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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713347

RESUMO

Background: Atypical pathogen infections played an important role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Pathogen-specific clinical symptoms are often lacking, and it is difficult to detect atypical pathogens by culture methods. The use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods enables testing for many pathogens simultaneously in a single analysis. Aim: To determine the role of atypical pathogens in children hospitalized with CAP. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted throughout a 2-year period from August 2015 to September 2017. It included 400 Egyptian children hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of CAP at a tertiary hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Sputum samples were collected from lower respiratory tract of all enrolled patients by mucus trap catheter for identification of Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophilia by using multiplex real-time PCR. Results: Among the 400 CAP patients enrolled in this study, atypical pathogens were detected in 12/400 (3%) patients. Bordetella pertussis was detected in 2% of cases, and it was responsible for CAP in 8/104 (7.69%) infants in the age stratum ≤ 4 months; compared with pertussis-negative cases, pertussis-positive cases were younger and incompletely vaccinated (P values were 0.001 and 0.007, respectively). Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in 1% of cases, all were among the age stratum > 4 months ≤ 59 months in 4/272 (1.47%) children. Conclusion: In early infancy, Bordetella pertussis causes a significant proportion of hospitalized CAP cases; all were ≤ 4 months old and incompletely vaccinated. This finding could suggest the role of maternal immunization in developing countries.


Assuntos
Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 75, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, remaining a major public health concern, especially affecting children under 5 years old from low-income countries. Unfortunately, information regarding their epidemiology is still limited in Peru. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in children with a probable diagnosis of Pertussis from January 2010 to July 2012. All samples were analyzed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the following etiologies: Influenza-A, Influenza-B, RSV-A, RSV-B, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza 1 virus, Parainfluenza 2 virus, Parainfluenza 3 virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. RESULTS: A total of 288 patients were included. The most common pathogen isolated was Adenovirus (49%), followed by Bordetella pertussis (41%) from our previous investigation, the most prevelant microorganisms were Mycoplasma pneumonia (26%) and Influenza-B (19.8%). Coinfections were reported in 58% of samples and the most common association was found between B. pertussis and Adenovirus (12.2%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of Adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other etiologies in patients with a probable diagnosis of pertussis. Despite the presence of persistent cough lasting at least two weeks and other clinical characteristics highly suspicious of pertussis, secondary etiologies should be considered in children under 5 years-old in order to give a proper treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Coqueluche/etiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/etiologia , Bordetella pertussis/genética , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/etiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Tosse/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/etiologia , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Peru/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/etiologia , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
3.
J Int Med Res ; 47(2): 635-640, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of disability affecting millions of people of all ages worldwide. The pathogenesis involves an inflammatory component, but the cause of the inflammation remains incompletely understood. The intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae have been demonstrated in patients with reactive arthritis. Both of these microorganisms can cause chronic and persistent infections, with C. trachomatis being the most common cause of reactive arthritis. This study was performed to investigate the presence of C. pneumoniae in a large number of patients with primary OA. METHODS: The study included 75 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty. During surgery, a synovial biopsy was performed and synovial fluid drawn. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of C. pneumoniae was run on all patients, and real-time PCR of bacterial 16S rDNA was conducted on 30 of the 75 patients to screen for the presence of other bacteria. RESULTS: Real-time PCR showed no evidence of the presence of C. pneumoniae in the patients' specimens, nor were other bacteria detected. CONCLUSIONS: Although an inflammatory component is part of the pathogenesis of OA, we found no evidence indicating that C. pneumoniae is a stimulator of that inflammation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydophila/complicações , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Osteoartrite/microbiologia , Líquido Sinovial/microbiologia , Membrana Sinovial/microbiologia , Sinovite/diagnóstico , Idoso , Artroplastia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sinovite/genética , Sinovite/microbiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509942

RESUMO

The in vitro activities of omadacycline, azithromycin, doxycycline, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin were tested against 15 isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae The minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the isolates of C. pneumoniae were inhibited by omadacycline was 0.25 µg/ml (range, 0.03 to 0.5 µg/ml).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Pneumonia por Clamídia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Clamídia/microbiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Humanos , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moxifloxacina/farmacologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 677, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical antibiotic coverage for atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has long been debated, mainly because of a lack of epidemiological data. We aimed to assess both testing for atypical pathogens and their prevalence in hospitalized patients with CAP worldwide, especially in relation with disease severity. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the GLIMP database, an international, multicentre, point-prevalence study of adult patients admitted for CAP in 222 hospitals across 6 continents in 2015, was performed. The study evaluated frequency of testing for atypical pathogens, including L. pneumophila, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and their prevalence. Risk factors for testing and prevalence for atypical pathogens were assessed through univariate analysis. RESULTS: Among 3702 CAP patients 1250 (33.8%) underwent at least one test for atypical pathogens. Testing varies greatly among countries and its frequency was higher in Europe than elsewhere (46.0% vs. 12.7%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Detection of L. pneumophila urinary antigen was the most common test performed worldwide (32.0%). Patients with severe CAP were less likely to be tested for both atypical pathogens considered together (30.5% vs. 35.0%, p = 0.009) and specifically for legionellosis (28.3% vs. 33.5%, p = 0.003) than the rest of the population. Similarly, L. pneumophila testing was lower in ICU patients. At least one atypical pathogen was isolated in 62 patients (4.7%), including M. pneumoniae (26/251 patients, 10.3%), L. pneumophila (30/1186 patients, 2.5%), and C. pneumoniae (8/228 patients, 3.5%). Patients with CAP due to atypical pathogens were significantly younger, showed less cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic comorbidities in comparison to adult patients hospitalized due to non-atypical pathogen CAP. CONCLUSIONS: Testing for atypical pathogens in patients admitted for CAP in poorly standardized in real life and does not mirror atypical prevalence in different settings. Further evidence on the impact of atypical pathogens, expecially in the low-income countries, is needed to guidelines implementation.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Geografia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Legionelose/epidemiologia , Legionelose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
6.
mSphere ; 3(5)2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305318

RESUMO

We demonstrate the genetic transformation of Chlamydia pneumoniae using a plasmid shuttle vector system which generates stable transformants. The equine C. pneumoniae N16 isolate harbors the 7.5-kb plasmid pCpnE1. We constructed the plasmid vector pRSGFPCAT-Cpn containing a pCpnE1 backbone, plus the red-shifted green fluorescent protein (RSGFP), as well as the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene used for the selection of plasmid shuttle vector-bearing C. pneumoniae transformants. Using the pRSGFPCAT-Cpn plasmid construct, expression of RSGFP in koala isolate C. pneumoniae LPCoLN was demonstrated. Furthermore, we discovered that the human cardiovascular isolate C. pneumoniae CV-6 and the human community-acquired pneumonia-associated C. pneumoniae IOL-207 could also be transformed with pRSGFPCAT-Cpn. In previous studies, it was shown that Chlamydia spp. cannot be transformed when the plasmid shuttle vector is constructed from a different plasmid backbone to the homologous species. Accordingly, we confirmed that pRSGFPCAT-Cpn could not cross the species barrier in plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. caviae, C. pecorum, and C. abortus However, contrary to our expectation, pRSGFPCAT-Cpn did transform C. felis Furthermore, pRSGFPCAT-Cpn did not recombine with the wild-type plasmid of C. felis Taken together, we provide for the first time an easy-to-handle transformation protocol for C. pneumoniae that results in stable transformants. In addition, the vector can cross the species barrier to C. felis, indicating the potential of horizontal pathogenic gene transfer via a plasmid.IMPORTANCE The absence of tools for the genetic manipulation of C. pneumoniae has hampered research into all aspects of its biology. In this study, we established a novel reproducible method for C. pneumoniae transformation based on a plasmid shuttle vector system. We constructed a C. pneumoniae plasmid backbone shuttle vector, pRSGFPCAT-Cpn. The construct expresses the red-shifted green fluorescent protein (RSGFP) fused to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in C. pneumoniae C. pneumoniae transformants stably retained pRSGFPCAT-Cpn and expressed RSGFP in epithelial cells, even in the absence of chloramphenicol. The successful transformation in C. pneumoniae using pRSGFPCAT-Cpn will advance the field of chlamydial genetics and is a promising new approach to investigate gene functions in C. pneumoniae biology. In addition, we demonstrated that pRSGFPCAT-Cpn overcame the plasmid species barrier without the need for recombination with an endogenous plasmid, indicating the potential probability of horizontal chlamydial pathogenic gene transfer by plasmids between chlamydial species.


Assuntos
Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética , Vetores Genéticos , Plasmídeos/genética , Transformação Bacteriana/genética , Animais , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Cloranfenicol O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Humanos
7.
Arkh Patol ; 80(5): 51-53, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335061

RESUMO

The paper describes the procedure to prepare endothelial cell monolayer samples from the vascular intima, which is suitable for studying various morphological processes. To obtain high-quality multicellular specimens, it is recommended to preliminarily remove excess tissue from the outside of the vessel and to free the intima; ways to dry the surface and to separate endothelial cells are examined. The paper gives the figures of specimens stained by the Romanowsky-Giemsa method and identifies factor VIII, an endothelial marker, and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Células Endoteliais , Túnica Íntima , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Endotélio , Endotélio Vascular , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
8.
Korean J Intern Med ; 33(5): 941-951, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To use serological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to examine sputum samples from patients experiencing acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) for the presence of atypical pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. METHODS: From September 2012 to February 2014, 341 patients with AECOPD attending outpatient clinics were enrolled as part of a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody titers on the first day of the study and at 36 days post-enrollment. Multiplex PCR was used to test sputum samples for the presence of atypical pathogens. A urinary antigen test for L. pneumophila was performed on the first day. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (5.6%) showed serological evidence of acute infection with M. pneumoniae. Also, one and seven patients (2%) showed serological evidence of acute infection with C. pneumoniae and L. pneumophila, respectively. All DNA samples were negative for M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and L. pneumophila according to PCR. Only one urine sample was positive for L. pneumophila antigen, but serologic evidence was lacking. CONCLUSION: Serological testing suggested that infection by atypical pathogens during AECOPD was relatively uncommon. In addition, PCR provided no direct evidence of infection by atypical pathogens. Thus, atypical pathogens may not be a major cause of AECOPD in South Korea.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Legionella pneumophila , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , República da Coreia , Testes Sorológicos
11.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 308(3): 317-323, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397298

RESUMO

Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides. Moreover, these fastidious bacteria are difficult to identify by culture or serology, and therefore often remain undetected. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia is crucial. We performed a retrospective method evaluation study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new, commercially available Lightmix® multiplex RT-PCR assay that detects these fastidious bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia. In this retrospective study, 368 clinical respiratory specimens, obtained from patients suffering from atypical pneumonia that have been tested negative for the presence of common agents of pneumonia by culture and viral PCR, were investigated. These clinical specimens have been previously characterized by singleplex RT-PCR assays in our diagnostic laboratory and were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the respiratory multiplex Lightmix® RT-PCR. The multiplex RT-PCR displayed a limit of detection between 5 and 10 DNA copies for different in-panel organisms and showed identical performance characteristics with respect to specificity and sensitivity as in-house singleplex RT-PCRs for pathogen detection. The Lightmix® multiplex RT-PCR assay represents a low-cost, time-saving and accurate diagnostic tool with high throughput potential. The time-to-result using an automated DNA extraction device for respiratory specimens followed by multiplex RT-PCR detection was below 4 h, which is expected to significantly improve diagnostics for atypical pneumonia-associated bacterial pathogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/patogenicidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Legionella/genética , Legionella/isolamento & purificação , Legionella/patogenicidade , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/economia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
14.
Arch Dis Child ; 103(4): 346-351, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the point prevalence of respiratory viruses/atypical bacteria using PCR and evaluate the impact of respiratory viruses/atypical bacteria and atopy on acute severity and clinical recovery in children with hospitalised and non-hospitalised asthma exacerbations. DESIGN: This was a prospective study performed during 2009-2011. SETTING: The study was performed in the emergency departments of two hospitals. PATIENTS: 244 children aged 2-16 years presenting with acute asthma to the emergency departments were recruited. A nasopharyngeal aspirate and allergen skin prick test were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcomes were divided into (1) acute severity outcomes (Australian National Asthma Council assessment, hospitalisation, Functional Severity Scale, Acute Asthma Score, asthma quality of life questionnaires for parents (PACQLQ) on presentation, asthma diary scores (ADS) on presentation and length of hospitalisation) and (2) recovery outcomes (PACQLQ for 21 days, ADS for 14 days and representation for asthma for 21 days). RESULTS: PCR for viruses/atypical bacteria was positive in 81.7% of children (75.1% human rhinovirus, codetection in 14.2%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae were rarely detected. The presence of micro-organisms had little impact on acute asthma or recovery outcomes. Children with atopy were significantly more likely to relapse and represent for medical care by day 14 (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of any viruses is associated with asthma exacerbations but does not appear to influence asthma recovery. In contrast, atopy is associated with asthma relapse. M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae are rare triggers of acute asthma in young children.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Chlamydophila/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydophila/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/complicações , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 11(2): 246-249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869155

RESUMO

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium responsible for respiratory diseases and is highly involved in cardiovascular disease development, mainly atherosclerosis. The main objective of our study was to evaluate C. pneumoniae prevalence in Moroccan patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. A total of 115 patients with cardiovascular diseases were enrolled, and their clinical and behavioral information was recorded. Blood was sampled from all patients as well as the atheroma plaques from 36 patients undergoing surgery. Nested PCR was performed for C. pneumoniae DNA detection in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and atheroma plaques. Statistical analysis was performed using EpiInfo software. Data analysis showed cardiovascular disease dominance in men, with a sex ratio M/F of 3.4, a majority of tobacco users (52.2%), and many diabetics (44.3%). A significant difference between genders was shown for tobacco use (p<0.05). Positive cases for PBMCs and atheroma plaques were 61% and 86%, respectively, and a significant difference between PBMCs and atheroma plaque infection was identified (p=0.02). Data analysis also showed that 12% of patients presented only C. pneumoniae infection as a risk factor. Therefore, the high prevalence of C. pneumoniae suggests its involvement in atherosclerosis, and further investigation is recommended for confirmation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydophila/diagnóstico , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/imunologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Respir Investig ; 55(6): 357-364, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a causative pathogen of lower respiratory tract infection, which generally infects healthy, young people. However, it is often difficult to evaluate acute C. pneumoniae infection using upper respiratory tract specimens and/or sputum samples due to its persistent infection or colonization. The interpretation of frequency of detection of C. pneumoniae seems to be insufficient in community-onset pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. pneumoniae using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples. METHODS: BALF samples from 147 patients with pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated using C. pneumoniae-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. RESULTS: None of the samples had positive PCR results for C. pneumoniae using two different sets of specific primers. Single and paired serological analyses were performed in 54 (36.7%) and 37 (25.2%) patients, respectively. These analyses revealed that 1 of 37 (2.7%) patients had a presumptive acute infection with C. pneumoniae, 8 of the 54 (14.8%) patients were suspected of having a C. pneumoniae infection, and 7 of the 37 (18.9%) patients were suspected of having past C. pneumoniae infection. In addition, cultivation and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing detected Haemophilus influenzae in the presumptive case using the serological method. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study revealed that C. pneumoniae might be a minor causative agent of community-onset pneumonia according to an evaluation of specimens obtained from the lower respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pneumonia por Clamídia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Clamídia/microbiologia , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 3120138, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in the population and to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This study included a total of 4500 healthy subjects who were given physical examination in Shenzhen People's Hospital from January to December in 2016. Venous blood was drawn from people to detect the MP- and CP-specific IgG and IgM in the serum using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The relationship of MP and CP infections with patient age, seasons, and percentage of infections was analyzed. CONCLUSION: CP and MP cause high rate of asymptomatic infection, which may be associated with the high incidence of CP and MP infection, especially in children and the elderly population. Therefore, the implementation of effective and practical prevention measures has become an urgent need. MP culture and drug sensitivity test should be performed as early as possible in patients with manifested MP infections in order to ensure timely and proper treatment and to reduce the emergence of drug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydophila/sangue , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydophila/microbiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/sangue , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Testes Sorológicos
19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 63(8): 115-119, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886324

RESUMO

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children younger than 5 years of age are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae are prevalent causative agents of ARIs, worldwide. We sought M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae in respiratory samples from Iranian children with ARIs.  From November 2014 to April 2015, respiratory samples of 150 children aged 1 month to 15 years old were screened for presence of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture methods were used to detect these bacteria in respiratory samples in the form of throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates. A questionnaire containing demographic and clinical information has been filled up for all participants in this study. Our obtained data showed that out of 150 tested samples, 7 (4.7%) were PCR positive for M. pneumoniae and only one (0.7%) positive sample for C. pneumoniae was detected. However, none of the tested samples was detected M. pneumoniae using the bacterial culture method. All patients with ARIs due to M. pneumoniae showed up with sore throat and flu like symptoms. According to our data, PCR method is more sensitive than culture for detection of M. pneumoniae. With regards to our results, it appears that M. pneumoniae and especially C. pneumoniae were infrequent causative agents in our studied population.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila pneumoniae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/classificação , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/classificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 98, 2017 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526018

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described. Viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV) have been implicated in asthma exacerbation in children because of their ability to cause severe airway inflammation and wheezing. Infections with atypical bacteria also appear to play a role in the induction and exacerbation of asthma in both children and adults. Recent studies confirm the existence of an infectious asthma etiology mediated by Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and possibly by other viral, bacterial and fungal microbes. It is also likely that early-life infections with microbes such as CP could lead to alterations in the lung microbiome that significantly affect asthma risk and treatment outcomes. These infectious microbes may exacerbate the symptoms of established chronic asthma and may even contribute to the initial development of the clinical onset of the disease. It is now becoming more widely accepted that patterns of airway inflammation differ based on the trigger responsible for asthma initiation and exacerbation. Therefore, a better understanding of asthma subtypes is now being explored more aggressively, not only to decipher pathophysiologic mechanisms but also to select treatment and guide prognoses. This review will explore infection-mediated asthma with special emphasis on the protean manifestations of CP lung infection, clinical characteristics of infection-mediated asthma, mechanisms involved and antibiotic treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydophila/imunologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/imunologia , Macrolídeos/imunologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Asma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Macrolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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