving 502,141 participants were identified. C. trachomatis infection was found to be associated with preterm birth in antibody detection [OR (95% CI): 1.571 (1.112-2.220), P = 0.010] and high-quality assessment [OR (95% CI): 1.734 (1.295-2.321), P < 0.001], preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in culture detection [OR (95% CI): 4.339 (1.806-10.424), P = 0.001] and high-quality assessment [OR (95% CI): 2.822 (1.333-5.973), P = 0.007], stillbirth [OR (95% CI): 1.585 (1.219-2.062), P = 0.001], low-birthweight babies [OR (95% CI): 2.205 (1.137-4.274), P = 0.019], and babies small for gestational age [OR (95% CI): 1.193 (1.091-1.305), P < 0.001]. No publication bias was exhibited in miscarriage (P = 0.170), preterm birth (P = 0.303), PPROM (P = 0.341), stillbirth (P = 0.533), and low-birthweight babies (P = 0.535). CONCLUSIONS: C. trachomatis infection during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of preterm birth, PPROM, stillbirth, low-birthweight babies, and babies small for gestational age.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/microbiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto
20.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(3): 977-986, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664712

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide, can disseminate and localize to the upper genital tract impairing reproductive function. Specifically, ascending C. trachomatis genital infection has been demonstrated to cause epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis, well-known risk factors for male infertility. C. trachomatis possesses the ability to infect primary human Sertoli cells, key elements for the spermatogenetic process and the immune protection of germ cells. Therefore, herein, we investigated the innate immune response in Sertoli cells following C. trachomatis infection, as well as its indirect effects on human spermatozoa. Specifically, we evaluated C. trachomatis mediated induction of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) 2, 3 and 4 as well as of downstream intracellular signaling molecules (NFκB and IRF3) and the levels of the related inflammatory mediators (IL-1α, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-ß and IFN-γ), in an in vitro infection model of primary human Sertoli cells. The main result of our study shows that C. trachomatis induced TLR3-mediated recognition in human Sertoli cells, accompanied by the down-modulation of NFκB and IRF3-dependent signaling pathways followed by no production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that C. trachomatis can disrupt the innate immune response in Sertoli cells and evade intracellular killing, potentially giving rise to a long-term infection that may exert negative effects on the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Chlamydia , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo
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