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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 119-124, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470940

RESUMO

A simultaneous determination method for caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in chocolate was developed. Three compounds were ultrasonically extracted twice (15 min at 50℃) in an acetonitrile-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was purified using Oasis HLB SPE cartridge, and the purified processed by LC-MS. The method exhibited recoveries of 97.4-100.2%, RSDs of repeatability of 1.0-2.8%, and RSDs of within-laboratory reproducibility of 2.0-7.9%. This method was simpler and more selective than existing methods, and was practical for caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline analysis in chocolate.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Teobromina , Cafeína , Cromatografia Líquida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Teofilina
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5018, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465789

RESUMO

Chocolate manufacture includes a complex tempering procedure to direct the crystallization of cocoa butter towards the formation of fat crystal networks with specific polymorphism, nano- and microstructure, melting behavior, surface gloss and mechanical properties. Here we investigate the effects of adding various minor non-triglyceride lipidic components to refined cocoa butter and chocolate on their physical properties. We discover that addition of saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to neutralized and bleached cocoa butter or molten and recrystallized commercial chocolate at 0.1% (w/w) levels, followed by rapid cooling to 20 °C in the absence of shear, accelerates crystallization, stabilizes the desirable Form V polymorph and induces the formation of chocolate with an optimal microstructure, surface gloss and mechanical strength. Final chocolate structure and properties are comparable to those of a commercial tempered chocolate. Minor lipidic component addition represents an effective way to engineer chocolate material properties at different length scales, thus simplifying the entire tempering process.


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Lipídeos/química , Cacau/química , Cristalização , Manipulação de Alimentos
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1283-1288, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531338

RESUMO

Background: In recent literatures, much attention has been given to natural products for their health benefits. Aims: In this study, the objective was to measure the efficacy of the ginger-honey-chocolate mixture as the remineralization effect has been shown in the literature previously and to evaluate the individual contributions of this mixture; ginger, natural honey, bitter chocolate separately on remineralization of initial enamel caries lesion. Materials and Methods: All specimens were divided into eight groups as: Ginger (Arifoglu®, Turkey) in powder form, (n = 8); Ginger-Honey-Chocolate (n = 8); Natural honey (Balparmak Plateau Blossom Honey®, Turkey) (n = 9); Bitter chocolate (Nestlé®, Switzerland) (n = 8); MI Paste (GC, Japan) (n = 8); Paradontax (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Pronamel (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Control (n = 9) groups. Samples were carried out five pH cycles along 7 days at 37°C for each group. During pH cycling, blocks were put in a demineralization (6 h) and a remineralization solution (18 h). The treatment consisted of 1 min. interaction of enamel surfaces with agent/deionized slurries (1:3 w/w) on a daily basis. The surface microhardness (SMH) was determined before and after pH cycling with a Digital Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester (Wilson Wolpert; Europe BV, 401 MVD, Netherlands). Mineral changes were determined by using FluoreCam® and recovery values were calculated as SMHR% and FΔ%, respectively. Results: All groups showed an enhanced remineralization. There was no significant difference in terms of FΔ% (F = 1.223, P = 0.304) and SMHR% (F = 0.709, P = 0.664) between all groups. Conclusion: The herbals (ginger, honey, and bitter chocolate) examined in this study gave promising results with a high remineralization potential.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Cárie Dentária , Gengibre , Mel , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1137-1144, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483344

RESUMO

Background: Although previous studies have suggested cocoa products may promote cardiovascular health in the general population, no public data are available from patients receiving care in a national integrated health care system. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that regular chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) events among participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP). Secondary analysis examined if the main hypothesis was observed among participants with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We analyzed data from MVP participants who completed the food frequency section of the MVP Lifestyle Survey and were free of CAD at the time of survey completion. CAD events during follow-up (International Statistical Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes 410-411 and 413-414, and Tenth Revision codes I20-I25 except I25.2) were assessed using electronic health records. We fitted a Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the RR of CAD. Results: Of 188,447 MVP enrollees with survey data, mean ± SD age was 64 ± 12.0 y and 90% were men. For regular chocolate (28.3 g/serving) consumption of <1 serving/mo, 1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2-4 servings/wk, and ≥5 servings/wk, crude incidence rates (per 1000 person-years) for fatal and nonfatal CAD events or coronary procedures were 20.2, 17.5, 16.7, 17.1, and 16.9, respectively, during a mean follow-up of 3.2 y. After adjusting for age, sex, race, and lifestyle factors, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (ref), 0.92 (0.87, 0.96), 0.88 (0.83, 0.93), 0.89 (0.84, 0.95), and 0.89 (0.84, 0.96), respectively (P for linear trend < 0.0001). In a secondary analysis of 47,265 diabetics, we did not observe a decreasing trend in CAD mortality among those who consumed ≥1 serving of chocolate a month compared with those who consumed <1 serving/mo. Conclusions: Regular chocolate consumption was associated with a lower risk of CAD among veterans, but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk in veterans with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Veteranos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110561, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399538

RESUMO

Nucleation and crystal growth of edible fats at the nanoscale have received little attention due to analytical limitations. A key factor to modify the properties of edible fats is nanostructure understanding. Progress within the last years will be presented, including analytical techniques used to investigate fat crystallization. Cocoa butter has been the subject of several works due to its properties and its high impact on chocolate manufacturing. Moreover, this vegetable fat has been used as the solid lipid component in nano delivery systems. Since nanoplatelet is the smallest unit in crystalline fats, and the nanoscale is influenced by supersaturation, temperature, shear fields, and surfactants, nanostructure engineering is possible. On its part, cocoa butter has been included in innovative delivery systems along the last years. This review will highlight main results and challenges on these topics.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Nanoestruturas , Gorduras na Dieta , Gorduras
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371907

RESUMO

The effect of coffee and cocoa on oxidative damage to macromolecules has been investigated in several studies, often with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate the effect of one-month consumption of different doses of coffee or cocoa-based products containing coffee on markers of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in young healthy volunteers. Twenty-one volunteers were randomly assigned into a three-arm, crossover, randomized trial. Subjects were assigned to consume one of the three following treatments: one cup of espresso coffee/day (1C), three cups of espresso coffee/day (3C), and one cup of espresso coffee plus two cocoa-based products containing coffee (PC) twice per day for 1 month. At the end of each treatment, blood samples were collected for the analysis of endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage and DNA oxidation catabolites, while urines were used for the analysis of oxylipins. On the whole, four DNA catabolites (cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), 8-OH-2'-deoxy-guanosine, 8-OH-guanine, and 8-NO2-cGMP) were detected in plasma samples following the one-month intervention. No significant modulation of DNA and lipid damage markers was documented among groups, apart from an effect of time for DNA strand breaks and some markers of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, the consumption of coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee was apparently not able to affect oxidative stress markers. More studies are encouraged to better explain the findings obtained and to understand the impact of different dosages of these products on specific target groups.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Chocolate , Café , Dano ao DNA , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Café/efeitos adversos , Ensaio Cometa , Estudos Cross-Over , GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , GMP Cíclico/sangue , Feminino , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
8.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299600

RESUMO

Amino acids present ergogenic action, helping to increase, protect, and restore the muscular system of young athletes. Moreover, the encapsulation of five relevant amino acids in chocolate pellet form will appeal to them, facilitating their daily consumption. A reliable HPLC fluorimetric method was developed to detect and quantitatively determine L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Histidine, L-Valine, and ß-Alanine in chocolate using aniline as an internal standard. Experimental design methodology was used to investigate and optimize the clean-up procedure of the samples. Therefore, three extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction (by two different SPE cartridges) and liquid-solid extraction (LSE)) were compared and evaluated. The LOQ values in chocolate varied from 24 to 118 ng/g (recovery 89.7-95.6%, %RSD < 2.5). Amino acids were pre-column derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), while derivatization parameters were thoroughly investigated by experimental design methodology. The analysis was performed by HPLC-fluorescence (emission: λ = 455 nm, excitation: λ = 340 nm) method using a C18 column and a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH = 2.8; 20 mM)-methanol as a mobile phase in gradient elution. The method was validated (r2 > 0.999, %RSD < 2, LOD: 10 ng mL-1 for histidine and leucine, 2 ng mL-1 for alanine and valine, and 4 ng mL-1 for Isoleucine) according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Chocolate/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
9.
Food Chem ; 364: 130198, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256277

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the rate and extent of urinary excretion of cocoa phenolic metabolites after human intake using metabolomics approach. In this context, a feeding trial was conducted where urine samples were collected at different time points over 48-h period. Several biomarkers were highlighted in LC-MS based chemometrics using principal component (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), which revealed the presence of both epicatechin and gut microbial phenyl-γ-valerolactones (PVLs) conjugated analogues. The presences of these metabolites segregated and grouped the samples based on cocoa and non-cocoa ingestion. Furthermore, semi quantification of major bioavailable metabolites was performed to determine the interindividual differences and assess the relative bioavailability of cocoa compounds in the human body. Our approach presented here is unique in displaying a combination of LC-MS based chemometrics visualization strategies, which revealed and identified significant biomarkers that could reduce the problems associated with data screening complexity.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Food Chem ; 365: 130627, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329875

RESUMO

The fine flavor cocoa (FFC) market offers cocoa farmers better monetary and nonmonetary benefits than the bulk market. In this work, during cocoa fermentation, flavor formation was studied at different fermentation times based on sensory profiles, volatile compound contents and untargeted metabolomics. It was observed that chocolate quality is influenced by fermentation time. Thus, at 72 h, the sensory profiles showed no outstanding attributes, while at 96 h, the global quality presented a stronger influence of fine attributes, such as fruitiness, florality, spices and nuttiness. Finally, at 120/144 h, these FFC features diminished. Metabolomic fingerprint of cocoa beans (related to peptides, sugars, amino acids, and phenolic compounds) and the volatile fingerprint of chocolate showed a change according to the fermentation time. This allowed the proposal of 96 h as the optimal fermentation time to produce FFC beans. Additionally, 20 volatiles and 48 discriminating metabolites were defined as potential quality biomarkers.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Chocolate/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8200-8212, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278790

RESUMO

Historically often described as the food of gods, cocoa-based products exhibit a pleasant aroma as well as a desirable astringent, bitter, and sour taste, which results in a high consumer preference. The key taste components of cocoa were identified and characterized by combining sensory analysis, fractionation, and structure elucidation. Cocoa astringency is driven by N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids, polyphenol glycosides, and flavan-3-ols, while the latter compound class also contributes to bitterness. The key principle for cocoa bitterness was shown to be the combination of alkaloids and 2,5-diketopiperazines. To understand the influence of plant genetics, breeding, and processing on the sensory profile of cocoa products, high-throughput sensometabolite quantitation must be performed throughout all of these steps. In this work, we present a rapid, sensitive, and robust quantitation method on a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) platform, requiring minimal workup for any sample type from farm to fork. This method was applied to a global set of 75 cocoa bean samples from all over the world before and after using a uniform roasting protocol. Within this world map, geographical origin did not predetermine cocoa taste profiles, whereas simulated processing by roasting was confirmed to be crucial in profile development. This method will open avenues for further studies to ultimately enable chocolate producers to control and optimize the taste properties of products as well as to monitor raw material selection and processing.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Melhoramento Vegetal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(30): 8504-8510, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297568

RESUMO

The impact of water on odor-active compounds in fermented and dried cocoa beans as well as in chocolate either produced by a novel processing (NPC) or a traditional processing (TPC) technology from the same batch of cocoa beans was investigated in this study. Quantitation of selected key odorants revealed significantly higher concentrations of Strecker aldehydes such as 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (66-fold) and phenylacetaldehyde (50-fold) after water treatment of the cocoa beans. The comparison of the two chocolates showed that higher amounts of the Strecker aldehydes 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and phenylacetaldehyde are released with water in the NPC (24-fold to 39-fold), compared to the TPC (7.3-fold-11-fold). In addition to Strecker aldehydes, the concentrations of many further characteristic key odorants of cocoa and chocolate increased after water treatment. Based on the results, a more intense retronasal odor perception of the analyzed compounds is expected due to their release during consumption in contact with saliva.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Fermentação , Odorantes , Sementes , Água
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(16): e0058421, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105982

RESUMO

Metagenomic studies about cocoa fermentation have mainly reported on the analysis of short reads for determination of operational taxonomic units. However, it is also important to determine metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), which are genomes deriving from the assembly of metagenomics. For this research, all the cocoa metagenomes from public databases were downloaded, resulting in five data sets: one from Ghana and four from Brazil. In addition, in silico approaches were used to describe putative phenotypes and the metabolic potential of MAGs. A total of 17 high-quality MAGs were recovered from these microbiomes, as follows: (i) for fungi, Yamadazyma tenuis (n = 1); (ii) lactic acid bacteria, Limosilactobacillus fermentum (n = 5), Liquorilactobacillus cacaonum (n = 1), Liquorilactobacillus nagelli (n = 1), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (n = 1), and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum (n = 1); (iii) acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter senegalensis (n = 2) and Kozakia baliensis (n = 1); and (iv) Bacillus subtilis (n = 1), Brevundimonas sp. (n = 2), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 1). Medium-quality MAGs were also recovered from cocoa microbiomes, including some that, to our knowledge, were not previously detected in this environment (Liquorilactobacillus vini, Komagataeibacter saccharivorans, and Komagataeibacter maltaceti) and others previously described (Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus and Acetobacter pasteurianus). Taken together, the MAGs were useful for providing an additional description of the microbiome of cocoa fermentation, revealing previously overlooked microorganisms, with prediction of key phenotypes and biochemical pathways. IMPORTANCE The production of chocolate starts with the harvesting of cocoa fruits and the spontaneous fermentation of the seeds in a microbial succession that depends on yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria in order to eliminate bitter and astringent compounds present in the raw material, which will be further roasted and grinded to originate the cocoa powder that will enter the food processing industry. The microbiota of cocoa fermentation is not completely known, and yet it advanced from culture-based studies to the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing, with the generation of a myriad of data that need bioinformatic approaches to be properly analyzed. Although the majority of metagenomic studies have been based on short reads (operational taxonomic units), it is also important to analyze entire genomes to determine more precisely possible ecological roles of different species. Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) are very useful for this purpose; here, MAGs from cocoa fermentation microbiomes are described, and the possible implications of their phenotypic and metabolic potentials are discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cacau/microbiologia , Chocolate/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cacau/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Filogenia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
14.
Food Chem ; 364: 130386, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175633

RESUMO

Vitamin D and magnesium-calcium carbonate nanoparticles were used to fortify a newly developed healthy chocolate spread formulated with inulin and maltitol as sugar replacers and alternative to palm oil to reduce the concentration of saturated fatty acid. These samples were compared with well-known commercially available chocolate spreads in terms of rheology, polyphenols content and in vitro digestion, sensory attributes and willingness to buy. The fortified chocolate spreads showed comparable if not better acceptability than the current products on the market and over 80% of the participants were inclined to buy and 66% prepared to spend 10 to 15% more money on the product enriched with the three micronutrients. The results also demonstrate that the incorporation of nanoparticles could affect the rheological and physio-chemical properties of the formulations and an appropriate ratio between the fat phase and particles seems an important factor to consider.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Carboidratos , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Açúcares
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3205-3218, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155639

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends cutting down added sugar in processed foods and beverages. There is a growing concern for increased calorie intake from added sugar in flavored milk. To understand how to effectively reduce added sugar in flavored milk, the influence of other nutritional components such as percentage of fat, protein, and salt need to be accounted for as they are the determinants for color, flavor and mouthfeel attributes that ultimately influence consumer liking. Therefore, this study aims to identify the ideal product composition of commercial chocolate flavored milk samples and to link the existing variations to consumers' liking data using External Preference Mapping (EPM). Thirty-four commercial chocolate milk samples systematically varying in compositional profile (sugar, fat, protein, salt, stabilizer and sweetener) were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with a subset of 10 chocolate milk samples varying in product composition (fat, protein, salt and sugar) selected for consumer evaluation. Consumers (n = 235) evaluated these 10 chocolate milk samples for overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in the hedonic ratings of these 10 samples, and consumers were grouped into four clusters using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), each cluster showing a preference for different products. EPM was applied to the consumer liking data to reveal the ideal product composition of chocolate milk acceptability. Chocolate milk samples 4 (OAK chocolate) and 6 (OAK thick death by chocolate) with 10.6%-10.9% sugar, 3.4%-3.5% fat, 3.5%-3.6% protein and 0.05% salt were identified to have the highest appeal satisfying between 70% and 80% of consumers assessed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this research could be applied for the reformulation of a new product to ensure that the product composition including sugar concentration is critical to influencing the sensory perception and consumer acceptance of the product. In addition, the results provide an ideal product composition along with sugar concentration that can be used as a standard or control mark for sugar reduction target.


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Aromatizantes/análise , Leite/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Carboidratos/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Sensação , Açúcares/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Adulto Jovem
16.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21649, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164846

RESUMO

Eating chocolate in the morning or in the evening/at night, may differentially affect energy balance and impact body weight due to changes in energy intake, substrate oxidation, microbiota (composition/function), and circadian-related variables. In a randomized controlled trial, postmenopausal females (n = 19) had 100 g of chocolate in the morning (MC), in the evening/at night (EC), or no chocolate (N) for 2 weeks and ate any other food ad libitum. Our results show that 14 days of chocolate intake did not increase body weight. Chocolate consumption decreased hunger and desire for sweets (P < .005), and reduced ad libitum energy intake by ~300 kcal/day during MC and ~150 kcal/day during EC (P = .01), but did not fully compensate for the extra energy contribution of chocolate (542 kcal/day). EC increased physical activity by +6.9%, heat dissipation after meals +1.3%, and carbohydrate oxidation by +35.3% (P < .05). MC reduced fasting glucose (4.4%) and waist circumference (-1.7%) and increased lipid oxidation (+25.6%). Principal component analyses showed that both timings of chocolate intake resulted in differential microbiota profiles and function (P < .05). Heat map of wrist temperature and sleep records showed that EC induced more regular timing of sleep episodes with lower variability of sleep onset among days than MC (60 min vs 78 min; P = .028). In conclusion, having chocolate in the morning or in the evening/night results in differential effects on hunger and appetite, substrate oxidation, fasting glucose, microbiota (composition and function), and sleep and temperature rhythms. Results highlight that the "when" we eat is a relevant factor to consider in energy balance and metabolism.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carboidratos/química , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(5): 1020-1029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115453

RESUMO

Early weaning can predispose the offspring to greater risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. It is believed that the consumption of functional foods is able to prevent these effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of maternal and postnatal cocoa powder supplementation on body mass, metabolism, and morphology of the prostate of early weaned Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four experimental groups according to lactation time (21 or 18 days, n=6, each) as follows: control group (C), cocoa control group (CCa), early weaning group (EW), and cocoa early weaning group (EWCa). The animals were euthanized at 90 days of age. Serum biochemical analysis and prostate histomorphometric evaluation were performed. The animals supplemented with cocoa powder were heavier than their respective controls (p <0.05), although with no difference in food intake among the groups. Likewise, these same groups showed a reduction in the serum glucose in relation to C and EW groups (p <0.0001). With respect to the prostate, there was no difference in smooth muscle and lumen area densities, while the EW group had a lower epithelial height and a higher percentage of mast cells than the C group (p <0.05). On the other hand, the EWCa group managed to reverse these parameters, leveling with the controls. Early weaning resulted in hyperglycemia and important morphological changes in the prostate. In contrast, dietary supplementation with cocoa powder attenuated these effects on the metabolism and prostatic histoarchitecture, proving to be a good nutritional treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Obesidade , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Desmame
18.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 26: 294-299, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pilates is a type of exercise recommended to diabetic patients due to its health benefits. Dark chocolate is also well known for its antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study has been to compare the effects of regular Pilates and flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and BMI in diabetic females with peripheral neuropathy complications. METHODS: 36 diabetic patients enrolled in this single-blinded clinical trial. They were randomly allocated to the control (n = 12), Pilates and dark chocolate intake (n = 12), and Pilates and flavanol-free white chocolate (n = 12) groups. Two Pilates groups consumed 25 gr dark or white chocolate 10 min before each Pilates training session, three times per week, for 8 weeks. The control group consumed 25 gr of the same dark chocolate at a pre-determined time 3 times per week, without any regular exercise. Changes in TAC, BMI and FBG were then measured. RESULTS: Paired t-test analysis showed significant increases in the TAC status, as compared to the baseline in all groups (P ≤ 0.05). However, BMI and FBG reduction were not significant. Covariance (ANCOVA) analysis also showed a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Post-hoc Bonferroni test revealed the group that consumed dark chocolate before training had statistically significant increase in the TAC status compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that regular flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption and Pilates significantly increased the TAC status. While FBG was reduced, it was not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Antioxidantes , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978084

RESUMO

Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Mutagênicos , Brasil , Dano ao DNA , Aditivos Alimentares , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Cebolas , Raízes de Plantas
20.
Nutrition ; 90: 111270, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are among the most relevant mechanisms underlying the atherosclerotic process in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) reduces postprandial glycemia with a mechanism counteracting oxidative stress-mediated incretin down-regulation in healthy subjects and in patients with impaired fasting glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the intake of chocolate enriched by EVOO had positive effects on endothelial function and oxidative stress in patients with T2 DM. METHODS: In this study we enrolled and randomly assigned 25 consecutive patients with T2 DM to receive 40 g of EVOO-enriched chocolate or 40 g of control chocolate spread. Participants were assessed at baseline and 2 h after chocolate intake. Endothelial function was assessed by arterial brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD); oxidative stress was evaluated by the measurement of serum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-2 (Nox2) levels, nitric oxide availability, and serum hydrogen peroxide breakdown activity (HBA). RESULTS: We observed a significant increase of FMD, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and HBA in the EVOO-enriched chocolate group (P < 0.001). Conversely, soluble Nox2-derived peptide (sNox2-dp) levels significantly decreased (P < 0.001). No significant change was observed in the control chocolate group. To assess the relation of EVOO-enriched chocolate to endothelial function and oxidative stress, a general linear model (GLM) analysis was performed; a significant difference for treatments was found with respect to FMD, NO availability, HBA, and sNox-dp. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of 40 g of EVOO-enriched chocolate is associated with increased endothelial function and reduction of oxidative stress in patients with T2 DM. Future studies are needed to analyze the effect of chronic assumption of EVOO-enriched chocolate on vascular function, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular complications in patients with T2 DM.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , NADPH Oxidase 2 , Azeite de Oliva , Estresse Oxidativo
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