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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(1): 144-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050885

RESUMO

Avian chlamydiosis, is a highly contagious, systemic disease occuring in domestic and wild birds. Chlamydia psittaci, the causative agent of the disease, is a gram-negative bacterium in the Chlamydiaceae family that can only live within the cell. The agent can be transmitted directly to humans by contact with infected animals or feces of infected animals. It can also be transmitted by inhalation of fecal dust. Since the disease has a zoonotic character, it is also important in terms of public health. By using the monoclonal antibodies against cell wall proteins (OMP) of C.psittaci, six (A-F) and two (WC and M56) serotypes were determined in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate and genotype the presence of C.psittaci ompA gene in domestic pigeon feces grown in family management style in ten different districts in Ankara in winter and summer seasons. Within the scope of the study, 100 pigeon stool samples were collected from birdhouses in 10 different districts of Ankara (Beypazari, Haymana, Kizilcahamam, Cubuk, Pursaklar, Bala, Cankaya, Polatli, Golbasi and city center) in two different seasons. DNA extraction from fecal samples was performed by classical methods. The presence of the agent in the extracted DNA samples was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the ompA gene. Two-way sequence analysis of the ompA gene was performed with the primers used in the study from the target DNA products amplified by PCR. The results of sequence analysis were compared with the international database and serotyping/genotyping was performed. In the study, C.psittaci ompA gene was detected in 6 (6%) samples of 100 pigeon stool samples. Among these positive samples, two were from Bala (one sample from winter, one sample from summer), two were from Haymana (one sample from winter, one sample from summer) and two were from Golbasi (one sample from winter, one sample from summer); where the same agent was isolated in the same aviaries in different seasons. In this study, no difference was found between the presence of C.psittaci in pigeon droppings and season. In addition when the sequence analysis of the isolated samples were compared with the World database; all isolates were found to be 100% genotype B and 99% genotype E. In this study, the sequence analysis of the ompA gene of C.psittaci from domestic pigeon feces was determined for the first time in Turkey. Although the presence of C.psittaci in domestic pigeons is low, it is a zoonotic bacterium and is important for the public health.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Doenças das Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci , Columbidae , Fezes , Psitacose , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbidae/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia , Turquia
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8179-8193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632026

RESUMO

Background: Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacteria closely associated with psittacosis/ornithosis. Vaccination has been recognized as the best way to inhibit the spread of C. psittaci due to the majority ignored of infections. The optimal Chlamydia vaccine was obstructed by the defect of single immunization route and the lack of availability of nontoxic and valid adjuvants. Methods: In this study, we developed a novel immunization strategy, simultaneous (SIM) intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of a C. psittaci antigens (Ags) adjuvanted with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). And SIM-CNPs-Ags were used to determine the different types of immune response and the protective role in vivo. Results: CNPs-Ags with zeta-potential values of 13.12 mV and of 276.1 nm showed excellent stability and optimal size for crossing the mucosal barrier with high 71.7% encapsulation efficiency. SIM-CPN-Ags mediated stronger humoral and mucosal responses by producing meaningfully high levels of IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies. The SIM route also led to Ags-specific T-cell responses and increased IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-17A in the splenocyte supernatants. Following respiratory infection with C. psittaci, we found that SIM immunization remarkably reduced bacterial load and the degree of inflammation in the infected lungs and made for a lower level of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, SIM vaccination with CNPs-Ags had obviously inhibited C. psittaci disseminating to various organs in vivo. Conclusion: SIM immunization with CNPs-adjuvanted C. psittaci Ags may present a novel strategy for the development of a vaccine against the C. psittaci infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Injeções Intramusculares , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Psitacose , Baço/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação
3.
Infect Immun ; 88(1)2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658957

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells are critically involved in the early response against various bacterial microbes. Functional activation of infected DCs and NK cell-mediated gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion essentially contribute to the protective immunity against Chlamydia How DCs and NK cells cooperate during the antichlamydial response is not fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the functional interplay between Chlamydia-infected DCs and NK cells. Our biochemical and cell biological experiments show that Chlamydia psittaci-infected DCs display enhanced exosome release. We find that such extracellular vesicles (referred to as dexosomes) do not contain infectious bacterial material but strongly induce IFN-γ production by NK cells. This directly affects C. psittaci growth in infected target cells. Furthermore, NK cell-released IFN-γ in cooperation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and/or dexosomes augments apoptosis of both noninfected and infected epithelial cells. Thus, the combined effect of dexosomes and proinflammatory cytokines restricts C. psittaci growth and attenuates bacterial subversion of apoptotic host cell death. In conclusion, this provides new insights into the functional cooperation between DCs, dexosomes, and NK cells in the early steps of antichlamydial defense.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Teóricos
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 257-264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383310

RESUMO

Wild birds are known reservoirs of bacterial and viral pathogens, some of which have zoonotic potential. This poses a risk to both avian and human health, since spillover into domestic bird populations may occur. In Victoria, wild-caught cockatoos trapped under licence routinely enter commercial trade. The circovirus Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV), herpesviruses, adenoviruses and Chlamydia psittaci have been identified as significant pathogens of parrots globally, with impacts on both aviculture and the conservation efforts of endangered species. In this study, we describe the results of surveillance for psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs), psittacine adenovirus (PsAdV), BFDV and C. psittaci in wild cacatuids in Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected from 55 birds of four species, and tested using genus or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of known and novel pathogens. There were no clinically observed signs of illness in most of the live birds in this study (96.3%; n = 53). Beak and Feather Disease Virus was detected with a prevalence of 69.6% (95% CI 55.2-80.9). Low prevalences of PsHV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), PsAdV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), and C. psittaci (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6) was detected. Importantly, a novel avian alphaherpesvirus and a novel avian adenovirus were detected in a little corella (Cacatua sanguinea) co-infected with BFDV and C. psittaci. The presence of multiple potential pathogens detected in a single bird presents an example of the ease with which such infectious agents may enter the pet trade and how novel viruses circulating in wild populations have the potential for transmission into captive birds. Genomic identification of previously undescribed avian viruses is important to further our understanding of their epidemiology, facilitating management of biosecurity aspects of the domestic and international bird trade, and conservation efforts of vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Papagaios/virologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Animais , Aviadenovirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Papagaios/microbiologia , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
5.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 22-28, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124608

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Columbiformes , Genótipo , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbiformes/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 2002-2010, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127977

RESUMO

Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) is an avian pathogen associated with systemic wasting disease in birds, as well as a public health risk. Although duck-related cases of psittacosis have been reported, the pathogenicity and shedding status of C. psittaci in ducks are unclear. In this study, we reported that C. psittaci (genotype A) is responsible for a disease outbreak characterized by poor laying performance and severe lesions in multiple organs of ducks. Oral administration of antibiotic, doxycycline, was found to effectively control the C. psittaci infection in laying ducks. Collectively, our new findings provide evidence that C. psittaci was the major pathogen responsible for the outbreak of this disease in ducks. In order to reduce economic losses incurred by this disease, effective control measures must be taken to prevent infection in laying duck farms.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Psitacose/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , China , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Psitacose/tratamento farmacológico , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/fisiopatologia , Reprodução
7.
Acta Med Port ; 32(2): 161-164, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896398

RESUMO

Psittacosis is a rare disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, an intracellular bacteria transmitted by contaminated birds. The clinical and radiological presentations are nonspecific. We describe a case of a 42-year-old woman, with known exposure to birds, who presented to the emergency department with one-week evolution of myalgia, polyarthritis, and respiratory symptoms. At admission, she had fever, respiratory failure, raised inflammatory markers and bilateral interstitial infiltrates at chest radiography. Considering the clinical findings and epidemiological background, we raised the hypothesis of a Chlamydophila psittaci atypical pneumonia that was serologically confirmed. Tetracyclines are the mainstay of treatment and the macrolides are an effective alternative. We highlight the importance of the epidemiological context in the early diagnosis and treatment of this infection.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Clamídia/diagnóstico , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Agapornis/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia por Clamídia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Clamídia/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Psitacose/tratamento farmacológico , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico
9.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 51(2): 130-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017323

RESUMO

In order to determine the presence and genetic diversity of Chlamydia spp. in the north-eastern area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, conjunctival, oropharyngeal, cloacal swab and tissues were collected from a total of 90 psittacine pet birds of different age and clinical manifestations. Through molecular methods, Chlamydiaceae was detected in 30% (27/90) of the samples, out of which 70.3% (19/27) were positive for Chlamydia psittaci and 14.9% (4/27) for Chlamydia abortus. Nine C. psittaci positive samples were genotyped by ompA gene sequences, 8 clustered within genotype A and 1 within genotype B. A significant association was observed between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and the manifestation of clinical signs compatible with chlamydiosis, as well as with the age of the birds (younger than one year old). This report contributes to the improvement of our understanding of chlamydial agents in our country.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(2): 402-410, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353983

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 190 swabs were collected from psittacine birds (n = 120) and bird handlers (n = 70) and were tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect the C. psittaci ompA gene. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was detected in 63 (52·5%) of 120 samples collected from psittacine birds. The occurrence of C. psittaci infections was high in Cockatiel birds (60%), followed by Fischer's lovebird (51%) and Rosy-faced lovebird (47·5%). Bird age, location (pet markets and households), housing (caged and aviary), and sampling season were considered significant risk factors for C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds. Of the 70 sputum swabs collected from bird handlers, only 4 (6%) were positive for C. psittaci. Positive cases were closely associated with older persons (≥30 years) who had respiratory signs and handled birds in pet markets. Further, wearing protective gloves and washing hands when handling psittacine birds decreased the frequency of C. psittaci infections in bird handlers. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds in Egypt is high, which has a potential threat to human health in this area. Thus, dissemination of effective prevention and control measures is essential to prevent the spread of C. psittaci among psittacine birds, as well as among humans in contact with birds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Results from this study highlighted the risk factors associated with C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt and will aid in developing prevention and control measures to reduce the risk of C. psittaci infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(2): 941-952, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467705

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular pathogen with a broad host range that can lead to severe infectious disease by transferring from birds to humans. Vaccination has been considered the best way to prevent chlamydial infection; nevertheless, there is currently still no commercially available vaccine that can inhibit the spread of C. psittaci. In previous study, major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. psittaci was confirmed to be an appropriate candidate antigen for limiting C. psittaci respiratory infections in a murine model, and plasmid-encoded CPSIT_p6 also has functions similar to those of MOMP in our study. Therefore, according to bioinformatics analysis, we developed a recombinant peptide containing multiple antigenic epitopes from MOMP (24-32, 262-272) and CPSIT_p6 protein (109-119, 173-181) and evaluated the efficacy of peptide immunization. BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with the recombinant multi-epitope antigens three times at 2-week intervals and subsequently intranasally infected with C. psittaci. We found that the recombinant multi-epitope antigens induced strong humoral and Th1 cellular immune responses by producing meaningfully high levels of antigen-specific antibodies, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), or interleukin-2 (IL-2). Vaccination significantly reduced the bacterial burden and the degree of inflammation in the infected lungs and led to lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-6. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD4+ splenocytes harvested from the vaccinated mice produced a significantly lower chlamydial load, indicating the importance of the cellular immune response. Therefore, the recombinant multi-epitope antigens may provide the basis for a new peptide-based vaccine against C. psittaci infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Psitacose/prevenção & controle , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Carga Bacteriana , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos/genética , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Esquemas de Imunização , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
12.
Rev Mal Respir ; 36(3): 298-306, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to compare the features at diagnosis in patients with ornithosis to patients with avian acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Clinical, biological and radiological differences could potentially help clinicians to distinguish these diseases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients admitted from 2000 to 2016 in three hospitals. Ornithosis was diagnosed based on a positive polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydophila psittaci on respiratory samples and/or a seroconversion while HP was diagnosed on the basis of at least one positive serum precipitin. RESULTS: Twelve patients with HP and 13 patients with ornithosis were identified. Compared to HP, ornithosis occurred more frequently in males (P=0.047), with less previous respiratory diseases (P=0.01), shorter symptom duration (P=0.03), less frequently bilateral crackles (P=0.004), more severe disease requiring more frequently intensive care admission (P=0.005), higher CRP values (P=0.005) and more profound lymphopenia (P=0.02). Ground glass shadowing on CT scan (P=0.001) or bronchiectasis (P=0.03) were more frequently noted in patients with HP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with ornithosis and HP have important differences in their clinical, biological, and radiological presentation.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/epidemiologia , Animais , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(1): 41-44, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377069

RESUMO

The present retrospective study provides an in-depth analysis of the maternal sepsis-related deaths reported in Japan, and aims to guide future care regarding maternal sepsis. This is a nationwide, retrospective, descriptive cohort study. Data were retrospectively analyzed on all maternal death cases related to sepsis reported in Japan from 2010 through 2016. A total of 7,347,727 births and 317 maternal deaths were reported during the study period. The cause of maternal death was sepsis in 24 women (7.5%). Causative bacteria were Streptococcus pyogenes (54.2%), Chlamydia psittaci (8.3%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (8.3%), Escherichia coli (4.2%), Neisseria meningitidis (4.2%), Epstein-Barr virus (4.2%), and unknown (16.6%). In maternal death due to S. pyogenes (13 women), onset periods ware antepartum in 10 women (76.9%) and postpartum in 3 (23.1%); death within 24 h after hospital admission occurred in 7 women (53.8%); and the median time from hospital admission to death was 12 h (6-744 h). The most common causative bacteria in to maternal sepsis-related death were GAS. When encountering severe sepsis during the peripartum period, we recommend considering severe GAS infection and early intervention.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(2): 873-881, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548806

RESUMO

Different bacteria are present in rubbish dumps used as food resources by various bird species. Birds may be good indicators of the presence of zoonotic diseases in these sites since they can be infected with zoonotic pathogens by foraging on organic waste, and can also act as carriers. We studied if foraging in rubbish dumps increases the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Chlamydia psittaci in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus, hereafter black vultures) from northwest Patagonia. We compared these pathogens isolated from or detected in cloacae and oropharynx swabs in two different groups of black vultures: individuals trapped in (a) the Patagonian wild steppe and (b) in a rubbish dump. We found that black vultures are colonized by Salmonella spp. (particularly Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi, Paratyphi A, Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae) and Chlamydia psittaci. Interestingly, there were differences in the prevalence of Salmonella spp., especially Salmonella Typhi, between individuals foraging in the rubbish dump and the steppe, but not in the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci. The pathogens isolated from black vultures may impact their health status but could also have health impacts in other bird species and even humans. In fact, Salmonella Typhi can cause severe disease in humans leading to death. Our results are globally relevant given that bacterial infections from rubbish dumps may affect different species exploiting these sites around the world. There is a need to better control pathogens in rubbish dumps to avoid the risk of infecting wildlife, which could act as potential dispersers and reservoirs of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Falconiformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Eliminação de Resíduos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Cloaca/microbiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
15.
Lakartidningen ; 1152018 11 27.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480746

RESUMO

Psittacosis, parrot fever, is an infectious disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a common pathogen among birds. The clinical course ranges from a mild flu-like illness to severe disease that requires intensive care in humans. We report three cases of severe pneumonia where C. psittaci was unexpectedly detected during routine validation of a new C. psittaci PCR assay. Psittacosis is a notifiable disease in Sweden and national statistics show that 96% of Swedish psittacosis cases were identified in five of the 24 microbiological laboratories available in the country. These five laboratories perform PCR for C. psittaci routinely in panels with other atypical pneumonia agents and/or Legionella, suggesting that psittacosis is an underdiagnosed infection in Sweden.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Clamídia/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Suécia
16.
Lakartidningen ; 1152018 11 27.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480747

RESUMO

Psittacosis (parrot fever) is underdiagnosed in Sweden, possibly due to lack of awareness, and the fact that only five out of 24 clinical microbiology laboratories routinely perform the PCR test for Chlamydia psittaci. The test has shown 100% sensitivity and 100% sensitivity for the pathogen in samples from the lower part of the respiratory tract which caters for a high predictive value in patients with symptoms and signs of community-acquired atypical pneumonias, provided optimal patient selection. Knowledge and awareness of treatable rare diseases amongst healthcare personnel combined with conveniently available cost-effective diagnostic techniques is essential for improvements in the handling of rare diseases.


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Animais , Aves , Pneumonia por Clamídia/diagnóstico , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Competência Clínica , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 442, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psittacosis outbreak investigations require rapid identification of cases in order to trace possible sources and perform public health risk assessments. In recent outbreaks in the Netherlands, such investigations were hampered by the non-specificity of laboratory testing methods to identify human Chlamydia psittaci infections. METHOD: A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus databases of literature published between 01 January, 1986 and 03 July, 2017 was done to find best practices of laboratory-testing methods used in psittacosis outbreaks of two or more human cases. Reference lists of included articles were hand searched to identify additional articles. RESULTS: Thirty-seven eligible articles were identified, describing 44 human psittacosis outbreaks in 12 countries. Laboratory tests performed were PCR (with various targets), serologic tests (complement binding reactions, ELISA's, immunofluorescence tests and immuno-peroxidase tests) and culture, in various combinations. The literature provided no 'gold standard' laboratory testing strategy to identify recent human C. psittaci infections. In most psittacosis outbreaks, for a considerable number of cases (or tested individuals in an exposed cohort), C. psittaci infection could not be confirmed, nor excluded as causative pathogen. None of the testing strategies was found to be suitable for (nearly) full case finding. CONCLUSION: PCR enables rapid identification of human psittacosis patients and helps source finding by genotyping but has the disadvantage that sensitivity is high only in the acute phase. In outbreak situations, there is often a time delay and therefore, there is a need for new serologic testing methods next to PCR, with good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, serum is easier to collect than the preferred diagnostic materials for PCR. A serologic test that can reliably confirm infection status without the necessity of convalescent serum sampling would enhance case finding, source tracing, identification of risk factors and assessment of burden of disease in various settings.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Animais , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/transmissão
18.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 50(11-12): 817-821, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For more than 200 years people in the Faroe Islands have supplemented their food by hunting different species of wild birds in the Faroe Islands. Traditionally, juvenile fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) are caught at sea in late August. The fulmars may be infected or colonized with the bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci which may infect the hunter by the respiratory route and mostly presents as an atypical pneumonia, also called psittacosis or ornithosis or parrot fever. In the Faroe Islands it is called 'nátasjúka' meaning 'fulmar disease'. Historically, it has also been called 'September Pneumonia' in the Faroe Islands. METHODS: A case series with patients infected with Chlamydophila psittaci. RESULTS: All four cases presented in this article occurred around the month of September. Improved hygiene measures during the last 50 years in handling the fulmar birds have led to a decline of verified psittacosis in the Faroe Islands. After the last two hunting seasons (2016-2017), four cases of psittacosis were diagnosed and treated in the Faroe Islands. Only nine cases of verified psittacosis have been reported to the Chief Medical Officer of the Faroe Islands during the last 27 years. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between catching and handling Fulmarus glacialis and human psittacosis disease in the Faroe Islands. Clinicians treating patients with contact with fulmars should be aware of this zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psitacose/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Animais , Aves , Dinamarca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Radiografia , Zoonoses
19.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 575, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Members of the phylum Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of humans and animals and have a serious impact on host health. They comprise several zoonotic species with varying disease outcomes and prevalence. To investigate differences in virulence, we focused on Chlamydia psittaci, C. abortus and Waddlia chondrophila. Most threatening is C. psittaci, which frequently infects humans and causes psittacosis associated with severe pneumonia. The closest relative of C. psittaci is C. abortus, which shares the vast majority of genes but less frequently infects humans, and causes stillbirth and sepsis. W. chondrophila is more distantly related, and occasional human infections are associated with respiratory diseases or miscarriage. One possible explanation for differences in virulence originate from species-specific genes as well as differentially expressed homologous virulence factors. RESULTS: RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was applied to purified infectious elementary bodies (EBs) and non-infectious reticulate bodies (RBs) in order to elucidate the transcriptome of the infectious and replicative chlamydial states. The results showed that approximately half of all genes were differentially expressed. For a descriptive comparison, genes were categorised according to their function in the RAST database. This list was extended by the inclusion of inclusion membrane proteins, outer membrane proteins, polymorphic membrane proteins and type III secretion system effectors. In addition, the expression of fifty-six known and a variety of predicted virulence and immunogenic factors with homologs in C. psittaci, C. abortus and W. chondrophila was analysed. To confirm the RNA-Seq results, the expression of nine factors was validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Comparison of RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR results showed a high mean Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.95. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that both the replicative and infectious chlamydial state contained distinctive transcriptomes and the cellular processes emphasised in EBs and RBs differed substantially based on the chlamydial species. In addition, the very first interspecies transcriptome comparison is presented here, and the considerable differences in expression of homologous virulence factors might contribute to the differing infection rates and disease outcomes of the pathogens. The RNA-Seq results were confirmed by RT-qPCR and demonstrate the feasibility of interspecies transcriptome comparisons in chlamydia.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Chlamydiales/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydiaceae/microbiologia , Chlamydiales/patogenicidade , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/patogenicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
20.
Immunol Res ; 66(4): 471-479, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097797

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the immune-protective efficacy of the Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) plasmid protein CPSIT_p7 and analyzed the potential mechanisms of this protection. The current study used recombinant CPSIT_p7 protein with Freund's complete adjuvant and Freund's incomplete adjuvant to vaccinate BALB/c mice. Adjuvants alone or PBS formulated with the same adjuvants was used as negative controls. Mice were intranasally challenged with 105 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of C. psittaci. We found that CPSIT_p7 vaccination significantly decreased the mouse lung chlamydial load, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) level, and pathological injury. This protection correlated well with specific humoral and cellular immune responses against C. psittaci. In vitro or in vivo neutralization of C. psittaci with sera harvested from immunized mice did not reduce the number of recoverable C. psittaci in the infected lungs, but CD4+ spleen cells collected from CPSIT_p7-immunized mice significantly decreased the chlamydial load via adoptive transfer to native mice. These results reveal that the protection conferred by CPSIT_p7 is dependent on CD4+ T cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Psitacose/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Carga Bacteriana , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunização , Interferon gama/sangue , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos/genética , Vacinação
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