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1.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(2): 126071, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085936

RESUMO

The spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) is an endangered Mediterranean tortoise that lives in North Africa, Southern Europe and Southwest Asia. In the wake of recent legislation making their keeping as domestic animals illegal, many of these animals have been returned to wildlife recovery centers in Spain. In the present study, a population of such tortoises showing signs of ocular disease and nasal discharge was examined for the presence of Chlamydia spp. Cloacal, conjunctival and/or choanal swabs were collected from 58 animals. Using a real-time PCR specific for the family Chlamydiaceae, 57/58 animals tested positive in at least one sample. While only a few samples proved positive for C. pecorum, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a sequence identical to previously published sequences from specimens of German and Polish tortoises. Whole-genome sequences obtained from two conjunctival swab samples, as well as ANIb, TETRA values and a scheme based on 9 taxonomic marker genes revealed that the strain present in the Spanish tortoises represented a new yet non-classified species, with C. pecorum being its closest relative. We propose to designate the new species Candidatus Chlamydia testudinis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/classificação , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
2.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 505-508, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588995

RESUMO

Chlamydial infections in dairy cattle are common and have been sporadically associated with reduced performance and severe disease manifestations. While chlamydial infections are well described in sheep, very little is known about the epidemiology of these infections in dairy cattle in Australia. In this study, we screened for chlamydial infections and assessed on-farm risks in dairy cattle herds from Southeast Queensland (SE Qld) region of Australia. In total, 228 paired vaginal and rectal swabs were collected from 114 visually healthy dairy cows from four farms in SE Qld. Risk factors were rated by observational study and included: hygiene and cleanliness of cows, walkway and parlour, incidence of perinatal mortality, external replacements, mode of breeding, calving pen management, heat reduction strategies, and feed ration usage. Testing for chlamydial pathogens (Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus) was done using species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Detected rates of chlamydial infection were evaluated against the on-farm risk factors. C. pecorum infection was widespread in all four farms, with 56.1% (64/114) of individual animals shedding this organism from vaginal and rectal, or both sites. C. abortus and C. psittaci were not detected in any animals. No association was found to exist with risk factors and C. pecorum infection rates in our study, however the number of Chlamydia positive animals was statistically different between the herds. This study suggests that subclinical chlamydial infections may impact on dairy herd health at the production level rather than affecting individual animal.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vagina/microbiologia
3.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 398-400, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310011

RESUMO

Chlamydia gallinacea is a recently described bacterial species in a genus known to infect and cause disease in animals and humans. Our report describes the identification of C. gallinacea infection in free-range laying chickens (Gallus gallus) in Australia, and the identification of C. gallinacea infection in a parrot, a wild Australian galah (Eolophus roseicapillus). There is currently little knowledge of the effects of C. gallinacea infection on avian hosts, but it has been linked to respiratory disease in humans and could potentially cause similar disease in other species. Our report highlights the need for further study and surveillance of Chlamydia species in both wild and domestic hosts in Australia.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Papagaios , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vitória/epidemiologia
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 222-226, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia (C.) felis can cause infection which may be associated with conjunctivitis and/or respiratory tract disease, particularly in kittens, but could also be the cause of the disease in adult cats. Infection is more common in multi-cat environments. The zoonotic potential of C. felis appears low, but exposure to this microorganism is possible by handling the affected cats, by contact with their aerosol, and also via fomites. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, 140 cats of various breeds from Kosice region in Slovakia were studied. Conjunctival samples were obtained from 71 clinically healthy cats (50.7%) and 69 cats with clinical signs of conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract impairment (49.3%). Cats were divided into 4 groups according to breed and type of environment in which they lived. In the 1st group were cats kept inside only (n=33), in the 2nd group, free-roaming cats (n=50), the 3rd group comprised stray cats, taken from the streets (n=28), and the 4th group included cats kept in shelters or deposit devices (n=29). Molecular method PCR and DNA sequencing was used as the diagnostic method. RESULTS: Overall positivity was 17.1%. Of the 24 positive cats, the highest positivity was detected in the population of stray cats (35.7%) and shelter cats (31%). In the group of free-roaming cats, 10% had positivity. No positive animals were detected in the group of cats kept inside only. It was also found that the risk of C. felis in cats with clinical signs of disease was more than 7-fold higher than in cats without clinical signs of conjunctivitis and respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that cats, especially stray and shelter cats, can be important sources of feline chlamydiosis, and due to their close contact with people they can present a risk for transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Zoonoses/microbiologia
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(7): 1072-1080, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Koala retrovirus (KoRV-A) is 100  % prevalent in northern Australian (Queensland and New South Wales) koala populations, where KoRV-B has been associated with Chlamydia pecorum disease and the development of lymphosarcoma. In southern populations (Victoria and South Australia), KoRV-A is less prevalent and KoRV-B has not been detected in Victoria, while the current prevalence in South Australian populations is unknown but is thought to be low. This study aimed to determine (i) the prevalence of KoRV in the two largest South Australian koala populations [Kangaroo Island (KI) and Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR)], (ii) KoRV subtype and (iii) if an association between KoRV and C. pecorum exists. METHODOLOGY: Wild koalas were sampled in KI ( n =170) between 2014 and 2017 and in MLR ( n =75) in 2016. Clinical examinations were performed, with blood collected for KoRV detection and typing by PCR. RESULTS: KoRV prevalence was 42.4  % [72/170, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 34.9-49.8  %] in KI and 65.3  % (49/75, 95 % CI: 54.6-76.1  %) in MLR. Only KoRV-A, and not KoRV-B, was detected in both populations. In MLR, there was no statistical association between KoRV and C. pecorum infection (P =0.740), or KoRV and C. pecorum disease status ( P=0.274), although KoRV-infected koalas were more likely to present with overt C. pecorum disease than subclinical infection (odds ratio: 3.15, 95 % CI: 0.91-5.39). CONCLUSION: KoRV-A is a prevalent pathogen in wild South Australian koala populations. Future studies should continue to investigate KoRV and C. pecorum associations, as the relationship is likely to be complex and to differ between the northern and southern populations.


Assuntos
Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Retroviridae/genética , Envelhecimento , Animais , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Retroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Retroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
6.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(82): e81-e85, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184595

RESUMO

La dificultad respiratoria en el periodo neonatal tardío constituye un reto pediátrico no solo diagnóstico, sino de tratamiento, ya que a las múltiples causas del cuadro se deben sumar los factores inherentes a la propia vulnerabilidad del niño. En la práctica habitual, la principal causa de estos cuadros son las infecciones (fundamentalmente víricas), aunque se deben tener en cuenta otras etiologías como cardiológicas, digestivas, metabólicas o anatómicas. Presentamos un caso clínico de tos, dificultad respiratoria e hipoxemia en un neonato de 17 días de vida en el que los datos de la anamnesis, la exploración y el cuadro clínico condujeron a la realización de pruebas complementarias específicas que llevaron al diagnóstico de neumonía por Chlamydia. Realizaremos asimismo una revisión sobre el estado actual de la cuestión basándonos en el cuadro clínico que presentaba el recién nacido


Respiratory distress in the late neonatal period is a challenge for the pediatrician, not only in diagnosis but also in treatment, as the inherent factors of the child's vulnerability must be added to the multiple possible etiologies. In practice, viral infections are responsible for a high percentage of these conditions. However, other etiologies such as cardiologic, digestive, metabolic or anatomical causes must be taken into account. We introduce a case report of a 17-day-old neonate with cough, respiratory distress and hypoxemia. The anamnesis, physical examination and clinical findings led to specific complementary tests. All these conduced to the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Chlamydia. We also perform a review of the current state of the knowledge, based on the clinical condition presented on the neonate


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Pneumonia por Clamídia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Tosse/etiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(4): e1007698, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943267

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection, responsible for millions of infections each year. Despite this high prevalence, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of Chlamydia pathogenesis has been difficult due to limitations in genetic tools and its intracellular developmental cycle. Within a host epithelial cell, chlamydiae replicate within a vacuole called the inclusion. Many Chlamydia-host interactions are thought to be mediated by the Inc family of type III secreted proteins that are anchored in the inclusion membrane, but their array of host targets are largely unknown. To investigate how the inclusion membrane proteome changes over the course of an infected cell, we have adapted the APEX2 system of proximity-dependent biotinylation. APEX2 is capable of specifically labeling proteins within a 20 nm radius in living cells. We transformed C. trachomatis to express the enzyme APEX2 fused to known inclusion membrane proteins, allowing biotinylation and purification of inclusion-associated proteins. Using quantitative mass spectrometry against APEX2 labeled samples, we identified over 400 proteins associated with the inclusion membrane at early, middle, and late stages of epithelial cell infection. This system was sensitive enough to detect inclusion interacting proteins early in the developmental cycle, at 8 hours post infection, a previously intractable time point. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a novel, early association between C. trachomatis inclusions and endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES), functional regions of the ER where COPII-coated vesicles originate. Pharmacological and genetic disruption of ERES function severely restricted early chlamydial growth and the development of infectious progeny. APEX2 is therefore a powerful in situ approach for identifying critical protein interactions on the membranes of pathogen-containing vacuoles. Furthermore, the data derived from proteomic mapping of Chlamydia inclusions has illuminated an important functional role for ERES in promoting chlamydial developmental growth.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Infecções por Chlamydia/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Corpos de Inclusão/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteoma/análise , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/microbiologia , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/microbiologia
8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(7): 534-539, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive data on Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections to guide screening services among transgender women (TGW) are limited. We studied the burden of CT/NG infections in pharyngeal, rectal and urethral sites of Thai TGW and determined missed CT/NG diagnoses if selected site screening was performed. METHODS: Thai TGW were enrolled to the community-led test and treat cohort. CT/NG screening was performed from pharyngeal swab, rectal swab and urine using nucleic acid amplification test. CT/NG prevalence in each anatomical site was analysed, along with the relationships of CT/NG among the three anatomical sites. RESULTS: Of 764 TGW included in the analysis, 232 (30.4%) had CT/NG infections at any anatomical site, with an overall incidence of 23.7 per 100 person-years. The most common CT/NG infections by anatomical site were rectal CT (19.5%), rectal NG (9.6%) and pharyngeal NG (8.1%). Among 232 TGW with CT/NG infections at any anatomical site, 22%-94.4% of infections would have been missed if single anatomical site testing was conducted, depending on the selected site. Among 668 TGW who tested negative at pharyngeal site, 20.4% had either rectal or urethral infections. Among 583 TGW who tested negative at the rectal site, 8.7% had either pharyngeal or urethral infections. Among 751 TGW who tested negative at the urethral site, 19.2% had either pharyngeal or rectal infections. CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of Thai TGW had CT/NG infections. All-site screening is highly recommended to identify these infections, but if not feasible rectal screening provides the highest yield of CT/NG diagnoses. Affordable molecular technologies and/or CT/NG screening in pooled samples from different anatomical sites are urgently needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03580512.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Pessoas Transgênero , Uretra/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(2): 162-167, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663870

RESUMO

Infectious abortions of goats in Argentina are mainly associated with brucellosis and toxoplasmosis. In this paper, we describe an abortion outbreak in goats caused by Chlamydia abortus. Seventy out of 400 goats aborted. Placental smears stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed many chlamydia-like bodies within trophoblasts. One stillborn fetus was necropsied and the placenta was examined. No gross lesions were seen in the fetus, but the inter-cotyledonary areas of the placenta were thickened and covered by fibrino-suppurative exudate. The most consistent microscopic finding was found in the placenta and consisted of fibrinoid necrotic vasculitis, with mixed inflammatory infiltration in the tunica media. Immunohistochemistry of the placenta was positive for Chlamydia spp. The results of polymerase chain reaction targeting 23S rRNA gene performed on placenta were positive for Chlamydia spp. An analysis of 417 amplified nucleotide sequences revealed 99% identity to those of C. abortus pm225 (GenBank AJ005617) and pm112 (GenBank AJ005613) isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abortion associated with C. abortus in Argentina.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(4): 957-969, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681773

RESUMO

Wildlife diseases are a recognized driver of global biodiversity loss, have substantial economic impacts, and are increasingly becoming a threat to human health. Disease surveillance is critical but remains difficult in the wild due to the substantial costs and potential biases associated with most disease detection methods. Noninvasive scat surveys have been proposed as a health monitoring methodology to overcome some of these limitations. Here, we use the known threat of Chlamydia disease to the iconic, yet vulnerable, koala Phascolarctos cinereus to compare three methods for Chlamydia detection in scats: multiplex quantitative PCR, next generation sequencing, and a detection dog specifically trained on scats from Chlamydia-infected koalas. All three methods demonstrated 100% specificity, while sensitivity was variable. Of particular interest is the variable sensitivity of these diagnostic tests to detect sick individuals (i.e., not only infection as confirmed by Chlamydia-positive swabs, but with observable clinical signs of the disease); for koalas with urogenital tract disease signs, sensitivity was 78% with quantitative PCR, 50% with next generation genotyping and 100% with the detection dog method. This may be due to molecular methods having to rely on high-quality DNA whereas the dog most likely detects volatile organic compounds. The most appropriate diagnostic test will vary with disease prevalence and the specific aims of disease surveillance. Acknowledging that detection dogs might not be easily accessible to all, the future development of affordable and portable "artificial noses" to detect diseases from scats in the field might enable cost-effective, rapid and large-scale disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Phascolarctidae , Animais , Chlamydia/genética , Saúde da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 51(2): 130-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017323

RESUMO

In order to determine the presence and genetic diversity of Chlamydia spp. in the north-eastern area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, conjunctival, oropharyngeal, cloacal swab and tissues were collected from a total of 90 psittacine pet birds of different age and clinical manifestations. Through molecular methods, Chlamydiaceae was detected in 30% (27/90) of the samples, out of which 70.3% (19/27) were positive for Chlamydia psittaci and 14.9% (4/27) for Chlamydia abortus. Nine C. psittaci positive samples were genotyped by ompA gene sequences, 8 clustered within genotype A and 1 within genotype B. A significant association was observed between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and the manifestation of clinical signs compatible with chlamydiosis, as well as with the age of the birds (younger than one year old). This report contributes to the improvement of our understanding of chlamydial agents in our country.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 675, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high rectal and oropharyngeal sexually transmitted infection (STI) burden has been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many regions, but little data exists on rectal and oropharyngeal STIs among MSM in China. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia at different anatomic sites among MSM in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: We recruited a cross-sectional sample of MSM in one Chinese city and collected detailed information about socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. Men had urine, rectal, and pharyngeal swab samples tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate factors associated with gonorrhea and chlamydia. Among men without any STI symptoms, we also examined the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia by anatomical site. RESULTS: We enrolled 463 men between January 2015 and March 2017. A total of 58/463 (12.5%) of men had gonorrhea and 84/463 (18.1%) had chlamydia. MSM with gonorrhea were more likely to have been recruited from the STI clinic (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.94-5.99), living with HIV (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.18-4.92), diagnosed had STI co-infection (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.39-4.69). MSM with chlamydia were more likely to be students (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.99-3.39). Most gonorrhea (34/58, 59%) and chlamydia (64/84, 76%) infections were not associated with STI symptoms. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic gonorrhea and chlamydia infection were common in this sample of Chinese MSM. Further research is necessary to determine optimal STI screening programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Uretra/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206471, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia infects multiple sites within hosts, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In certain hosts, gastrointestinal infection is linked to treatment avoidance and self-infection at disease susceptible sites. GIT C. pecorum has been detected in livestock and koalas, however GIT prevalence rates within the koala are yet to be established. METHODS: Paired conjunctival, urogenital and rectal samples from 33 koalas were screened for C. pecorum and C. pecorum plasmid using 16S rRNA and CDS5-specific quantitative PCR assays, respectively. Amplicon sequencing of 359 bp ompA fragment was used to identify site-specific genotypes. RESULTS: The overall C. pecorum prevalence collectively (healthy and clinically diseased koalas) was 51.5%, 57.6% and 42.4% in urogenital, conjunctival and gastrointestinal sites, respectively. Concurrent urogenital and rectal Chlamydia was identified in 14 koalas, with no cases of GIT only Chlamydia shedding. The ompA genotype G dominated the GIT positive samples, and genotypes A and E' were dominant in urogenital tract (UGT) positive samples. Increases in C. pecorum plasmid per C. pecorum load (detected by PCR) showed clustering in the clinically diseased koala group (as assessed by scatter plot analysis). There was also a low correlation between plasmid positivity and C. pecorum infected animals at any site, with a prevalence of 47% UGT, 36% rectum and 40% faecal pellet. CONCLUSIONS: GIT C. pecorum PCR positivity suggests that koala GIT C. pecorum infections are common and occur regularly in animals with concurrent genital tract infections. GIT dominant genotypes were identified and do not appear to be related to plasmid positivity. Preliminary results indicated a possible association between C. pecorum plasmid load and clinical UGT disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Animais , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/veterinária , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Genótipo , Masculino , Plasmídeos/análise , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia
14.
Sex Transm Infect ; 94(7): 508-514, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rectal douching/enema (RD) is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) in preparation for sex. RD can break down the rectal mucosal barrier and potentially affect the rectal microbiome. The objective of this study was to understand if RD is associated with acquiring rectal infections (RI) with rectal gonorrhoea (NG) and/or chlamydia (CT). METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 395 adult HIV-uninfected MSM were enrolled in a randomised controlled study for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence with routine sexual risk survey and testing. Using data from this cohort, baseline differences by RI were assessed using Pearson's χ² and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Association between RD and RI was modelled using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders (sexual behaviour, substance use and age) selected a priori. Effect modification by number of male partners and sensitivity analysis to rule out reverse causality were also conducted. RESULTS: Of 395 participants, 261 (66%) performed RD and 133 (33%) had at least one NG/CT RI over 48 weeks. Number of condomless anal receptive sex (med: 4, p<0.001), male partners (med:6, p<0.001) and substance use (any of methamphetamine/hallucinogens/dissociative/poppers) (p<0.001) were associated with increased odds of RI. Controlling for potential confounders, odds of prevalent RI were 3.59 (p<0.001, 95% CI 1.90 to 6.78) and incident RI 3.87 (p=0.001, 95% CI 1.78 to 8.39) when douching weekly or more compared with not douching. MSM with more than six male partners had 5.34 (p=0.002, 95% CI 1.87 to 15.31) increased odds of RI when douching weekly or more compared with not douching. CONCLUSION: Rectal hygiene with RD is a common practice (66%) among HIV-uninfected MSM on PrEP in this study, which increases the odds of acquiring rectal NG and/or CT independent of sexual risk behaviour, substance use and other factors. This suggests interventional approaches targeting rectal hygiene products and practices could reduce sexually transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Enema/estatística & dados numéricos , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Reto/microbiologia , Irrigação Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Enema/efeitos adversos , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/microbiologia , Doenças Retais/prevenção & controle , Reto/efeitos dos fármacos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Irrigação Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vet Q ; 38(1): 63-66, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) live and breed in many city centres and contact with their droppings can be a hazard for human health if the birds carry Chlamydia psittaci. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish whether pigeon droppings in two Dutch cities (Utrecht and Haarlem) contain C. psittaci and/or C. avium, which could be a potential hazard for transmission to humans. METHODS: In May 2017 seven feral pigeon 'hot spots' with between 5 and 40+ pigeons present were identified in two cities by visual observations over two days. During the following ten days fresh droppings were collected at these hot spots and the samples were pooled per three droppings to achieve 40-41 samples per city. Samples were analysed for Chlamydia DNA with a broad range 23S Chlamydiaceae Real-Time PCR and positive samples were tested with a specific C. psittaci and C. avium Real-Time PCR. Positive C. psittaci samples were genotyped. RESULTS: C. psittaci and C. avium were detected in both cities. For C. psittaci the prevalences in Utrecht and Haarlem were 2.4% and 7.5%, respectively; for C. avium 36.6% and 20.0%, respectively. One sample contained both species. All C. psittaci samples belonged to genotype B. CONCLUSION: C. psittaci and C. avium are present in feral pigeon droppings in Utrecht and Haarlem. Human contact with droppings from infected pigeons or inhalation of dust from dried droppings represent a potential hazard to public health.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Chlamydia , Infecções por Chlamydophila , Cidades , Columbidae , Países Baixos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 217: 90-96, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615263

RESUMO

Lamydia pecorum is a globally recognised livestock pathogen that is capable of causing severe and economically significant diseases such as arthritis in sheep and cattle. Relatively little information is available on the clinical progression of disease and the long-term effects of asymptomatic and symptomatic chlamydiosis in sheep. Recent studies in calves indicate that endemic C. pecorum infections may reduce growth rates. To investigate the clinical health parameters and production impacts of endemic C. pecorum infection in an Australian commercial lamb flock, we performed bimonthly sampling and clinical health assessments on 105 Border Leicester lambs from two to ten months of age. Chlamydial status was investigated via serology and species-specific quantitative PCR. Throughout the study period, conjunctivitis remained a persistent clinical feature while signs of arthritis (e.g. palpable synovial joint effusions) resolved in a subset of lambs while persisting in others. Clinical disease and C. pecorum infection were highest at six months of age (weaning). As previously reported, peak seroconversion tends to occur two months after the onset of clinical symptoms (6 months of age), with lambs clearing chlamydial infection by 10 months of age, despite ongoing disease still being present at this time. Notably, the presence of chlamydial infection did not affect lamb mass or growth rates throughout the study. At necropsy, C. pecorum was not detected within the joints of lambs with chronic arthritis. Molecular analysis of the strains in this flock suggest that the infecting strains circulating in this flock are clonal C. pecorum pathotypes, denoted ST 23, commonly associated with conjunctivitis and polyarthritis in Australian sheep. This study provides a platform for further research in the epidemiology and disease transmission dynamics of C. pecorum infections in sheep.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Artrite/microbiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/patogenicidade , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/fisiopatologia , Conjuntivite/microbiologia , Fazendas , Gado/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carneiro Doméstico/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 30(4): 523-529, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629645

RESUMO

Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline in the health of koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the wild in some regions of Australia. Herein we report the development and validation of 2 multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) panels for the simultaneous detection of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Chlamydia, including speciation and quantification of Chlamydia, in ocular, reproductive, and nasal swab samples in addition to semen and male urogenital and reproductive tissues, from koalas. Each rtPCR panel was developed for use as a single-tube reaction using pathogen-specific primers and fluorescently labeled probe sets. DNA extracted from reference strains and isolates was used for validation of sequence gene targets for the multiplex rtPCR panels. Each panel was shown to be sensitive and specific in detecting and differentiating the bacterial pathogens. The multiplex rtPCR panels were used to screen clinical samples from free-ranging and hospitalized koalas for multiple pathogens simultaneously. The multiplex rtPCR will improve turnaround time compared to individual-pathogen rtPCR methods used, to date, for confirmation of diagnosis and will provide the wildlife clinician with the ability to make treatment decisions more rapidly.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Phascolarctidae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Bordetella/genética , Bordetella/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Queensland , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ureaplasma/genética , Ureaplasma/isolamento & purificação
18.
Fam Pract ; 35(5): 626-632, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608672

RESUMO

Background: Chlamydia is the most common notifiable sexually transmissible infection in Australia. Left untreated, it can develop into pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. The majority of notifications come from general practice and it is ideally situated to test young Australians. Objectives: The Australian Chlamydia Control Effectiveness Pilot (ACCEPt) was a multifaceted intervention that aimed to reduce chlamydia prevalence by increasing testing in 16- to 29-year-olds attending general practice. GPs were interviewed to describe the effectiveness of the ACCEPt intervention in integrating chlamydia testing into routine practice using Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Methods: GPs were purposively selected based on age, gender, geographic location and size of practice at baseline and midpoint. Interview data were analysed regarding the intervention components and results were interpreted using NPT. Results: A total of 44 GPs at baseline and 24 at midpoint were interviewed. Most GPs reported offering a test based on age at midpoint versus offering a test based on symptoms or patient request at baseline. Quarterly feedback was the most significant ACCEPt component for facilitating a chlamydia test. Conclusions: The ACCEPt intervention has been able to moderately normalize chlamydia testing among GPs, although the components had varying levels of effectiveness. NPT can demonstrate the effective implementation of an intervention in general practice and has been valuable in understanding which components are essential and which components can be improved upon.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Austrália , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Medicina Geral/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 18(9): 504-508, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688824

RESUMO

Chlamydia is Gram-negative obligate bacterium, which can cause human diseases worldwide and has huge economic impact on animals. It is yet to know whether farmed wild boars are infected with Chlamydia in China. To assess risk factors of Chlamydia infection in farmed wild boars in China, from April 2015 to February 2016, a total of 837 serum samples of farmed wild boars were collected in Jilin province, northeastern China, and antibodies against Chlamydia were examined by the indirect hemagglutination assay. The investigation showed that antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 332 (39.67%, 95% CI 33.36-42.98) of 837 serum samples of farmed wild boars, seroprevalence ranged from 33.71% to 44.42% among different regions and the differences were statistically significant by SPSS analysis (p = 0.0248). These results indicated that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in farmed wild boars in Jilin province, northeastern China, and may pose a potential risk for human health. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China, which provided baseline data for preventing and controlling Chlamydia infection in wild boars in China.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(3): 646-649, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498899

RESUMO

A small number of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) presented to wildlife hospitals in Queensland, Australia, with signs of arthritis in one or more joints. Molecular analysis identified Chlamydia pecorum in the tarsal tissue and synovial fluid of an affected joint of a koala, suggesting that in addition to livestock, C. pecorum has the potential to cause arthritis in the koala.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Articulações/microbiologia , Phascolarctidae/parasitologia , Líquido Sinovial/microbiologia , Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Filogenia
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