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1.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 777-783, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044567

RESUMO

The capacity of Lemna minor to remediate toxic heavy metals from wastewater is reasonably well documented. In view of the pivotal role of this species in the environmental clean-up, here we evaluated the bioaccumulation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) through a controlled experiment. L. minor tolerated the metals Cd, Ni, and Pb up to 0.5, 5, and 8 mg/L, respectively, and beyond these concentrations the toxicity symptoms appeared. Bio-concentration factor varied at different concentrations of heavy metals tested. Overall, L. minor showed good phytoremediation potential for all the three tested heavy metals (Cd, Ni, and Pb), though in relative terms it was more effective in extracting Ni and Cd, as compared to Pb, both in single and mixed concentrations. In view of the growing pollution in Kashmir Himalayan aquatic habitats the phytoremediation by invasive species such as L. minor promises to be one of the best choices than other native plants for cleaning up of polluted soils/water because of its fast growth rate, high abundance, easy handling, and wide distribution in Kashmir Himalayan aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Índia , Lagos , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel/análise , Níquel/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127405, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947677

RESUMO

Chelation of lead (Pb) is an important factor in enhancing the Pb mobility thereby improving availability to promote phytoremediation of Pb from contaminated soil. The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of amendments in enhancing the phytoremediation of Pb in soil. For this purpose, soil was spiked to obtain desired Pb concentrations (0-1500 mg kg-1) and pots were filled. One month old and uniform seedlings of Pelargonium hortoum were transplanted into each pot. Five different amendments i.e. compost (0-10%), ammonium nitrate (0-10 mmol kg-1), TiO2NPs (0-100 mg kg-1), citric acid (0-10 mmol kg-1) and EDTA (0-5 mmol kg-1), were applied. Overall, ammonium nitrate, EDTA and citric acid application increased the Pb concentration, however, compost and TiO2NPs decreased the concentration in roots and shoots. At 1500 mg Pb kg-1, Pb concentration in shoots was increased by 0.9-, 0.6- & 0.8-folds and in roots by 1.8-, 1.3- & 1.7-folds upon EDTA, ammonium nitrate and citric acid application, respectively. TiO2NPs and compost application decreased Pb concentration by 29% & 35% in shoots and 25% & 51% in roots, respectively. At the highest level of Pb (1500 mg kg-1), plant biomass was increased by 26.6%, 19.5%, 17.9% and 18.4% upon application of compost, TiO2 NPs, ammonium nitrate and citric acid, respectively. However, EDTA reduced the plant dry biomass by 28.4%. The accumulated Pb content was recovered as Pb-nanoparticles, which were in anatase phase, size ranged between 98 and 276 nm. Among all the studied amendments, citric acid efficiently increased Pb phytoaccumulation without any toxicity.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biomassa , Quelantes , Ácido Cítrico , Compostagem , Ácido Edético , Chumbo/metabolismo , Pelargonium , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111338, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956867

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is well-recognized for its great hazards to human and wildlife health. It has negative influences on multiple organs and systems of birds. Especially, lead exposure caused adverse impacts on bird reproduction. In this study, one week old female Japanese quails were randomly allocated into four groups and each group was respectively fed with 0, 50 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm Pb in drinking water for 36 days to determine the effects of chronic lead exposure on ovarian development and function. The results showed that Pb did accumulate in the ovary and ovarian development was delayed by high dose lead exposure (500 ppm and 1000 ppm). Moreover, high Pb dosage induced ovarian histopathological damages characterized by granulosa cells disorganization, follicle atresia and interstitial cell degeneration. Meanwhile, the concentration of estradiol (E2) was significantly decreased and mRNA levels of genes involved with ovarian steroidogenesis were significantly down-regulated by high concentration Pb. In addition, Pb exposure caused increasing cell apoptosis and significant changes of the expression of genes involved with cell death in the ovary. High dose Pb exposure also inhibited thyroid hormone release and disrupted ovarian thyroid deiodination apart from causing thyroid histopathological injury such as follicular deformation and atrophy. The study indicated that Pb might cause ovarian malfunction by inducing ovary and thyroid microstructural damages, thyroid hormone and estrogen release inhibition and ovarian steroidogenesis disruption.


Assuntos
Coturnix/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estradiol/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Coturnix/genética , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Estradiol/genética , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/patologia , Humanos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111333, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979802

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a specific category of microbes that improve plant growth and promote greater tolerance to metal stress through their interactions with plant roots. We evaluated the effects of phytoremediation combining the cadmium accumulator Solanum nigrum L. and two Cd- and Pb-resistant bacteria isolates. To understand the interaction between PGPR and their host plant, we conducted greenhouse experiments with inoculation treatments at Nanjing Agricultural University (Jiangsu Province, China), in June 2018. Two Cd- and Pb-resistant PGPR with various growth-promoting properties were isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soil. 16S rRNA analyses indicated that the two isolates were Bacillus genus, and they were named QX8 and QX13. Pot experiments demonstrated that inoculation may improve the rhizosphere soil environment and promote absorption of Fe and P by plants. Inoculation with QX8 and QX13 also enhanced the dry weight of shoots (1.36- and 1.7-fold, respectively) and roots (1.42- and 1.96-fold) of plants growing in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil, and significantly increased total Cd (1.28-1.81 fold) and Pb (1.08-1.55 fold) content in aerial organs, compared to non-inoculated controls. We also detected increases of 23% and 22% in the acid phosphatase activity of rhizosphere soils inoculated with QX8 and QX13, respectively. However, we did not detect significant differences between inoculated and non-inoculated treatments in Cd and Pb concentrations in plants and available Cd and Pb content in rhizosphere soils. We demonstrated that PGPR-assisted phytoremediation is a promising technique for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils, with the potential to enhance phytoremediation efficiency and improve soil quality.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Rhizobiaceae/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solanum nigrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , China , Chumbo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solanum nigrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum nigrum/metabolismo
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1600-1609, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924358

RESUMO

Adding biological passivation agent during composting is one of the most effective ways to reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in contaminated livestock manure. To further improve biological passivation, we obtained a strain with high-heavy metal compounds tolerance to passivate heavy-metal contaminated manure and to characterize heavy-metal biosorption. High-tolerance microorganisms for lead and cadmium were isolated and screened from swine manure composting samples. The strain was identified by its morphology and molecular biology. After the influence of different pH, temperature and salt concentrations on growth of the strain were investigated, the optimal growth conditions were obtained for further analysis of its biosorption characteristics of lead and cadmium. The bacterium with tolerance to lead and cadmium termed SC19 was obtained, whose lead resistance was 600 mg/L and cadmium resistance was 120 mg/L. The isolate was further identified as Cedecea sp., and then its optimum pH was 7.0, temperature was 37 °C, and salt concentration was 0.5%. Lead removal was highest after 30 min of adsorption by the SC19 strain cultured for the stationary phase 36 h, and the maximum removal rate and biosorption capacity of lead were 60.7% and 329.13 mg/g, respectively. Meanwhile, cadmium removal was highest after 30 min of adsorption by the strain cultured for the logarithmic phase 8 h, and the maximum removal rate and biosorption capacity of cadmium were 51.0% and 126.19 mg/g, respectively. Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) results revealed that the biosorption process mainly happened on the surface of SC19 cell and many active groups on the cell surface could chelate the Pb²âº and Cd²âº. By comprehensive comparison, it was showed that strain SC19 shared a certain capacity of Pb²âº and Cd²âº biosorption, and the bacterium provided precious microbial germplasm resources for biological passivation of heavy metal contaminated manure.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Resistência a Medicamentos , Enterobacteriaceae , Chumbo , Esterco , Adsorção , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/farmacologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Suínos
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111086, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781345

RESUMO

In the present research, Silene vulgaris as a representative species growing on both unpolluted and heavy metal (HM) polluted terrains were used to identify ecotype-specific responses to metallic stress. Growth, cell ultrastructure and element accumulations were compared between non-metallicolous (NM), calamine (CAL) and serpentine (SER) specimens untreated with HMs and treated with Pb, Cd and Zn ions under in vitro conditions. Moreover, proteins' modifications related to their level, carbonylation and degradations via vacuolar proteases were verified and linked with potential mechanisms to cope with ions toxicity. Our experiment revealed diversified strategy of HM uptake in NM and both metallicolous ecotypes, in which antagonistic relationship of Zn and Pb/Cd ions provided survival benefits for the whole organism. Despite this similarity, growth rate and metabolic pathways induced in CAL and SER shoots varied significantly. Exposition to HMs in CAL culture led to drop in protein level by approximately 16% compared to the control. This parameter nearly correlated with the enhanced activity of proteases at pH 5.2 as well as possible glutamate changes to proline and reduced glutathione, resulting in intensified growth and first signs of cell senescence. In turn, SER shoots were characterized by growth retardation (to 53% of the control), although protein level and carbonylation were not modified, while a deeper insight into protein network showed its remodeling towards production of polyamines and 2-oxoglutarate delivered to the Krebs cycle. Contrary, an uncontrolled HM influx in NM shoots contributed to morpho-structural disorders accompanied by an increase activity of proteases involved in the degradation of oxidized proteins, what pointed to metal-induced autophagy. Taken together, S. vulgaris ecotypes respond to stress by triggering various mechanisms engaged their survival and/or death under HM treatment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Silene/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ecótipo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Silene/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silene/metabolismo , Silene/ultraestrutura , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
7.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127714, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738711

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a harmful metal element for aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine waterborne Pb exposure on oxidative stress, serum biochemistry and heat shock proteins (HSPs) genes expression in Channa argus. Fish were randomly divided into four groups and the Pb concentrations were 0, 50, 200, and 800 µg/L, respectively. The results showed that the accumulation of Pb was detected in the gill, intestine, liver and muscle following exposure to Pb. Pb accumulation content in tissues was gill > intestinal > liver > muscle. With the increased of Pb exposure concentrations, the levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme (LZM) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) significantly decreased. Serum biochemistry, oxidative stress parameters and HSPs gene expression were all enhanced with the increase following Pb expose concentration. Our results suggest that waterborne Pb exposure can induce Pb accumulation, oxidative stress and immune response in C. argus.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Catalase/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127721, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745740

RESUMO

The uptake and distribution of Pb and the mechanisms involved in the metal tolerance have been investigated in a mine population of Biscutella auriculata. Seedlings were exposed to 125 µM Pb(NO3)2 for 15 days under semihydroponic conditions. The results showed an increase in the size of Pb-treated seedlings and symptoms of toxicity were not observed. ICP-OES analyses showed that Pb accumulation was restricted to root tissue. Imaging of Pb accumulation by dithizone histochemistry revealed the presence of the metal in vacuoles and cell wall in root cells. The accumulation of Pb in vacuoles could be stimulated by an increase in phytochelatin PC2 content. Pb did not promote oxidative damage and this is probably due the increase of antioxidative defenses. In the leaves, Pb produced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity, while in roots an increase in catalase and components of the Foyer- Halliwell-Asada cycle were observed. The results indicated that Biscutella auriculata has a high capacity to tolerate Pb and this is mainly due to a very efficient mechanism to sequester the metal in roots and a capacity to avoid oxidative stress. This species could therefore be very useful for phytostabilization and repopulation of areas contaminated with Pb.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catalase/metabolismo , Chumbo/análise , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 366-371, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840648

RESUMO

Ground venison packets from shotgun- and archery-harvested White-tailed Deer in Illinois in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for metal contamination. Radiographs indicated that 48% of 27 ground venison packets from 10 shotgun-harvested deer contained metal fragments, while none of the 15 packets from three archery-harvested deer contained fragments. ICP-MS analysis verified that all metal fragments from seven of the venison samples from shotgun-harvested deer were composed of lead, with average concentrations from 1.04 to 8.42 µg g-1, dry weight. A single serving of ground venison containing one of these metal fragments embedded in it would be predicted to have a lead concentration ranging from 6.4 to 51.8 µg g-1. Sixty percent of 20 commercial meat processing plants surveyed by phone in 2018 and 2019 indicated that they mixed venison from multiple deer when preparing ground venison products. However, our results do not show any cross-contamination in archery-harvested ground venison processed prior to the firearm hunting seasons.


Assuntos
Cervos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Illinois , Chumbo/análise
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111017, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678748

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of two metal-immobilizing bacterial strains, Serratia liquefaciens CL-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis X30, on the availability of Cd and Pb and the metal accumulation in potato tubers, as well as the underlying mechanisms in metal-contaminated soils were characterized. Moreover, the impacts of the strains on metal immobilization, pH, and NH4+ concentration in metal-contaminated soil solutions were evaluated. Strains CL-1 and X30 increased tuber dry weight by 46% and 40%, reduced tuber Cd and Pb contents by 68-83% and 42-47%, and decreased the Cd and Pb translocation factors by 61-70% and 30-34%, respectively, compared to the controls. Strains CL-1 and X30 decreased the available Cd and Pb contents by 52-67% and 30-44% and increased the NH4+ content by 55% and 31%, pH, urease activity by 70% and 41%, and relative abundance of ureC gene copies by 37% and 20% in the rhizosphere soils, respectively, compared with the controls. Reduced Cd and Pb concentrations and increased pH and NH4+ concentration were found in the bacteria-inoculated soil solution compared to the controls. These results suggested that the strains reduced tuber metal uptake through decreasing the metal availability and increasing the pH, ureC gene relative abundance and urease activity as well as decreasing the metal translocation from the leaves to tubers. These results may provide an effective metal-immobilizing bacteria (especially strain CL-1)-enhanced approach to reduce metal uptake of potato tubers in metal-polluted soils.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Serratia liquefaciens/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urease/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(34): 43028-43043, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725563

RESUMO

Current research was performed to explore the hepatoprotective potential of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on lead acetate-induced hepatic injury. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups. The first group was control, while the second, third, and fourth groups were given 200 mg/kg aqueous Moringa extract only, 100 mg/kg lead only, and 100 mg/kg lead plus 200 mg/kg aqueous Moringa leaves extract, respectively, via oral gavage for 4 weeks. Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio were recorded. Serum lipid profiles, liver enzyme activities, and proteins beside hepatic superoxide dismutase activity, reduced glutathione, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation were assessed. Liver histopathological examination and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) immunohistochemistry were performed. Administration of lead lowered (P < 0.05) weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, and perturbed lipid profile than control. Lead increased liver enzyme activities and TNF-α, while reduced serum proteins and hepatic antioxidant markers compared to control. Lead aggravated hepatic DNA fragmentation beside the presence of histopathological lesions. Co-administration of aqueous Moringa extract with lead significantly alleviated lead-induced adverse effects. The administration of aqueous Moringa extract with its antioxidant significantly restored the lead perturbations through reduction of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage via amelioration of NF-kB and TNF-α which kept hepatocyte integrity and reduced serum hepatic enzyme activities.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Moringa oleifera , Acetatos/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 277-280, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651989

RESUMO

Objectives Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a world-wide health concern. We reported that Japanese children and pregnant women are exposed to moderate levels of iAs through food. Reducing iAs contamination from foods of high iAs is an important issue unique in Japan. Integrated iAs is methylated to less toxic organic forms, and S-adenosyl-L-methyonine (SAM), a common methyl-donor of DNA and histones, is utilized in this process. Chronic consumption of SAM by iAs metabolism due to exposure to iAs might alter the epigenetic modification of genome. The SAM biosynthesis pathway is dependent on folate cycle, and it is possible that ingestion of sufficient folic acid (FA) is protective to iAs induced toxicity. Methods In the course of our cross-sectional body burden analyses of Pb and iAs in Japanese children and pregnant women, termed "PbAs study", FA concentration in serum of 104 pregnant women was measured. Results Mean (±SEM) of serum FA concentration was 15.8 ± 1.3 (ng/mL). There are significant number of people showing very high FA (>30 ng/ mL), and large fraction of them were taking supplements daily. Conclusions These results suggested that level of FA ingestion of Japanese pregnant women is high for supporting normal fetal development.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/sangue , Adulto , Arsênico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Chumbo/metabolismo , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111008, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678766

RESUMO

Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) play vital roles in elimination of hydroperoxide and other reactive oxygen species through catalyzing reduced glutathione to protect from oxidative stress caused by heavy metals such as lead. Among the family of Gpxs, Gpx3 is the only extracellular enzyme synthesized in the kidney and actively secreted into the plasma. This study investigated mechanisms of lead-induced GPx3 inactivation both at the animal and molecular levels. Six-week-old mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, and exposed to different lead concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 g/L) in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Contents of GPx3 in blood serum were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of Gpx3 in mice nephrocytes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), both of which showed significantly inhibited at higher lead concentrations accompanied by the decreased Gpx3 activities and the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in nephrocytes, which indicated that lead could induce strongly oxidative stress through affecting Gpx3 function. So we further investigated molecular mechanisms of GPx3 inactivation caused by lead with multiple spectroscopic techniques, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking studies in vitro. Results showed that lead statically quenched GPx3 fluorescence by tightly binding to the structural domain of GPx3 in a 3:1 ratio with high binding affinity (K = 3.1(±0.087) × 107 mol-1). Further investigation of the conformation of GPx3 by UV-visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicated that lead changed the secondary structure of GPx3 by loosening the GPx3 skeleton and decreasing the hydrophobicity around tryptophan residues. This work proved in vivo and in vitro experiments that lead could induce oxidative stress in mice nephrocytes by interacting with GPx3.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/química , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Chumbo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127247, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534296

RESUMO

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing macrophyte plant Typha latifolia L. commonly known as cattail, is gaining much attention worldwide. The present study investigated the effects of Lead (Pb) and Mercury (Hg) on physiology and biochemistry of plant, Pb and Hg uptake in T. latifolia with and without citric acid (CA) amendment. The uniform seedlings of T. latifolia were treated with various concentrations in the hydroponics as: Pb and Hg (1, 2.5, 5 mM) each alone and/or with CA (5 mM). After four weeks of treatments, the results revealed that Pb and Hg significantly reduced the plant agronomic traits as compare to non-treated plants. The addition of CA improved the plant physiology and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities to overcome Pb and Hg induced oxidative damage and electrolyte leakage. Our results depicted that Pb and Hg uptake and accumulation by T. latifolia was dose depend whereas, the addition of CA further increased the concentration and accumulation of Pb and Hg by up to 22 & 35% Pb and 72 & 40% Hg in roots, 25 & 26% Pb and 85 & 60% Hg in stems and 22 & 15 Pb and 100 & 58% Hg in leaves respectively compared to Pb and Hg treated only plants. On other hand, the root-shoot translocation factor was ≥1 and bioconcentration factor was also ≥2 for both Pb & Hg. The results also revealed that T. latifolia showed greater tolerance towards Hg and accumulated higher Hg in all parts compared with Pb.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Typhaceae/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Typhaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127450, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593006

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is one of the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly ways to reduce adverse effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the environment. The present study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) of Cd and Pb in muskweed (Myagrum perfoliatum) and foxtail sophora (Sophora alopecuroides). The impact of contamination on some growth responses of plants and soil biological indicators was also evaluated. A non-contaminated soil sample was divided into several subsamples: one subsample was left as control (without contamination) and the others were separately contaminated with three levels of Cd (3, 5, and 10 mg kg-1) and Pb (100, 300, and 600 mg kg-1). Pot experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions. The BF values of Cd were greater than 1 at all contamination levels indicating the potential of muskweed and foxtail sophora for the uptake and phytostabilization of Cd. The only TF > 1 was obtained for Cd in muskweed grown at the highest Cd contamination level. The TF values of Pb were much lower than those obtained for Cd indicating that Cd was more translocated from root to aerial parts of muskweed and foxtail sophora compared to Pb. The highest contamination levels of Cd and Pb did not significantly affect growth responses of muskweed and foxtail sophora. Furthermore, the cultivation of muskweed and foxtail sophora reduced the impact of Cd and Pb contamination on biological indicators including carbon mineralization ratio (CMR), substrate-induced respiration (SIR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and metabolic quotient (qCO2).


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sophora/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Metais Pesados , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
J Plant Physiol ; 250: 153185, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497866

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of metalliferous conditions on the functioning of photosynthetic electron transport in waste heap populations of a pseudometallophyte, Viola tricolor L. Measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the absorbance changes at 830 nm enabled a non-invasive assessment of photosynthetic apparatus performance. This was complemented by the evaluation of the chlorophyll content. Low temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra were also recorded. Based on the OJIP test performed in situ, we demonstrated a disturbed condition of photosystem II (PSII) in three metalliferous populations in comparison with a non-metallicolous one. The combined effects of elevated concentrations of zinc, cadmium and lead in soil resulted in the decline of some parameters describing the efficiency and electron flow through PSII. The differences between waste heap populations seemed to be partly correlated with the concentration of heavy metals in the soil. The characteristic of electron transport at photosystem I (PSI) in the light-adapted state revealed increased values of PSI donor-side limitation (YND) and a declined PSI quantum efficiency (YI). It was also demonstrated that the waste heap conditions negatively affect the total chlorophyll content in leaves and led to an increased ratio of fluorescence emission at 77 K (F730/F685). The obtained data indicate that, regardless of the high adaptation of metallicolous populations, photosynthetic electron transport is hampered in V. tricolor plants at metal polluted sites.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Transporte de Elétrons , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Viola/efeitos dos fármacos , Viola/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Polônia , Solo/química , Zinco/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517236

RESUMO

The use of bacterial strains as agents in bioremediation processes could reduce the harmfulness of potential toxic elements (PTEs) from water and soil with low or even no impact on the natural ecosystems. In this study, two new metal resistant-bacterial strains (Q3 and Q5) of Bacillus sp. were isolated from a sulfurous spring and their potential (as pure cultures or mixed) to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from an aqueous matrix was evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions for Cd(II) removal from all tested strains combinations were observed at an initial pH 5, a temperature of 38 °C, and an initial Cd(II) concentration of 50 mg L-1, while the performance of bacterial strains on Pb(II) removal was strongly correlated to initial pH and temperature conditions. Moreover, the efficiency of bacterial strains in removing both PTEs, Pb(II) and Cd(II), from an aqueous matrix was considerably higher when they were used as a mixed culture rather than pure. According to field emission SEM (FESEM) and EDS analysis, the two bacterial strains showed different mechanisms in removing Cd(II): Bacillus sp. Q5 bio-accumulated Cd(II) in its periplasmic space, whereas Bacillus sp. Q3 bio-accumulated Cd(II) on its cell surface. On the other hand, Pb(II) is removed by chemical precipitation (lead sulfide) induced by both Bacillus sp. Q3 and Q5. This study discloses new aspects of Pb(II) and Cd(II) bioremediation mechanisms in Bacillus species that can be extremely useful for designing and operating novel PTEs bioremediation processes.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Desintoxicação por Sorção , Bacillus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Desintoxicação por Sorção/métodos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110728, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460048

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) on Fe and heavy metal accumulations by castor (Ricinus communis L.) plants were investigated. The castor cultivar was planted in the soil contaminated with Pb and Zn for 48 days with Fe2O3 NPs treatments. The Fe and heavy metal concentrations in the plant tissues, the plant tissues' ultrastructures, and the Fe and heavy metal distributions in the soil aggregate were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that there is a mutual promotion relationship between Fe and heavy metals (Pb and Zn). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed ultrastructural differences in the xylem and phloem with Fe2O3 NPs addition, and the presence of Fe2O3 NPs may influence the synthesis of starch granules in response to heavy metal stress. Based on the analysis of the soil aggregate, α-Fe2O3 NPs and γ-Fe2O3 NPs changed the size distribution of the soil aggregate, that is, the macro-aggregate and the clay fraction contents increased and the micro-aggregate content decreased. Moreover, in the different size fractions of the soil aggregate, Fe2O3 NPs can change the Zn and Fe enrichment and migration between the macro-aggregate and clay fractions, and there is a synergistic effect between the Fe and Zn migration. In addition, in the castor organs (roots and shoots), the Zn accumulation was mainly determined by the Zn concentration of the macro-aggregate fraction, while the Fe accumulation was mainly determined by the Fe concentration of the micro-aggregate fraction. Overall, these direct observations help improve our understanding of the migration and transport characteristics of Fe and heavy metals in soil-plant systems when Fe nanoparticles are added to metal-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Ferro/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ricinus/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Ricinus/ultraestrutura , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12444-12451, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393619

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance and viral diseases are rising around the world and are becoming major threats to global health, food security, and development. One measure that has been suggested to mitigate this crisis is the development of new antibiotics. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns of antiinfective compounds from seed plants in one of the most species-rich regions on Earth and identify clades with naturally occurring substances potentially suitable for the development of new pharmaceutical compounds. Specifically, we combine taxonomic and phylogenetic data for >7,500 seed plant species from the flora of Java with >16,500 secondary metabolites and 6,255 georeferenced occurrence records to 1) identify clades in the phylogeny that are characterized by either an overrepresentation ("hot clades") or an underrepresentation ("cold clades") of antiinfective compounds and 2) assess the spatial patterns of plants with antiinfective compounds relative to total plant diversity across the region. Across the flora of Java, we identify 26 "hot clades" with plant species providing a high probability of finding antibiotic constituents. In addition, 24 "cold clades" constitute lineages with low numbers of reported activities but which have the potential to yield novel compounds. Spatial patterns of plant species and metabolite diversity are strongly correlated across Java, indicating that regions of highest species diversity afford the highest potential to discover novel natural products. Our results indicate that the combination of phylogenetic, spatial, and phytochemical information is a useful tool to guide the selection of taxa for efforts aimed at lead compound discovery.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Filogenia , Plantas/química , Plantas/genética , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374760

RESUMO

The metal hyperaccumulator Azolla filiculoides is accompanied by a microbiome potentially supporting plant during exposition to heavy metals. We hypothesized that the microbiome exposition to selected heavy metals will reveal metal tolerant strains. We used Next Generation Sequencing technique to identify possible metal tolerant strains isolated from the metal-treated plant (Pb, Cd, Cr(VI), Ni, Au, Ag). The main dominants were Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting together more than 97% of all reads. Metal treatment led to changes in the composition of the microbiome and showed significantly higher richness in the Pb-, Cd- and Cr-treated plant in comparison with other (95-105 versus 36-44). In these treatments the share of subdominant Actinobacteria (0.4-0.8%), Firmicutes (0.5-0.9%) and Bacteroidetes (0.2-0.9%) were higher than in non-treated plant (respectively: 0.02, 0.2 and 0.001%) and Ni-, Au- and Ag-treatments (respectively: <0.4%, <0.2% and up to 0.2%). The exception was Au-treatment displaying the abundance 1.86% of Bacteroidetes. In addition, possible metal tolerant genera, namely: Acinetobacter, Asticcacaulis, Anabaena, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Burkholderia, Dyella, Methyloversatilis, Rhizobium and Staphylococcus, which form the core microbiome, were recognized by combining their abundance in all samples with literature data. Additionally, the presence of known metal tolerant genera was confirmed: Mucilaginibacter, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Micrococcus, Achromobacter, Geobacter, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Delftia. We have evidenced that A. filiculoides possess a microbiome whose representatives belong to metal-resistant species which makes the fern the source of biotechnologically useful microorganisms for remediation processes.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Cromo/farmacologia , Gleiquênias/microbiologia , Chumbo/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Chumbo/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
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