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1.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 298-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared with iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (n = 5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared with pREBOA (median, 70 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 70-80 vs. median, 20 minutes; IQR, 20-40, respectively; p = 0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median, 20.9 L; IQR, 20.1-23.0 vs. median, 9.8 L; IQR, 6.8-10.3; p = 0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared with iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal mean arterial pressure while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
2.
J Surg Res ; 246: 190-199, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support intraosseous access for trauma resuscitation when intravenous access is not readily available. However, safety of intraosseous blood transfusions with varying degrees of infusion pressure has not been previously characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female Yorkshire swine (Sus scrofa; n = 36; mean (M): 80 kg, 95% CI: 78-82 kg) were cannulated and then bled approximately 30% total blood volume. Swine were randomly assigned to proximal humerus intraosseous blood infusion with either Rapid Infuser, or Pressure Bag, or Push-Pull methods (n = 12 each). Flow rates, infusion pressures, vitals, biochemical variables, and pulmonary and renal tissue pathology were contrasted between groups. RESULTS: Flow rates were greater for the Push-Pull strategy than Pressure Bag (96.5 mL/min versus 72.6 mL/min, P = 0.02) or Rapid Infuser (96.5 mL/min versus 60 mL/min, P = 0.002) strategies. The pressures generated during the Push-Pull transfusion (3058 mmHg) were greater than the other strategies (≤360 mmHg). After the observation period, plasma-free hemoglobin levels were higher in the Push-Pull strategy than in the Rapid Infuser (40 mg/dL versus 12 mg/dL, P = 0.02) or Pressure Bag (40 mg/dL versus 12 mg/dL, P = 0.01). Groups did not significantly differ in vitals, biochemical variables, or tissue pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Push-Pull conferred the highest flow rates, but with higher infusion pressures and evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Rapid Infuser and Pressure Bag infusions had no increase from baseline in plasma-free hemoglobin. Pressure Bag infusion was noted to confer an advantage in flow rates over Rapid Infuser. Intraosseous blood transfusion with pressure bags can safely bridge toward central access in the early phases of trauma resuscitation.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hemólise , Infusões Intraósseas/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Úmero , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 207-218, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can enhance neurorestoration in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). The impact of early treatment with MSC-derived exosomes on brain injury in a large animal model remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the impact of early single-dose exosome treatment on brain swelling and lesion size, blood-based cerebral biomarkers, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. METHODS: Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to a severe TBI (12-mm cortical impact) and HS (40% estimated total blood volume). One hour into shock, animals were randomized (n = 5/cohort) to receive either lactated Ringer's (LR; 5 mL) or LR + exosomes (1 × 10 exosome particles in 5 mL LR). Animals then underwent additional shock (1 hour) followed by normal saline resuscitation. After 6 hours of observation, brain swelling (% increase compared with the uninjured side) and lesion size (mm) were assessed. Cerebral hemodynamics and blood-based biomarkers of brain injury were compared. Immunofluorescence and RNA sequencing with differential gene expression and pathway analysis were used to assess the integrity of the perilesion BBB. RESULTS: Exosome-treated animals had significantly less (p < 0.05) brain swelling and smaller lesion size. They also had significantly decreased (p < 0.05) intracranial pressures and increased cerebral perfusion pressures. Exosome-treated animals had significantly decreased (p < 0.05) albumin extravasation and significantly higher (p < 0.05) laminin, claudin-5, and zonula occludens 1 levels. Differential gene expression and pathway analysis confirmed these findings. Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were also significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the exosome-treated cohort at the end of the experiment. CONCLUSION: In a large animal model of TBI and HS, early treatment with a single dose of MSC-derived exosomes significantly attenuates brain swelling and lesion size, decreases levels of blood-based cerebral biomarkers, and improves BBB integrity.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Exossomos/transplante , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/patologia , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 305-309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a viable resuscitation approach for a subdiaphragmatic injury that can regulate arterial blood flow. On the other hand, the evaluation of venous or portal venous blood flow during REBOA remains insufficient because invasive cannulation or exposure of the vessel may affect the blood flow, and Doppler echography is highly operator-dependent. However, phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging has enabled accurate evaluation and noninvasive measurement. This study aimed to investigate the change of venous and portal venous blood flow during REBOA in a porcine model. METHODS: Seven pigs were anesthetized, and a REBOA catheter was placed. The blood flows of the inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic vein (HV), portal vein (PV), and superior vena cava (SVC) were measured using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging, in both the balloon deflated (no-REBOA) and fully balloon inflated (REBOA) states. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, cardiac index, and systemic vascular resistance index were measured. RESULTS: The blood flows of the suprahepatic, infrahepatic, and distal IVC, HV, and PV in the no-REBOA state were 1.40 ± 0.36 L·min, 0.94 ± 0.16 L·min, 0.50 ± 0.19 L·min, 0.060 ± 0.018 L·min, and 0.32 ± 0.091 L·min, respectively. The blood flow of each section in the REBOA condition was significantly decreased at 0.41 ± 0.078 (33% of baseline), 0.15 ± 0.13 (15%), 0.043 ± 0.034 (9%), 0.029 ± 0.017 (37%), and 0.070 ± 0.034 L·min (21%), respectively. The blood flow of the SVC increased significantly in the REBOA condition (1.4 ± 0.63 L·min vs. 0.53 ± 0.14 L·min [257%]). Mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac index, and systemic vascular resistance index were significantly increased after REBOA inflation. CONCLUSION: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta decreased blood flows of the IVC, HV, and PV and increased blood flow of the SVC. This result could be explained by the collateral flow from the lower body to the SVC. A better understanding of the effect of REBOA on the venous and portal venous systems may help control liver injury.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Sistema Porta/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Sistema Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
5.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 131-139, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock aims to restore hemodynamics and repair altered microcirculation. Hemodynamic coherence is the concordant performance of macro- and microcirculation. The present study on fluid therapy in hemorrhagic shock hypothesized that the choice of fluid (0.9% sodium chloride [saline group] or balanced 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 [hydroxyethyl starch group]) impacts on hemodynamic coherence. METHODS: After instrumentation, 10 sheep were bled up to 30 ml/kg body weight of blood stopping at a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg to establish hemorrhagic shock. To reestablish baseline mean arterial pressure, they received either saline or hydroxyethyl starch (each n = 5). Hemodynamic coherence was assessed by comparison of changes in mean arterial pressure and both perfused vessel density and microvascular flow index. RESULTS: Bleeding of 23 ml/kg blood [21; 30] (median [25th; 75th percentile]) in the saline group and 24 ml/kg [22; 25] (P = 0.916) in the hydroxyethyl starch group led to hemorrhagic shock. Fluid resuscitation reestablished baseline mean arterial pressure in all sheep of the hydroxyethyl starch group and in one sheep of the saline group. In the saline group 4,980 ml [3,312; 5,700] and in the hydroxyethyl starch group 610 ml [489; 615] of fluid were needed (P = 0.009). In hemorrhagic shock perfused vessel density (saline from 100% to 83% [49; 86]; hydroxyethyl starch from 100% to 74% [61; 80]) and microvascular flow index (saline from 3.1 [2.5; 3.3] to 2.0 [1.6; 2.3]; hydroxyethyl starch from 2.9 [2.9; 3.1] to 2.5 [2.3; 2.7]) decreased in both groups. After resuscitation both variables improved in the hydroxyethyl starch group (perfused vessel density: 125% [120; 147]; microvascular flow index: 3.4 [3.2; 3.5]), whereas in the saline group perfused vessel density further decreased (64% [62; 79]) and microvascular flow index increased less than in the hydroxyethyl starch group (2.7 [2.4; 2.8]; both P < 0.001 for saline vs. hydroxyethyl starch). CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch maintained coherence in hemorrhagic shock. In contrast, saline only improved macro- but not microcirculation. Hemodynamic coherence might be influenced by the choice of resuscitation fluid.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/uso terapêutico , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ovinos
6.
Platelets ; 31(1): 94-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810451

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nadir platelet count and acute kidney injury (AKI) or 28-day all-cause mortality induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS), and to determine the cutoff value of nadir platelet count in HS clinical practice. This retrospective study included hospitalized patients enrolled in a tertiary-care teaching hospital from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. Clinical data from HS admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were evaluated. Nadir platelet count was defined as the lowest values in the first 48 h. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess the correlation between nadir platelet count and AKI or 28-day all-cause mortality induced by HS, respectively; the area under receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) and Youde's index were used to determine the optimal cutoff value of nadir platelet count. Kaplan-Meier's method and log-rank test were assessed for the 28-day all-cause mortality in AKI and non-AKI groups. Of 1589 patients screened, 84 patients (mean age,37.1 years; 58 males) were included in the primary analysis in which 30 patients with AKI. Multiple logistic results indicated that nadir platelet count was a risk factor of AKI (OR = 0.71,95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.93, P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that nadir platelet count was independent risk factors for 28-day all-cause mortality (Hazard ratios [HR]0.89,95%CI 0.76-0.99, P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier curve showed that 28-day all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with AKI than non-AKI (P < 0.001).These results suggest that nadir platelet count in the first 48 h is a new biomarker for AKI and 28-day all-cause mortality induced by HS. Moreover, the risk for AKI and 28-day all-cause mortality in HS patients decreased by 29% and 11%, respectively, for every 10 × 109/L increase in platelet count. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether elevation of nadir platelet count reduces the risk in different genders.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Plaquetas , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Surg Res ; 245: 604-609, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a key cell membrane phospholipid normally maintained on the inner cell surface but externalizes to the outer surface in response to cellular stress. We hypothesized that PS exposure mediates organ dysfunction in hemorrhagic shock. Our aims were to evaluate PS blockade on (1) pulmonary, (2) renal, and (3) gut function, as well as (4) serum lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an inflammatory mediator generated by PS externalization, as a possible mechanism mediating organ dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were either (1) monitored for 130 min (controls, n = 3), (2) hemorrhaged then resuscitated (hemorrhage only group, n = 3), or (3) treated with Diannexin (DA), a PS blocking agent, followed by hemorrhage and resuscitation (DA + hemorrhage group, n = 4). Pulmonary dysfunction was assessed by arterial partial pressure of oxygen, renal dysfunction by serum creatinine, and gut dysfunction by mesenteric endothelial permeability (LP). LPA levels were measured in all groups. RESULTS: Pulmonary: there was no difference in arterial partial pressure of oxygen between groups. Renal: after resuscitation, creatinine levels were lower after PS blockade with DA versus hemorrhage only group (P = 0.01). Gut: LP was decreased after PS blockade with DA versus hemorrhage only group (P < 0.01). Finally, LPA levels were also lower after PS blockade with DA versus the hemorrhage only group but higher than the control group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: PS blockade with DA decreased renal and gut dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock and attenuated the magnitude of LPA generation. Our findings suggest potential for therapeutic targets in the future that could prevent organ dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock.


Assuntos
Anexina A5/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidilserinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Ratos , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Surg Res ; 245: 225-233, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past, protective effects in terms of prolonged survival of malate-containing solutions were demonstrated in the treatment of experimental hemorrhagic shock (HS). The objective of the present study was to investigate malate's impact on the kidneys. Therefore, renal function and morphological and histological anomalies were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to severe HS by dropping the mean arterial blood pressure to 25-30 mmHg. The depth was held for 60 min. Subsequently, reperfusion with Ringer's solution or a 10 mM malate-containing solution was performed both together with blood in a 2:1 relation, followed by an observation period of 150 min. RESULTS: Compared with the control group (Ringer's solution), malate increased diuresis and, thus, enhanced excretion of creatinine and urea. Shock-induced histopathological changes were reduced by malate administration. Renal hemorrhages in the straight proximal tubule and in the distal tubule were reduced and even significantly reduced in the proximal convoluted tubule. Malate significantly preserved the endothelial glycocalyx in the proximal tubule. Surprisingly, malate induced glucosuria in the absence of a significant renal dysfunction, morphological damage, or hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of malate observed in the treatment of severe HS in the rat may be explained by a certain protective effect of this substance for the kidney.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Hidratação/métodos , Malatos/administração & dosagem , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotensive resuscitation is an old study. But its benefits and losses are still controversial. In clinic, the method of fluid resuscitation needs more reliable experimental evidence. This study's objective is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Through October 2019, Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Clinical Trials will be systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Strict screening and quality evaluation will be independently performed on the obtained literature by 2 researchers; outcome indexes will be extracted, and a meta-analysis will be performed on the data using Revman 5.3 software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The stronger evidence about the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock will be provided for clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019133169. STRENGTHS OF THIS STUDY: This study is not only a simple combination of data, but also to verify and discuss the reliability of the results, and provide more convincing evidence for clinicians. LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: Firstly, according to the previous literature researching, it is found that the number of relevant randomized controlled trials is small and the quality level of the literature is uneven. Secondly, the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation is discussed for a long time, different trials may take place at different times. Comparability between different trials is reduced.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Hipotensão Controlada/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
12.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1084-1091, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597831

RESUMO

The blood supply system for transfusions in Japan functions well. However, in cases of sudden hemorrhagic shock, the swift supply of red blood cell (RBC) product might be difficult, particularly when medical care is required in remote regions and in obstetric medicine, where there is always a risk of hemorrhage. Blood pressure maintenance by infusion of volume expanders, such as crystalloids or colloids, may be insufficient to preserve the function of vital organs because they do not contain any oxygen-carrying molecules. If artificial RBCs were at hand, they could be used as a blood substitute until blood products are received from blood banks. This would save patients without degrading their quality of life. In the 1990s, we developed an artificial RBC in the form of a hemoglobin vesicle (Hb-V). Hb-V is a liposomal microparticle that encloses oxygen-carrying human Hb molecules. Different from RBCs, it has no blood type and is stable at room temperature, ensuring a long shelf-life. Its excellent biocompatibility and oxygen-carrying capacity have been proven in a number of animal experiments, and its production technique has also been established. Therefore, translational research is being designed with the aid of the Japan Agency of Medical Research and Development.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos , Eritrócitos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Animais , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Japão , Oxigênio
13.
AANA J ; 87(1): 19-25, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587739

RESUMO

Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is reported to be a leading cause of potentially preventable mortality in both civilian trauma victims and military combat casualties. This hemorrhage may come from venous, arterial, or additional combined sources in the chest, abdomen, pelvis, axilla, or groin regions. Aortic occlusion as an adjunct to strategies for trauma damage control can decrease the amount of bleeding distal to the occluded site and provide a time-sensitive opportunity for resuscitation and definitive hemorrhage control. Recently, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has emerged as a temporary hemorrhage control and resuscitation technique that has the advantage of being minimally invasive and may offer improved patient morbidity and mortality compared with the traditional emergency department thoracotomy. An overview of the history of REBOA and indications and contraindications for its use is provided. A placement strategy for this technology, which includes basic suggested insertion techniques and anatomical placement sites, is also provided. Additionally, device-related morbidity and mortality are addressed. Anesthetic implications in the perioperative period are reviewed in light of current best practices. Recommendations are given for future research aimed at refining and improving the care of seriously injured patients who may require this type of lifesaving treatment.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Medicina Militar , Enfermeiras Anestesistas , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/enfermagem
14.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 24-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539430

RESUMO

Fresh whole blood (FWB) is increasingly being recognized as the ideal resuscitative fluid for hemorrhagic shock. Because of this, military units are working to establish the capability to give FWB from a walking blood bank donor in environments that are unsupported by conventional blood bank services. Therefore, many military units are performing autologous blood transfusion training. In this training, a volunteer has a unit of blood collected and then transfused back into the same donor. The authors report their experience performing an estimated 3408 autologous transfusions in training and report no instances of hemolytic transfusion reactions or other major complications. With appropriate control measures in place, autologous FWB training is low-risk training.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga , Militares/educação , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Bancos de Sangue/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Risco , Reação Transfusional
16.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 66(7): 394-404, ago.-sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187554

RESUMO

El shock hemorrágico es una de las principales causas de muerte en los pacientes politraumáticos graves. Para aumentar la supervivencia de estos pacientes se ha desarrollado una estrategia combinada de tratamiento conocida como Control de Daños. Los objetivos de este artículo son analizar el concepto actual de la Reanimación de Control de Daños y sus tres niveles de tratamiento, describir la mejor estrategia transfusional y abordar la coagulopatía aguda del paciente traumático como entidad propia. Se describen también los potenciales cambios que podrían producirse en los próximos años en esta estrategia de tratamiento


Haemorrhagic shock is one of the main causes of mortality in severe polytrauma patients. To increase the survival rates, a combined strategy of treatment known as Damage Control has been developed. The aims of this article are to analyse the actual concept of Damage Control Resuscitation and its three treatment levels, describe the best transfusion strategy, and approach the acute coagulopathy of the traumatic patient as an entity. The potential changes of this therapeutic strategy over the coming years are also described


Assuntos
Humanos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/cirurgia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Recuperação Demorada da Anestesia/terapia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Hidratação/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Sala de Recuperação/organização & administração , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 18-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of preperitoneal balloon tamponade (PPB), resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the orta (REBOA), and open preperitoneal packing (OP) in a realistic animal model of pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage. METHODS: Thirty-nine swine underwent creation of open-book pelvic fracture and iliac vascular injury. Animals were randomized to no intervention (n = 7), OP (n = 10), PPB (n = 9), zone 1 REBOA (n = 7), and zone 3 REBOA (n = 6) at a mean arterial pressure less than 40 mm Hg from uncontrolled hemorrhage. Primary outcome was survival at 1 hour. Secondary outcomes included survival in the immediate 10 m following intervention reversal, peak preperitoneal pressure (PP), blood loss, bleed rate, and peak lactate. RESULTS: Prior to injury, no difference was measured between groups for weight, hemodynamics, lactate, and hematocrit (all p = NS). The injury was uniformly lethal without intervention, with survival time (mean) of 5 m, peak PP of 14 mm Hg, blood loss of 960 g, bleed rate of 450 g/m, and peak lactate of 2.6 mmol/L. Survival time (m) was extended to 44 with OP, 60 with PPB, and 60 with REBOA (p < 0.01). Peak PP (mm Hg) was 19 with OP, 23 with PPB, 10 with zone 1 REBOA, and 6 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.05). Blood loss (g) was 850 with OP, 930 with PPB, 610 with zone 1 REBOA, and 370 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). Peak lactate (mmol/L) was 3.3 with OP, 4.3 with PPB, 13.4 with zone 1 REBOA, and 5.3 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). Only 33% of zone 1 REBOA animals survived the initial 10 m after balloon deflation, compared to 60% for OP, 67% for PPB, and 100% for zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Preperitoneal balloon tamponade and zone 3 REBOA are effective alternatives to OP in this animal model of lethal pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage. Zone 1 REBOA extends survival time but with high mortality upon reversal.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemorragia/terapia , Masculino , Suínos
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 117-124, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamically unstable patients with severe pelvic fracture are a significant challenge to trauma surgeons and have high mortality. Significant variability across institutions in hemorrhage control adjuncts used to quell pelvic bleeding has been demonstrated. However, the effect of these methods on time to definitive bleeding control, type of resuscitation given, and outcomes remains unknown. We sought to elucidate those effects. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective review of severe pelvic fracture patients in shock between 2011 and 2016. Shock was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, heart rate greater than 120 beats per minute, or base deficit less than -5. Definitive bleeding control was defined as time to surgical control in the operating room or embolization by interventional radiology. Significance level was at p less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 279 severe pelvic fracture patients with shock on admission from 12 trauma centers were included. The cohort was primarily male (62%) with median (interquartile range) age of 40 years (28-54 years), Injury Severity Score of 38 (29-50), and Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 (3-15). Overall mortality was 32%. The most common adjunct used was pelvic binder (50%) followed by no adjunct (30.5%); least common was resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) (2.5%). Preperitoneal packing alone and REBOA alone/with other adjunct(s) resulted in the fastest times to operating room/interventional radiology but also had the highest blood utilization and mortality rates. Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta was most often used along with pelvic binder (6 of 13; 46%). CONCLUSION: Marked variation in management of severe pelvic fracture patients in shock indicates the need for a standardized approach to maximize outcomes and minimize transfusion requirements. The use of preperitoneal packing and/or REBOA yielded fastest times to definitive bleeding control. However, REBOA continues to be infrequently used. Future prospective analysis of this combination needs further validation in patients with severe pelvic hemorrhage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 26(3): 174-179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262629

RESUMO

Whole blood, that is blood that is not manufactured into its component red blood cells (RBC) plasma, and platelets (PLT) units, was the mainstay of transfusion for many years until it was discovered that the component parts of a blood donation could be stored under different conditions thereby optimizing the storage length of each product. The use of low anti-A and -B titer group O whole blood (LTOWB) has recently been rediscovered for use in massively bleeding trauma patients. Whole blood has several advantages over conventional component therapy for these patients, including simplifying the logistics of the resuscitation, being more concentrated than whole blood that is reconstituted from conventional components, and providing cold-stored PLTs, amongst other benefits. While randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of using LTOWB in the resuscitation of massively bleeding trauma patients are currently underway, retrospective data has shown that massively bleeding recipients of LTOWB with traumatic injury do not have worse outcomes compared to patients who received conventional components and, in some cases, recipients of LTOWB have more favourable outcomes. This paper will describe some of the advantages of using LTOWB and will discuss the emerging evidence for its use in massively bleeding patients.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Doença Aguda , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas/métodos , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Substitutos Sanguíneos/efeitos adversos , Substitutos Sanguíneos/uso terapêutico , Citratos/efeitos adversos , Soluções Cristaloides/efeitos adversos , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Reação Transfusional/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 9-17, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grade solid organ injury is a major cause of mortality in trauma. Use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) can be effective but is limited by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Intermittent balloon inflation/deflation has been proposed as an alternative, but the safety and efficacy prior to operative hemorrhage control is unknown. METHODS: Twenty male swine underwent standardized high-grade liver injury, then randomization to controls (N = 5), 60-min continuous REBOA (cR, n = 5), and either a time-based (10-minute inflation/3-minute deflation, iRT = 5) or pressure-based (mean arterial pressure<40 during deflation, iRP = 5) intermittent schedule. Experiments were concluded after 120 minutes or death. RESULTS: Improved overall survival was seen in the iRT group when compared to cR (p < 0.01). Bleeding rate in iRT (5.9 mL/min) was significantly lower versus cR and iRP (p = 0.02). Both iR groups had higher final hematocrit (26% vs. 21%) compared to cR (p = 0.03). Although overall survival was lower in the iRP group, animals surviving to 120 minutes with iRP had decreased end organ injury (Alanine aminotransferase [ALT] 33 vs. 40 in the iRT group, p = 0.03) and lower lactate levels (13 vs. 17) compared with the iRT group (p = 0.03). No differences were seen between groups in terms of coagulopathy based on rotational thromboelastometry. CONCLUSION: Intermittent REBOA is a potential viable adjunct to improve survival in lethal solid organ injury while minimizing the ischemia-reperfusion seen with full REBOA. The time-based intermittent schedule had the best survival and prolonged duration of tolerable zone 1 placement. Although the pressure-based schedule was less reliable in terms of survival, when effective, it was associated with decreased acidosis and end-organ injury.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Fígado/lesões , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Suínos
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