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1.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(11): 702-711, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776312

RESUMO

Objectives Spreading awareness of shaken baby syndrome is considered to be essential in the prevention of infant deaths resulting from abuse. This study aimed to determine whether an educational video on infant crying, developed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, was effective at increasing knowledge of infant crying and shaking among Japanese caregivers of infants aged under 1 year.Methods We targeted caregivers who had infants aged under 1 year for intervention through health checkups and home visits in 29 municipalities across Japan from April 2013 to March 2014. The educational video on infant crying and danger of shaking and smothering was used as intervention. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers to assess their knowledge on infant crying and shaking prior to and after the intervention (N=1,444, response rate 93.8%). A sample of 1,232 caregivers was used for analysis, after excluding those who did not report the outcome of interest (i.e., knowledge on shaking or smothering) and demographics. In the analysis, pre- and post-test mean scores on crying knowledge scales and shaking knowledge scales (out of 100) were compared separately. Subgroup analysis and regression analysis were also conducted to examine whether the effect of the intervention varied by infant age, birth order, parent's sex, age, education, marital status, household income, grandparents' co-residence, postpartum depression, domestic violence during pregnancy, feelings about pregnancy, and resident area (urban/rural).Results Scores on infant crying significantly increased by 12.4 points (95% confidence interval: 11.7-13.2), and those on shaking knowledge increased by 4.7 points (95% confidence interval: 3.9-5.6) after the caregivers had watched the educational video. Subgroup analysis confirmed that the effect of the intervention did not differ among the subgroups except shaking knowledge scores among those who were not married and those who experienced physical violence from their partner. A regression analysis on change in scores revealed that parents with higher education gained more knowledge on infant crying, and fathers and those not living with grandparents gained more knowledge on shaking than mothers.Conclusion The educational video on infant crying was effective in increasing knowledge of infant crying and shaking, regardless of demographics of infants and parents and postnatal situation.


Assuntos
Choro , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Síndrome do Bebê Sacudido/prevenção & controle , Gravação de Videoteipe , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Conhecimento , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Metas enferm ; 22(9): 28-32, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185039

RESUMO

Objetivo: evidenciar, durante el rito del velatorio, la existencia de diferencias de género en la sociedad, así como en función de la edad y la cercanía con la persona difunta. Método: se realizó una investigación cualitativa utilizando la técnica de observación participante y un diario de campo durante el velatorio de un difunto. La población de estudio fue una familia española residente en Tarragona, caucásica, de clase media, católica no practicante; también se incluyeron el resto de familiares menos allegados, así como amigos y conocidos de la familia. El ámbito de estudio fue la sala del tanatorio. La observación se llevó a cabo durante seis de las 12 horas que duró el velatorio. Resultados: se estudiaron 57 sujetos con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y 76 años (30 eran mujeres y 27 varones). Se observaron diferencias de género en el comportamiento, así como en función de la edad y la relación con el difunto. Estas diferencias condicionaron el modo de agruparse (según sexo y edad), la situación física para ocupar el lugar (mujeres más próximas al difunto que los hombres), las manifestaciones públicas de dolor (solo en mujeres) y el luto (únicamente viuda e hija). Conclusiones: el velatorio es un acto social de relación, donde el modo de actuar de las personas difiere en función del género al que pertenecen, la relación que les une con el difunto y la zona del velatorio donde se sitúen. Los asistentes se agrupan en función del sexo y la edad, asumiendo roles de género predeterminados por la sociedad y la cultura


Objective: to observe, during the rite of wake, the existence of differences by gender in society, as well as based on age and closeness with the deceased person. Method: a qualitative research was conducted, using the participant observation technique and a field diary during the wake for a deceased person. The study population was a Spanish family living in Tarragona, Caucasian and middle-class, who were non-practicing Catholics; those relatives not within the nuclear family were also included, as well as friends and acquaintances of the family. The setting of the study was the funeral parlour. The wake lasted 12 hours, and observation was conducted during six of them. Results: fifty-seven (57) subjects were studied, between 15 and 76-year-old (30 were female and 27 were male). Differences by gender were observed in their behaviour, as well as based on age and relationship with the deceased. These differences determined the way to gather (according to gender and age), the physical location occupied (women were closer to the deceased than men), public manifestations of grief (only in women) and mourning clothes (only in the widow and daughter). Conclusions: wake is a social interaction, where the manner in which people act varies according to their gender, their relationship with the deceased, and the place where they are situated. Assistants will group together according to gender and age, adopting gender roles predetermined by society and culture


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Distribuição por Sexo , Rituais Fúnebres , Distribuição por Idade , Cultura , Comportamento , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Choro , Pesar
3.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(3): 379-382, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain during painful procedures in neonates has far reaching consequences. In developed countries many non-pharmacological interventions are used for neonatal pain reduction. Breast feeding has been proved to be an effective analgesic during mild to moderate painful procedures in neonates. METHODS: The study, randomized controlled trial was conducted in CMH, Quetta. The study period extended from June to November 2015. Neonates included in the experimental group were breastfeed during BCG vaccination and neonates in the control group were provided with routine care. Duration of cry with needle insertion was recorded with a digital stopwatch till the baby is silent for more than 5 seconds. RESULTS: The mean crying duration in experimental group was significantly less than control group. In experimental group mean crying duration was 16.48s (12.76) whereas in control group mean crying duration was 34.93 s(45.26). Statistically significant difference was observed between the mean crying times of the two groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Mean duration of crying with breastfeeding is shorter than without breast feeding during BCG immunization. Breast feeding reduces pain during minor painful procedures in neonates.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno , Manejo da Dor , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Choro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 592, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'Surviving Crying' study was designed to develop and provisionally evaluate a support service for parents of excessively crying babies, including its suitability for use in the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS). The resulting service includes three materials: a website, a printed booklet, and a Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) programme delivered to parents by a qualified professional. This study aimed to measure whether parents used the materials and to obtain parents' and NHS professionals' evaluations of whether they are fit for purpose. Parents were asked about participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the materials fully in health service use. METHODS: Participants were 57 parents with babies they judged to be crying excessively and 96 NHS Health Visitors (HVs). Parental use and parents' and HVs' ratings of the Surviving Crying materials were measured. RESULTS: Thirty four parents reported using the website, 24 the printed booklet and 24 the CBT sessions. Parents mostly accessed the website on mobile phones or tablets and use was substantial. All the parents and almost all HVs who provided data judged the materials to be helpful for parents and suitable for NHS use. If offered a waiting list control group, 85% of parents said they would have been willing to take part in a full RCT evaluation of the Surviving Crying package. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The findings identify the need for materials to support parents of excessively crying babies within national health services in the UK. The Surviving Crying support package appears suitable for this purpose and a full community-level RCT of the package is feasible and likely to be worthwhile. Limitations to the study and barriers to delivery of the services were identified, indicating improvements needed in future research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study Registration no. ISRCTN84975637 .


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Choro/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Masculino , Folhetos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Telemedicina/métodos , Reino Unido
7.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919872421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455105

RESUMO

How do our emotional tears affect the way we are treated? We tested whether tears, paired with either a neutral or a sad facial expression, elicited prosocial behavior among perceivers. Participants viewed a video clip depicting a confederate partner with or without tears displaying either a neutral or sad facial expression before making a behavioral decision in one of two economic games. In a Trust game (Experiment 1), participants who played the role of the investor were more likely to share an endowment after viewing a confederate trustee with tears (paired with either a neutral or a sad facial expression) in comparison to a confederate trustee without tears. However, in a Dictator game (Experiment 2), participants who played the role of allocator were no more likely to share an endowment after viewing a confederate recipient with tears (paired with either a neutral or sad facial expression) in comparison to a confederate recipient without tears. Taken together, these findings suggest that tears increase prosocial behavior by increasing trustworthiness as opposed to generally increasing other-regarding altruistic tendencies.


Assuntos
Choro/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284424

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of a partly fermented infant formula (using the bacterial strains Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065) with a specific prebiotic mixture (short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS; 9:1)) on the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, stool characteristics, sleeping and crying behaviour, growth adequacy and safety. Two-hundred infants ≤28 days of age were assigned either to experimental infant formula containing 30% fermented formula and 0.8 g/100 mL scGOS/lcFOS or to non-fermented control infant formula without scGOS/lcFOS. A group of breastfed infants served as a reference. No relevant differences in parent-reported gastrointestinal symptoms were observed. Stool consistency was softer in the experimental versus control group with values closer to the breastfed reference group. Daily weight gain was equivalent for both formula groups (0.5 SD margins) with growth outcomes close to breastfed infants. No clinically relevant differences in adverse events were observed, apart from a lower investigator-reported prevalence of infantile colic in the experimental versus control group (1.1% vs. 8.7%; p < 0.02). Both study formulae are well-tolerated, support an adequate infant growth and are safe for use in healthy term infants. Compared to the control formula, the partly fermented formula with prebiotics induces stool consistencies closer to breastfed infants.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve/metabolismo , Cólica/prevenção & controle , Fermentação , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cólica/etiologia , Cólica/microbiologia , Choro , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/química , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Espanha , Ganho de Peso
9.
Strabismus ; 27(3): 127-138, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234691

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the refractive outcome and influencing factors following atropine 0.5% eye-drops applied twice daily during 2 ½ days at home and two drops of cyclopentolate 1% (C+C) and one drop of cyclopentolate 1% and one drop of tropicamide 1% (C+T) applied in an outpatient clinic, in hypermetropic children with a dark iris. Methods: Double-blind randomized study including 67 3-6-year-old children receiving C+C in one eye and C+T in the other eye. Two weeks later followed by atropine 0.5% in both eyes. Primary outcome measures were: spherical equivalent (SEQ) following C+C, C+T and atropine, and secondarily SEQ with respect to sex, ethnicity, skin pigmentation (light, medium, dark) and crying. Data on atropine are divided in those with C+C (CC) or C+T (CT) as a first intervention. Results: Mean SEQ±SD for C+C, C+T, atropine-(CC) and atropine-(CT) was +1.74 ± 1.35, +1.77 ± 1.34, +2.15 ± 1.43 and +2.10 ± 1.38 diopter (D). Atropine 0.5% revealed significantly more hypermetropia than C+C and C+T; +0.41 ± 0.43, 95%CI +0.31 to +0.52D and +0.33 ± 0.39, 95%CI +0.24 to +0.34D. No significant difference was present between C+C and C+T; -0.03 ± 0.56, 95%CI -0.16 to +0.11D. Ethnicity and skin-color were strongly associated (r = 0.84, p < .001). Sex was not affecting outcomes (p = .101). Ethnicity was borderline significant (p = .049). Skin-color was a highly significant factor (p = .002). A statistical model combining intervention and skin-color, with light-pigmented subjects receiving atropine-(CC) as reference group (mean SEQ +2.61 ± 1.46D), indicated borderline significantly less hypermetropia in atropine-(CC)-dark: mean decrease (95%CI): -0.81 (-1.66 to +0.05)D and atropine-(CT)-dark -0.87 (-1.70 to -0.03)D, furthermore significantly less hypermetropia in C+C-dark: -1.15 (-1.97 to -0.32)D; C+T-dark: -1.21 (-2.03 to -0.39)D, C+C-medium: -1.02 (-1.81 to -0.24)D and C+T-medium: -0.86 (-1.64 to -0.08)D. Adding crying to the model significantly less hypermetropia was found for subjects crying in all interventions; -0.53 (-0.98 to -0.09)D. Within the interventions, with light-pigmented non-crying subjects as reference group (mean SEQ in atropine, C+C, respectively, C+T: +2.62 ± 1.41, +2.33 ± 1.20 and +2.32 ± 1.20D), showed significantly less hypermetropia in dark-pigmented crying subjects in each individual intervention: atropine -1.10 (-2.01 to -0.19), C+C -1.28 (-2.14 to -0.42) and C+T -1.34 (-2.20 to -0.48)D. For medium pigmented crying subjects this was present in atropine: -0.82 (-1.61 to -0.03)D and C+C: -0.86 (-1.68 to -0.04)D, but not in C+T: -0.58 (-1.25 to +0.09)D. Conclusions: Atropine 0.5% revealed a slight significantly higher hypermetropia. A dark-pigmented skin, especially when crying upon application, resulted in lower hypermetropia in all interventions. C+T provided clinically better results in medium pigmented crying subjects compared to C+C, and equal results compared to atropine 0.5%.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/tratamento farmacológico , Choro/fisiologia , Cor de Olho , Hiperopia/tratamento farmacológico , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Administração Oftálmica , Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Atropina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclopentolato/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas , Retinoscopia , Tropicamida/administração & dosagem
10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(6): 585-588, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208514

RESUMO

A female infant was admitted to the hospital due to perioral cyanosis two hours after birth. The infant was born at the gestational age of 35 weeks by cesarean section with a birth weight of 2 400 g. Physical examination revealed wry mouth to the left side while crying, small auricles, and high palatal arch; fibrolaryngoscopy suggested bilateral vocal cord paralysis; echocardiography suggested ventricular septal defect; single nucleotide polymorphism testing showed 22q11.21 microdeletion. Therefore, the infant was given a definite diagnosis of asymmetric crying facies syndrome accompanied by 22q11.21 microdeletion. After 8-month follow-up, the infant still had asymmetric crying facies with presence of growth retardation.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Cesárea , Choro , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(6): 915, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201407

RESUMO

F18-FDG PET-CT (Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Computed Tomography) scanning has a proven role in the staging of various cancers;the physiological distribution of F18-FDG must be understood thoroughly in order to improve the accuracy of image interpretation. We describe the case of a 2 year old child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, who cried at the time of cannulation before undergoing F18-FDG PET-CT scanning.


Assuntos
Choro/fisiologia , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos do Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Prega Vocal/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
12.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 40(308): 14-16, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171292

RESUMO

Children can experience war as witnesses, victims or participants, everywhere across the world. Their drawings recount the atrocities they have endured, seen and experienced. They reveal their graphic stories and leave traces of their internal trauma. It is essential that adults put themselves on the child's level, to approach the depicted violence differently.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Arte , Criança , Choro , Humanos
13.
No Shinkei Geka ; 47(5): 525-530, 2019 May.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation is a well-known risk factor of ischemic events in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease. For young children, it is important to avoid crying to prevent ischemic events because of their unstable postoperative hemodynamics. To prevent crying in pediatric patients, we used dexmedetomidine(DEX)for sedation immediately after revascularization surgery. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of postoperative DEX use on hemodynamic changes and the avoidance of crying and hypocapnia in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease. CASE: Ten consecutive patients(5 boys and 5 girls)who underwent surgical revascularization were enrolled, and 16 hemispheres(8 boys and 8 girls)were sedated with DEX postoperatively between August 2011 and August 2016. METHODS: During extubation after revascularization, DEX was started at 0.4µg/kg/hr under spontaneous breathing and its dose was increased depending on the degree of consciousness, to maintain sedation of at least 3 on the Ramsay scale. DEX administration was terminated the next morning. RESULTS: Sedation was maintained well in all patients without hypocapnia, and no ischemic complications were observed. One patient cried and needed additional intravenous DEX injections and was immediately re-sedated;no hypocapnia developed. Respiratory depression did not occur and changes in respiratory rate and decreases in SpO2 were not observed. No significant changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were observed. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine is safe and useful for postoperative sedation in children with moyamoya disease.


Assuntos
Choro , Dexmedetomidina , Hipocapnia , Doença de Moyamoya , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hiperventilação/prevenção & controle , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Hipocapnia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/complicações , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia
14.
Early Hum Dev ; 132: 30-36, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact after birth between mother and baby has immediate and long-term advantages. Widström's 9 Stages of Newborn Behavior offer an opportunity to evaluate a baby in the natural, expected and optimal habitat. Intrapartum drugs, including fentanyl administered via epidural and synthetic oxytocin (synOT), have been studied in relation to neonatal outcomes with conflicting results. AIMS: Determine the effects of common intrapartum medications on the instinctive behavior of healthy newborns during the first hour after birth through a prospective cohort study. STUDY DESIGN: Video record newly-born term infants during the first hour after birth while in skin-to-skin contact with mother. Code and analyze videos using Widström's 9 Stages; compare with the labor medications mothers received. SUBJECTS: Convenience sample of sixty-three low-income mothers self-selected to labor with or without intrapartum analgesia. OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of time infants spend in each of Widström's 9 Stages for four cohorts: 1) exposed to no synOT or epidural fentanyl during labor, 2) exposed to fentanyl (but not synOT), 3) exposed synOT (but not fentanyl), 4) exposed to both fentanyl and synOT. RESULTS: A strong inverse correlation was found between intrapartum exposure to fentanyl and synOT and the normal behavior of an infant, as measured by time in each Stage. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapartum exposure to the drugs fentanyl and synOT is associated with altered newborn infant behavior, including suckling, while in skin-to-skin contact with mother during the first hour after birth. Widström's 9 Stages offer an opportunity to analyze newborn behavior whilst in the optimal habitat of the infant.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Comportamento do Lactente/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Choro , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Movimento , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Sono , Comportamento de Sucção
15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(4): 399-404, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014436

RESUMO

The patient was a male who was found to be abnormal at the age of 4.5 months. He presented with irritability, motor regression and opisthotonus. Brain MRI revealed bilateral abnormality in the lentiform nucleus, thalamus, deutocerebrum and cerebellar hemispheres. Novel compound heterozygous mutations of SLC19A3 gene, c.950G>A(p.G317E) and c.962C>T(p.A321V), were found in the patient. Further study showed that c.950G>A was inherited from his father and c.962C>T came from his mother. Using bioinformatics software analysis, both of the mutations were found to be harmful. His symptoms were improved remarkably after biotin, thiamine and "cocktail" therapy. One month later a brain MRI revealed that the lesions in basal ganglia and cerebellar hemispheres were improved. The patient was definitely diagnosed with biotin-thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD). BTBGD is a treatable autosomal recessive disease and early administration of biotin and thiamine may lead to clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Gânglios da Base , Choro , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Tiamina
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent infant crying is associated with parental exhaustion, depression, or even infant hospitalization and shaken baby syndrome. Effective prompt soothing methods are lacking for infants under 6 months. We examined whether swaddling, sound, and movement evoked an immediate calming response (CR) when parents soothed their infants and using a smart crib, and whether infant age affected the CR. METHODS: Infants' CR was assessed in a community sample of 69 infants (0-6 months) in a counterbalanced experiment with two conditions (parent, smart crib) each composed of three two-minute phases (baseline, supine, soothing). During baseline 1, parent and infant were sitting together; in supine 1, fussiness was elicited by putting the infant suddenly supine, followed by parental soothing (shushing and jiggling of the swaddled infant). Baseline 2, supine 2, and soothing by the crib followed. Fussiness was observed and infant heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded. The CR was operationalized as decreased fussiness and HR, and increased HRV during soothing compared to lying supine. RESULTS: Infant fussiness and HR were lower in both soothing phases compared to the supine phases. Infant HRV tended to be higher during parental soothing than during supine, but did not significantly differ between mechanical soothing and supine. Younger infants responded with a stronger CR (decreased fussiness and increased HRV) to parental soothing, but not to mechanical soothing. For HR, infants' CR was stronger in the crib than in the parent condition, whereas for HRV, infants' CR was stronger in the parent condition. For fussiness, infants' CR tended to be stronger in the parent condition. CONCLUSION: Parental and mechanical soothing using swaddling, sound, and movement promptly induced a CR in infants. This has important clinical implications for soothing fussy and crying infants. Future studies should investigate the effects of parental versus mechanical soothing in the home setting.


Assuntos
Choro , Comportamento do Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Movimento , Pais , Adulto , Ansiedade , Eletrocardiografia , Emoções , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , Som
17.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E15, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981284

RESUMO

This study investigated how adults respond to a moral transgression committed by a child offender, by examining the role of the child's sex, emotions, and crying behavior when caught committing a moral transgression on adults' forgiveness, trust, and disciplinary behaviors. An experimental survey manipulated the children's sex, crying, and their emotional expressions (fear, sadness, shame, and crying). Participants (N = 847) reported how they would feel, their willingness to forgive (immediately and a week after the event) and to trust the child, estimated recidivism, and the use of disciplinary behaviors. Results showed that participants in the crying conditions reported significantly higher levels of intention to trust and forgive the child a week after the event, and a lower estimation of the child committing a similar act in the future than participants in the non-crying conditions (ps < .05). Compared to men, women anticipated higher intentions to forgive (ps < .05), and more inductive behaviors, less overreactivity and warmth removal towards the child (ps < .001). Overall, the results suggest the functional value of crying in children-adults relations and the importance of the gender of both child and adults in a context of a moral transgression committed by a child.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Choro , Perdão , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infant Ment Health J ; 40(3): 405-421, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964954

RESUMO

Mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their infants often have compromised relationships. To further understand the complexities, this study explored (a) the experiences of mothers with BPD in response to infant crying and (b) how these parenting responses impact on mothers' interpersonal functioning with significant others. Six mothers with clinical BPD were recruited from a mother-baby psychiatric unit and interviewed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. Transcripts of the semistructured interviews were coded for themes and subthemes. Dominant themes revealed that mothers with BPD entered motherhood in a psychologically fragile state, hypersensitive to experiencing intense physiological-emotional pain and cognitive chaos in response to infant crying. Automatic maladaptive flight-fright responses including suicide attempts were common. A novel theme revealed some mothers' split identity, and only the "mother" part could attend to infant crying. Finally, the data provided an understanding of the detrimental domino effect on close family. Mothers also highlighted gaps in accessibility of current mental health services and parenting programs, and their desire to prevent the intergenerational transmission of attachment problems and BPD symptoms to offspring. Clinical implications include antenatal BPD screening, psychoeducation about infant crying, and greater access for programs supporting the whole family to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Choro/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(5): 495-514, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951439

RESUMO

There is little research on beliefs and practices regarding unsettled infant behavior and infant sleep in low and lower-middle income countries such as Vietnam. Here, researchers used a participatory qualitative visual method (photo-elicitation) to investigate how infant settling was perceived "through the eyes" of new mothers in Central Vietnam. Four qualitative themes emerged from the data: "loneliness in the midst of the crowd", "finding the right position", "protecting from cold", and "affection and exhaustion". Further research into how parenting programs and evidence based infant sleep guidelines can be modified to be socially acceptable in Vietnam is recommended.


Assuntos
Choro , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fotografação , Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Masculino , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vietnã
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012473, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is typically defined as full-force crying for at least three hours per day, on at least three days per week, for at least three weeks. Infantile colic affects a large number of infants and their families worldwide. Its symptoms are broad and general, and while not indicative of disease, may represent a serious underlying condition in a small percentage of infants who may need a medical assessment. Probiotics are live microorganisms that alter the microflora of the host and provide beneficial health effects. The most common probiotics used are of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus. There is growing evidence to suggest that intestinal flora in colicky infants differ from those in healthy infants, and it is suggested that probiotics can redress this balance and provide a healthier intestinal microbiota landscape. The low cost and easy availability of probiotics makes them a potential prophylactic solution to reduce the incidence and prevalence of infantile colic. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic probiotics in preventing or reducing severity of infantile colic. SEARCH METHODS: In January 2018 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, 10 other databases and two trials registers. In addition, we handsearched the abstracts of relevant meetings, searched reference lists, ran citation searches of included studies, and contacted authors and experts in the field, including the manufacturers of probiotics, to identify unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised control trials (RCTs) of newborn infants less than one month of age without the diagnosis of infantile colic at recruitment. We included any probiotic, alone or in combination with a prebiotic (also known as synbiotics), versus no intervention, another intervention(s) or placebo, where the focus of the study was the effect of the intervention on infantile colic. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures of Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: Our search yielded 3284 records, and of these, we selected 21 reports for full-text review. Six studies with 1886 participants met our inclusion criteria, comparing probiotics with placebo. Two studies examined Lactobacillus reuteri DSM, two examined multi-strain probiotics, one examined Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and one examined Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium animalis. Two studies began probiotics during pregnancy and continued administering them to the baby after birth.We considered the risk of bias for randomisation as low for all six trials; for allocation concealment as low in two studies and unclear in four others. All studies were blinded, and at low risk of attrition and reporting bias.A random-effects meta-analysis of three studies (1148 participants) found no difference between the groups in relation to occurrence of new cases of colic: risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 1.19; low-certainty evidence; I2 = 72%.A random-effects meta-analysis of all six studies (1851 participants) found no difference between the groups in relation to serious adverse effects (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.14 to 7.21; low-certainty evidence; I2 not calculable (only four serious events for one comparison, two in each group: meconium plug obstruction, patent ductus arteriosus and neonatal hepatitis).A random-effects meta-analysis of three studies (707 participants) found a mean difference (MD) of -32.57 minutes per day (95% CI -55.60 to -9.54; low-certainty evidence; I2 = 93%) in crying time at study end in favour of probiotics.A subgroup analysis of the most studied agent, Lactobacillus reuteri, showed a reduction of 44.26 minutes in daily crying with a random-effects model (95% CI -66.6 to -21.9; I2 = 92%), in favour of probiotics. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear evidence that probiotics are more effective than placebo at preventing infantile colic; however, daily crying time appeared to reduce with probiotic use compared to placebo. There were no clear differences in adverse effects.We are limited in our ability to draw conclusions by the certainty of the evidence, which we assessed as being low across all three outcomes, meaning that we are not confident that these results would not change with the addition of further research.


Assuntos
Cólica/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium , Aleitamento Materno , Cólica/epidemiologia , Cólica/microbiologia , Choro , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactobacillus reuteri , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Gravidez , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
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