Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.851
Filtrar
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 652, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults are at higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia), so testing is promoted in these populations. Studies have shown that re-testing for chlamydia is common amongst them. We investigated how sexual risk behaviour profiles are associated with repeated testing for chlamydia. METHODS: We used baseline data from a cohort of 2814 individuals recruited at an urban STI -clinic. We applied latent class (LC) analysis using 9 manifest variables on sexual behaviour and substance use self-reported by the study participants. We fitted ordered logistic regression to investigate the association of LC membership with the outcomes repeated testing during the past 12 months and lifetime repeated testing for chlamydia. Models were fit separately for men and women. RESULTS: We identified four LCs for men and three LCs for women with increasing gradient of risky sexual behaviour. The two classes with the highest risk among men were associated with lifetime repeated testing for chlamydia: adjOR = 2.26 (95%CI: 1.50-3.40) and adjOR = 3.03 (95%CI: 1.93-4.74) as compared with the class with lowest risk. In women, the class with the highest risk was associated with increased odds of repeated lifetime testing (adjOR =1.85 (95%CI: 1.24-2.76)) and repeated testing during past 12 months (adjOR = 1.72 (95%CI: 1.16-2.54)). An association with chlamydia positive test at the time of the study and during the participant's lifetime was only found in the male highest risk classes. CONCLUSION: Prevention messages with regard to testing for chlamydia after unprotected sexual contact with new/casual partners seem to reach individuals in highest risk behaviour classes who are more likely to test repeatedly. Further prevention efforts should involve potentially more tailored sex-specific interventions taking into consideration risk behaviour patterns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 861899, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321311

RESUMO

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) facilitates many processes in bacterial ecology and pathogenesis, especially regarding pathogen evolution and the spread of antibiotic resistance across species. The obligate intracellular chlamydiae, which cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, were historically thought to be highly deficient in this process. However, research over the past few decades has demonstrated that this was not the case. The first reports of homologous recombination in the Chlamydiaceae family were published in the early 1990s. Later, the advent of whole-genome sequencing uncovered clear evidence for LGT in the evolution of the Chlamydiaceae, although the acquisition of tetracycline resistance in Chlamydia (C.) suis is the only recent instance of interphylum LGT. In contrast, genome and in vitro studies have shown that intraspecies DNA exchange occurs frequently and can even cross species barriers between closely related chlamydiae, such as between C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis. Additionally, whole-genome analysis led to the identification of various DNA repair and recombination systems in C. trachomatis, but the exact machinery of DNA uptake and homologous recombination in the chlamydiae has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we reviewed the current state of knowledge concerning LGT in Chlamydia by focusing on the effect of homologous recombination on the chlamydial genome, the recombination machinery, and its potential as a genetic tool for Chlamydia.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética
4.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(4): 295-311, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129882

RESUMO

Despite public concern on the role of free-roaming cats as reservoirs of zoonotic agents, little is known about the influence of urban and peri-urban landscapes on the exposure risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of three zoonotic agents (Chlamydia felis, Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii) in domestic cats (Felis catus). Two hundred and ninety-one free-roaming cats were trapped in Murcia municipality (Southeast Spain), and their sera were tested for specific antibodies against T. gondii using a modified agglutination test (MAT), and for C. felis, C. burnetii and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies with ELISA technique. Pathogen seroprevalence at 95% CI was calculated for each sex and age category (up to and over 12 months) and compared with a chi-squared test. The role of human population density and urban landscape characteristics on the risk of pathogen exposure in the cat population was explored using generalized linear models. Seropositivity against a single pathogen was found in 60% of the cats, while 19% was seropositive for two or three pathogens. Seroprevalence of C. felis was 8% (CI95% : 5-11), 37% (CI95% : 31-42) for C. burnetii and 42% (CI95% : 36-47) for T. gondii. In addition to these three pathogens, FIV seropositivity was low (1%, CI95% : -0.1 to 2) and adult cats were more likely to be seropositive to C. burnetii than young individuals (OR: 2.3, CI95% : 1.2-4.2). No sex or age class differences in seroprevalence were observed for the rest of the pathogens. Seropositivity was correlated with water surface areas for C. felis, and not with crop areas. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity was correlated with the percentage of urban areas (continuous with only buildings and discontinuous, that include buildings, parks, and pedestrian and urban green areas), human population size and peri-urban areas with shrubs, and not correlated with other agricultural landscapes (orchards and crop areas). However, the seroprevalence of T. gondii was only associated with agricultural landscapes such as orchards. The detection of hotspot areas of high pathogen exposure risk is the basis for municipal services to implement surveillance and risk factor control campaigns in specific-risk areas, including (a) efficient health management of urban cat colonies by geographical location, population census and health status monitoring of the components of each cat colony, (b) improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions at the feeding points of the cat colony and (c) free-roaming cat trapping for health monitoring and, in the long term, to know the evolution of the health status of their populations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1030, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210413

RESUMO

Coinfections with pathogenic microbes continually confront cervical mucosa, yet their implications in pathogenesis remain unclear. Lack of in-vitro models recapitulating cervical epithelium has been a bottleneck to study coinfections. Using patient-derived ectocervical organoids, we systematically modeled individual and coinfection dynamics of Human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6E7 and Chlamydia, associated with carcinogenesis. The ectocervical stem cells were genetically manipulated to introduce E6E7 oncogenes to mimic HPV16 integration. Organoids from these stem cells develop the characteristics of precancerous lesions while retaining the self-renewal capacity and organize into mature stratified epithelium similar to healthy organoids. HPV16 E6E7 interferes with Chlamydia development and induces persistence. Unique transcriptional and post-translational responses induced by Chlamydia and HPV lead to distinct reprogramming of host cell processes. Strikingly, Chlamydia impedes HPV-induced mechanisms that maintain cellular and genome integrity, including mismatch repair in the stem cells. Together, our study employing organoids demonstrates the hazard of multiple infections and the unique cellular microenvironment they create, potentially contributing to neoplastic progression.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Coinfecção , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Organoides , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 181, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia abortus is generally considered to cause abortion, stillbirth, and gestational sepsis in pregnant women, but it's rare in bloodstream infection and pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: We present details of a patient with bloodstream infection and pneumonia caused by Chlamydia abortus. Both blood next-generation sequencing (NGS) and sputum NGS indicate Chlamydia abortus infection. The patient received intravenous infusion of piperacillin sodium and tazobactam sodium (4.5 g/8 h) and moxifloxacin (0.4 g/d) and oral oseltamivir (75 mg/day). Within one month of follow-up, the patient's clinical symptoms were significantly improved, and all laboratory parameters showed no marked abnormality. However, chest computer tomography (CT) showed the inflammation wasn't completely absorbed. And we are still following up. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia abortus can cause pneumonia in humans. NGS has the particular advantage of quickly and accurately identifying the infection of such rare pathogens. Pneumonia is generally not life-threatening, and has a good prognosis with appropriate treatment. However, Chlamydia infection can lead to serious visceral complications which clinicians should pay attention to.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Pneumonia , Sepse , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(2): 76-92, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175138

RESUMO

Chlamydia bovis is a widespread infection disease caused by the mixed infection of Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia abortus, and Chlamydia suis in cattle. Although many studies have investigated Chlamydia infection in cattle, there is no nationwide study on the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in cattle of China. We constructed the first meta-analysis to assess the infection rate and infection risk factors of Chlamydia in cattle in China, and we searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese journal database for studies reporting Chlamydia infection in cattle from April 29, 2020. We collected a total of 563 publications from 1989 to 2019, and finally, 78 studies were eligible, which included 152,364 cattle from 27 provinces across the country. We estimated the pooled prevalence of Chlamydia in cattle was 14.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.2 to 16.4). The prevalence of bovine Chlamydia in China collected before 2000 (14.8%, 95% CI: 5.6 to 27.3) showed the highest prevalence rate. The highest prevalence was found in Central China (22.6%, 95% CI: 12.8 to 34.2). The prevalence of Chlamydia spp. between abortion cattle (39.1%, 95% CI: 24.6 to 54.6) and healthy cattle (8.3%, 95% CI: 3.1 to 15.2) showed significant variation (p < 0.05). In detection methods subgroup, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (30.5%, 95% CI: 21.5 to 40.3) showed the highest prevalence. In the age subgroup, the prevalence rate of age >1 year (16.6%, 95% CI: 12.6 to 20.9) was higher compared with age ≤1 year (9.8%, 95% CI: 6.7 to 13.3). Yaks (17.8%, 95% CI: 13.3 to 22.8) showed the highest Chlamydia prevalence among the varieties of bovine. We also estimated the potential risk factors such as feeding model, sample classification, sampling seasons, bovine gender, parity, and quality level of included studies. Our findings suggested that Chlamydia was prevalent in cattle in China. So we should pay attention to bovine Chlamydia and take necessary measures to prevent it.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Aborto Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Prevalência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206361

RESUMO

Chlamydiaceae are obligatory intracellular bacteria causing acute and chronic diseases in animals and humans worldwide, with recently discovered species with a still unclear pathogenic potential (i.e., C. gallinacea). In Italy, Chlamydiaceae infections are underestimated both in animals and humans. To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae species in poultry and occupationally exposed workers on farm, a cross-sectional study was carried out in north-western Italy. A total of 2063 samples from 83 commercial and 31 backyard poultry farms were analysed using real-time PCRs for Chlamydiaceae screening and species typing. Chlamydiaceae were detected in 23 farms, with a herd prevalence of 20.2% (95%CI: 13.2-28.7), higher in backyard farms (38.7%; 95%CI: 21.8-57.8) compared to commercial ones (13.3%; 95%CI: 6.8-22.5). C. gallinacea was found in 18 chicken farms, both commercial and backyard, and C. psittaci only in 3 backyard farms. Exposure to wild birds and factors related to biosecurity resulted the main risk factors associated with Chlamydia positivity. Out of the 113 sputum samples collected from farmers, 16 tested positive to Chlamydiaceae, with a prevalence of 14.2% (95%CI: 8, 3-22). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time at international level, C. gallinacea was detected in humans with farmer positivity associated with farm infectious status, suggesting a bird-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010333, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196366

RESUMO

Protective immune responses to Chlamydia infection within the female reproductive tract (FRT) are incompletely understood. MHC class II-restricted CD4 Th1 responses are believed to be vital for bacterial clearance due to their capacity to secrete IFN-γ, but an essential requirement for T-bet-expressing Th1 cells has yet to be demonstrated in the mouse model of Chlamydia infection. Here, we investigated the role of T-bet and IFN-γ in primary clearance of Chlamydia after FRT infection. Surprisingly, IFN-γ producing CD4 T cells from the FRT expressed low levels of T-bet throughout infection, suggesting that classical T-bet-expressing Th1 cells are inefficiently generated and therefore unlikely to participate in bacteria clearance. Furthermore, mice deficient in T-bet expression or with a CD4-specific T-bet deficiency cleared FRT infection similarly to wild-type controls. T-bet-deficient mice displayed significant skewing of FRT CD4 T cells towards Th17 responses, demonstrating that compensatory effector pathways are generated in the absence of Th1 cells. In marked contrast, IFN-γ-, and IFN-γR-deficient mice were able to reduce FRT bacterial burdens, but suffered systemic bacterial dissemination and 100% mortality. Together, these data demonstrate that IFN-γ signaling is essential to protect mice from fatal systemic disease, but that classical T-bet-expressing Th1 cells are non-essential for primary clearance within the FRT. Exploring the protective contribution of Th1 cells versus other CD4 effector lineages could provide important information for the generation of new Chlamydia vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Células Th1 , Células Th17
10.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 40(4): 166-171, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women sex workers (WSW) are one of key population on the HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) monitoring and evaluation. Socioeconomic, structural factors and other factors associated with the workplace influence exposure to these infections. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the social characteristics, risk behaviours and HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoeae prevalence according to sex work site (street or highway, clubs and flats). METHODS: Cross-sectional study on 400 WSW in Catalonia. Socio-demographic, sex work and behavioral characteristics were collected through personal interview. Oral fluid and urine samples were collected to determine STI prevalence. RESULTS: WSW that exercised in the street or highway presented more precarious conditions and a greater vulnerability related to socioeconomic factors: older population, with a lower education level and with less economic remuneration for their service. Other factors associated with lifestyle or behaviour was also observed: greater injecting drug use, longer sex work or vulnerabilities associated with structural or social determinants: less access to health services, higher proportion of forced relations and stay in prison. The overall HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoeae prevalence was 3.0%, 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively and higher in women who exercised on the street or highway, 5.6%, 1.9% and 1.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The information generated in this study will be useful for the design specific preventive interventions aimed at this group.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Trabalho Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
11.
Infect Immun ; 90(3): e0049921, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099268

RESUMO

The Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that develop and multiply within a poorly characterized parasitophorous vacuole (the inclusion) during growth. Chlamydia abortus is a major pathogen of sheep and other ruminants, and its inclusion development is poorly characterized. We used immunofluorescence microscopy, quantitative culture, and qPCR to examine C. abortus inclusion development and to examine the interaction of C. abortus inclusions with those formed by other species. Antibodies used in these studies include sera from ewes from production facilities that were naturally infected with C. abortus. Multiple inclusions are often found in C. abortus-infected cells, even in populations infected at very low multiplicity of infection. Labeling of fixed cells with sera from infected sheep revealed fibrous structures that extend away from the inclusion into the cytoplasm of the host cell. C. abortus inclusions fused with C. caviae and C. psittaci inclusions in coinfected cells. Inclusions formed by C. abortus and C. caviae did not fuse with inclusions formed by C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, or C. pecorum. The ability of inclusions to fuse was correlated with the overall genomic relatedness between species, and with sequence similarity in the inclusion membrane protein IncA. Quantitative PCR data demonstrated that C. abortus grows at a decreased rate during coinfections with C. caviae, while C. caviae growth was unaffected. The collected data add depth to our understanding of inclusion development in this significant zoonotic veterinary pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão , Ovinos
12.
Avian Pathol ; 51(2): 164-170, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076325

RESUMO

Avian chlamydiosis is an acute or chronic disease of birds after infection by Chlamydia. Although Chlamydia psittaci is the primary agent of the disease, two additional species, Chlamydia avium and Chlamydia gallinacea, have also been recognized as potential disease agents. Therefore, the diagnosis of avian chlamydiosis requires differential identification of these avian Chlamydia species. The objective of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to rapidly differentiate between these three species of avian Chlamydia (C. psittaci, C. avium, and C. gallinacea) as well as to detect the genus Chlamydia. Specific genetic regions of the three species were identified by comparative analysis of their genome sequences. Also, the genus-specific region was selected based on 23S rRNA sequences. PCR primers and probes specific to the genus and each species were designed and integrated in the multiplex real-time PCR assay. The assay was highly efficient (94.8-100.7%). It could detect fewer than 10 copies of each target sequence of the genus and each species. Twenty-five Chlamydia control and field DNA samples were differentially identified while 20 other bacterial strains comprising 10 bacterial genera were negative in the assay. This assay allows rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of the genus and the three species of avian Chlamydia in a single protocol that is suitable for routine diagnostic purposes in avian diagnostic laboratories.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydia/classificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydophila psittaci , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 54, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correlation between various factors (geographical region, clinical incidence, and host type) and the genomic heterogeneity has been shown in several bacterial strains including Chlamydia abortus. METHODS: The aim of this study was to survey the predominant types of C. abortus strains isolated from ruminants in Iran by the multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) method. C. abortus infection was evaluated in a total of 117 aborted fetuses by real-time PCR. The isolation was done via the inoculation of the positive samples in chicken embryo and the L929 cell line. Genotyping was carried out by MLVA typing technique. RESULTS: Forty samples (34.2%) were detected with C. abortus infection; however, chlamydial infection in ruminants of Charmahal/Bakhtiari (3 bovines and 35 sheep) was higher than that of Khuzestan (2 sheep). All MLVA types (MT1-MT8) were detected in the collected samples from Charmahal/Bakhtiari but only 2 types (MT1 and MT3) were reported in samples from Khuzestan. The main MT type was MT1 (32% of aborted fetuses). Although in this study only 9 cow samples were investigated, they possessed similar clusters to those obtained from sheep (MT1 and MT6). Variation of type in sheep samples (MT1 to MT8) was more than that of bovine samples (MT1, and MT6). CONCLUSION: By this research revealed that C.abortus was responsible for a significant percentage of ruminant abortion in two studied regions. The main MT type was MT1 (32% of aborted fetuses) and also 7 different genotypes were involved in infections. So it is concluded that diversity in C.abortus genotyping is high in two regions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Aborto Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Embrião de Galinha , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Feminino , Genótipo , Repetições Minissatélites , Gravidez , Ruminantes , Ovinos
14.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 34(3): 378-384, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086636

RESUMO

Transmission of Chlamydia pecorum infection has generally been assumed to be via the urogenital route and in an attempt to confirm this we investigated an in vitro method of Chlamydia infection using naturally infected koala semen to inoculate a cell line and attempt to estimate C. pecorum infectious load. A total of 57% of 122 koala semen samples had low C. pecorum copy number or no burden, while 18% of semen samples contained >10000 inclusion-forming units/mL, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In vitro inoculation of a McCoy cell line resulted in successful infection from 4% of semen samples where C. pecorum burden was >105 inclusion-forming units/mL. Our preliminary study suggests that transmission of C. pecorum infectious dose may be restricted to peak bacterial shedding in semen associated with recent infection. Here, we report venereal transmission of C. pecorum in koala semen is possible; however, we speculate that antimicrobial factors and innate immune function receptors associated with semen may inhibit chlamydial growth. These mechanisms have yet to be reported in marsupial semen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Phascolarctidae , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Sementes
15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(3): 216-222, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use, sexual risk behaviors, and depression contribute to ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) disparities among men who have sex with men (MSM). The relative contributions of these effects longitudinally are not well understood. METHODS: This analysis used visit-level data from a longitudinal cohort of MSM, half with HIV, in Los Angeles, CA. From August 2014 to March 2020, participants completed follow-up visits every 6 months and underwent testing for rectal gonorrhea/chlamydia (GC/CT) and completed questionnaires including depressive symptoms, number of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) partners, and methamphetamine use. Path analysis with structural equation modeling using concurrent and lagged covariates was used to identify relative contributions of methamphetamine use and depression on number of RAI partners and rectal GC/CT across time. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-seven MSM with up to 6 visits (3 years) were included for a total of 2437 observations. Methamphetamine use and depressive symptoms were positively associated with number of RAI partners (ß = 0.28, P < 0.001; ß = 0.33, P = 0.018, respectively), which was positively associated with rectal GC/CT (ß = 0.02, P < 0.001). When stratified by HIV status, depressive symptoms were positively associated with RAI partners for HIV-negative MSM (ß = 0.50, P = 0.007) but were not associated for MSM living with HIV (ß = 0.12, P = 0.57). Methamphetamine use was positively associated with RAI partners in both strata. CONCLUSIONS: Factors and patterns, which contribute to risk behaviors associated with rectal GC/CT, may differ by HIV status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of combined treatment and prevention efforts that link screening and treatment of stimulant use and depression with STI prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Metanfetamina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
16.
APMIS ; 130(1): 34-42, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758169

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the societies and health care systems globally, and resulted in many social and physical distancing restrictions to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. These restrictions have also likely affected the frequency of intimate contacts and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Compared to most other countries, Sweden especially in Spring-Autumn 2020 pursued mainly milder voluntary, that is, not mandatory enforced by laws, recommended restrictions and the impacts of these on society and spread of STIs remain largely unknown. We describe the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the national and regional incidence, epidemiology and diagnostic testing of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Sweden in 2020. Compared to 2019, we found a significant decrease in incidence of chlamydia (-4.5%) and gonorrhoea (-17.5%), and in diagnostic testing (-10.5% for chlamydia, -9.4% for gonorrhoea) in 2020. However, the decrease in chlamydia incidence, which has mainly been decreasing in the last 10 years, was not significant when compared with the average incidence in 2017-2019. The largest decrease in national incidence of both infections was observed among young and heterosexual patients, however, some Swedish regions showed an increased incidence, particularly of chlamydia. Increased "internet-based self-sampling" testing approach partly compensated for a decreased attendance at STI clinics. Studies, including sexual behaviour, prevention, reasons for attending STI health care, STIs in different anatomical sites and management of STIs, are required to elucidate the impact of COVID-19-associated social and physical distancing restrictions on sexual activity and the incidence and epidemiology of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Sweden.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Incidência , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(1): 158-167, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797903

RESUMO

Testis asymmetry, in which the testes in an individual differ in size, has recently been reported in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges population of South Australia. We describe the morphology and histology of both testes from affected individuals in this population (n=56) and the parameters of koalas with normal-sized testes based on age and breeding season (n=56). Morphologic measurements included testis weight, length, width, and volume; histologic parameters included seminiferous tubule diameter, seminiferous epithelial height, and seminiferous tubule (interstitial tissue ratio and presence or absence of spermatozoa). Of the 56 koalas with intraindividual variation in testes size, 47 were classified as asymmetric and nine as microtestes. For koalas with asymmetric testes, all morphologic parameters were significantly decreased in the smaller testes compared with normal-sized testes, but for the histologic parameters, only seminiferous tubule diameter was significantly less. Histopathologic examination of the asymmetric testes showed 38 with normal parenchyma histologically indistinguishable between intraindividual testes, four with degeneration and atrophy, and three with hypoplasia, whereas examination of microtestes showed degeneration and atrophy in seven, hypoplasia in one, and aplasia in one. No association of testis size difference with Chlamydia pecorum infection was found in a subset of animals. For the 56 koalas with normal-sized testes, morphologic parameters were found to increase with age, and juvenile and young adults were found to have smaller seminiferous tubule diameters than adults. No differences were found between testes of koalas in the breeding and nonbreeding season. Overall, these findings indicate that testis asymmetry in koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges population is common but not associated with decreased function, except where testis malformations such as hypoplasia or aplasia occur or when parenchyma has been disrupted by acquired disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Phascolarctidae , Animais , Austrália , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Masculino , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Testículo/patologia
18.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 117-122, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that adolescents may not accurately report sexual activity to their providers, impeding risk-based screening efforts for gonorrhea and chlamydia (GC/CT). We assessed the effect of a clinic-based universal GC/CT screening initiative on GC/CT screening frequency and detection of GC/CT infections among adolescents (boys and girls ≥13 years) and the association between positive GC/CT and documented sexual activity. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post analysis of a primary care clinic affiliated with an academic institution. The electronic medical record was queried to extract all adolescent well and acute encounters for the 12 months preimplementation and postimplementation of universal GC/CT screening in January 2015. RESULTS: Eight hundred fifty-six encounters from 752 unique adolescents were included. Screening increased postimplementation (23.3% vs 61.4%, P < 0.001) of universal screening. Although there were similar rates of documented sexual activity preimplementation and postimplementation (14.6% vs 16.0%), a larger proportion of unknown sexual activity was documented (10.5% vs 23.7%, P < 0.001). Provider-level factors were the most frequent reasons for not screening. The absolute number of GC/CT cases increased, although the proportion of cases out of all eligible adolescents remained similar as more testing was completed (chlamydia, 5 of 752 vs 12 of 752; P = 0.09; gonorrhea, 0 of 752 vs 1 of 752; P = 0.32). Nearly half of positive chlamydia infections postimplementation appeared in adolescents who reported no sexual activity. CONCLUSIONS: Universal screening in a primary care clinic increased screening and detection of cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, including in adolescents who did not report sexual activity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Adolescente , Criança , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento Sexual
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...