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1.
Physiol Rep ; 11(1): e15530, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597186

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) raises cardiovascular disease risk. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of insulin sensitivity, although few studies on vascular function exist in humans. We determined the effect of insulin on EVs in relation to vascular function. Adults with MetS (n = 51, n = 9 M, 54.8 ± 1.0 years, 36.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2 , ATPIII: 3.5 ± 0.1 a.u., VO2 max: 22.1 ± 0.6 ml/kg/min) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral insulin sensitivity (M-value) was determined during a euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m2 /min, 90 mg/dl), and blood was collected for EVs (CD105+, CD45+, CD41+, TX+, and CD31+; spectral flow cytometry), inflammation, insulin, and substrates. Central hemodynamics (applanation tonometry) was determined at 0 and 120 min via aortic waveforms. Pressure myography was used to assess insulin-induced arterial vasodilation from mouse 3rd order mesenteric arteries (100-200 µm in diameter) at 0.2, 2 and 20 nM of insulin with EVs from healthy and MetS adults. Adults with MetS had low peripheral insulin sensitivity (2.6 ± 0.2 mg/kg/min) and high HOMA-IR (4.7 ± 0.4 a.u.) plus Adipose-IR (13.0 ± 1.3 a.u.). Insulin decreased total/particle counts (p < 0.001), CD45+ EVs (p = 0.002), AIx75 (p = 0.005) and Pb (p = 0.04), FFA (p < 0.001), total adiponectin (p = 0.006), ICAM (p = 0.002), and VCAM (p = 0.03). Higher M-value related to lower fasted total EVs (r = -0.40, p = 0.004) while higher Adipose-IR associated with higher fasted EVs (r = 0.42, p = 0.004) independent of VAT. Fasting CD105+ and CD45+ derived total EVs correlated with fasting AIx75 (r = 0.29, p < 0.05) and Pb (r = 0.30, p < 0.05). EVs from MetS participants blunted insulin-induced vasodilation in mesenteric arteries compared with increases from healthy controls across insulin doses (all p < 0.005). These data highlight EVs as potentially novel mediators of vascular insulin sensitivity and disease risk.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Insulina , Estudos Transversais , Chumbo/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo
2.
Life Sci ; 315: 121371, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621540

RESUMO

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is a severe mycosis, prevalent in tropical countries. The presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in lesions is conspicuous, indicating their central role in innate immunity through the direct killing of Pb and the production of cytokines that activate acquired immunity in the presence of itraconazole (Itra). The toxicity and direct antifungal activity of Itra on Pb in splenocyte co-cultures were evaluated in vitro. Itra showed no toxic effect but marked antifungal activity against Pb. Purified PMN were obtained by the subcutaneous (SC) injection of Pb into mice. Results showed the effect of Itra on the size of the air pouch produced, the cellular population that migrated to the infection site, protein, and mitochondrial metabolism patterns, production of ROS an NO, and the number of cytokines synthesized. Lower doses (3 and 10 mg/kg) of Itra did not affect the cellular profile but led to a lower influx of viable more active PMN, and increased production of ROS and proteins. At a dose of 50 mg/kg the PMN profile remained unchanged along with all other parameters analyzed remained unaltered. Decreases in most cytokine levels were inversely proportional to the Itra concentration. Lower Itra concentrations may elicit activation of the immune response because the combined effects of therapy and immune response are needed, while the higher dose does not require it. Itra also promotes the activation of the cytokines which elicit PMN activation and consequently the resolution of Pb18 infection in the air pouch.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Paracoccidioidomicose , Animais , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Paracoccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Paracoccidioidomicose/microbiologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 300-309, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657295

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) in the soil affects the growth and development of plants and causes damages to the human body through the food chain. Here, we identified and cloned a Pb-tolerance gene ZmPIP2;5 based on a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and gene-based association studies. We showed that ZmPIP2;5 encodes a plasma membrane aquaporin and positively regulated Pb tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis and yeast. Overexpression of ZmPIP2;5 increased root length and fresh weight of Arabidopsis seedlings under Pb stress. Heterologous expression of ZmPIP2;5 in yeast caused the enhanced growth speed under Pb treatment and Pb accumulation in yeast cells. A (T/A) SNP in the ZmPIP2;5 promoter affected the expression abundance of ZmPIP2;5 and thereby led to the difference in Pb tolerance among different maize lines. Our study helps to understand the mechanism underlying plant tolerance to Pb stress and provides new ideas for breeding Pb-tolerance maize varieties via molecular marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Zea mays , Humanos , Zea mays/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 446: 130691, 2023 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608576

RESUMO

The toxicity of metals to microorganisms is highly correlated with the type of metal used. However, the differences in the resistance mechanisms of filamentous fungi to multiple metals remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the responses of Aspergillus niger to three toxic metals, i.e., Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+. Fungal growth and metabolism indices showed that A. niger had a higher tolerance to Pb2+ (>1000 mg L-1) than to Cu2+ (300 mg L-1) and Cd2+ (50 mg L-1). An appropriate Pb2+ concentration (<500 mg L-1) stimulated fungal growth and metabolic activity, whereas Cd2+ and Cu2+ stress showed continuously negative influences on fungal physiological parameters, such as biomass and secretion of oxalic acid. A. niger responded to Pb stress by constructing a new border layer around its cell wall. This pathway was also confirmed using RNA-seq analysis, i.e., the gene encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase was upregulated. This upregulation subsequently promoted the production of polysaccharides, which are the main components that support fungal cell walls. In contrast, the expression of genes encoding both AAA family ATPase and efflux pump antibiotic resistance proteins for Cd2+ and Cu2+ was significantly downregulated. Therefore, these findings elucidated the relatively complete fungal responses to different metal stresses.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Cádmio , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Ácido Oxálico/metabolismo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 160974, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563757

RESUMO

Humic substances are widely present in aquatic environments. Due to the high affinity of humic substances for metals, the interactions have been particularly studied. To assess the effect of humic acid (HA) on submerged macrophytes and biofilms exposed to heavy metal stress, Vallisneria natans was exposed to solutions containing different concentrations of HA (0.5-2.0 mg·L-1), Pb2+ (1 mg·L-1) and Cd2+ (1 mg·L-1). Results suggested that HA positively affected the plant growth and alleviated toxicity by complexing with metals. HA increased the accumulation of metals in plant tissues and effectively induced antioxidant responses and protein synthesis. It was also noted that the exposure of HA and metals promoted the abundance and altered the structure of microbial communities in biofilms. Moreover, the positive effects of HA were considered to be related to the expression of related genes resulting from altered DNA methylation levels, which were mainly reflected in the altered type of demethylation. These results demonstrate that HA has a protective effect against heavy metal stress in Vallisneria natans by inducing effective defense mechanisms, altering biofilms and DNA methylation patterns in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 313: 137447, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509194

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the combined ecotoxicological effects of Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg and regulation mechanisms in Solanum nigrum L. In this work, the co-exposure of these four heavy metals hindered the transformation of Cd, Zn, and Hg (except Pb) from available to non-available chemical forms. Individual Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg induced the oxidative damages to S. nigrum L., while their combination further enhanced this ecological toxicity. By internal regulation, the ecological toxicity of metals to S. nigrum L. could be alleviated to a certain extent. Specifically, S. nigrum L. was a hyperaccumulator of Cd with BCF >1. Moreover, since BCFroot of Pb, Zn and Hg were all greater than BCFshoot, S. nigrum L. could accumulate Pb, Hg and Zn mainly in plant roots, which was beneficial for the detoxification of plants. Meanwhile, the immobilization by cell wall (the proportions of Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg in the cell wall were 54.46-84.92%, 38.33-49.25%, 48.38-56.19% and 45.97-63.47% in low metal concentration treatments) and the sequestration in vacuole (the proportions of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg in the soluble fractions are 50.99-59.00%, 41.05-45.46%, 37.54-61.04% and 33.47-61.35% in high metal concentration treatments) also act as important detoxification pathways. The external regulation was mainly the changes of soil microbial communities influenced by plants. Specifically, the richness and diversity of bacteria in rhizosphere soil were increased, and roots of S. nigrum L. recruited some potentially beneficial microbials. This study provided a theoretical basis and guidance for S. nigrum L. as a phytoremediation plant under combined heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Solanum nigrum , Cádmio/análise , Solanum nigrum/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Solo , Zinco/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental
7.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432494

RESUMO

Lead (Pb), an environmental hazard, causes several human diseases. Avicularin (Avi), a main dietary flavonoid found in several plants and fruits, exhibits potential protective properties on organs. However, the molecular mechanisms of Avi's protective effects against Pb-induced damage are not clear. In our study, the effects of Avi on Pb-induced hepatotoxicity were evaluated using ICR mice. We have revealed for the first time that treatment with Avi significantly reduced hepatic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and glucose metabolism disorder induced by Pb. Avi decreased the serum biochemical indicators of glucose metabolism. Avi increased the activities of glycogenolysis rate-limiting enzyme hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucokinase (GK) and glycogen phosphorylase (PYG) and inhibited the activities of gluconeogenesis rate-limiting enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Avi decreased the protein expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1), phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (p-PERK) and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were decreased in the liver as a result of Avi suppression Pb-induced inflammation. These results indicated that Avi attenuated Pb-induced impairment of hepatic glucose metabolism by the ERS and inflammation pathway.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glucose , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Glucose/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fígado/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232745

RESUMO

Lead exposure may weaken the ability of learning and memory in the nervous system through mitochondrial paramorphia and dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In our works, with SD rats, primary culture of hippocampal neuron and PC12 cell line model were built up and behavioral tests were performed to determine the learning and memory insults; Western blot, immunological staining, and electron microscope were then conducted to determine endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial paramorphia and dysfunction. Co-immunoprecipitation were performed to investigate potential protein-protein interaction. The results show that lead exposure may cripple rats' learning and memory capability by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial paramorphia and dysfunction. Furthermore, we clarify that enhanced MFN2 ubiquitination degradation mediated by PINK1 may account for mitochondrial paramorphia and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our work may provide important clues for research on the mechanism of how Pb exposure leads to nervous system damage.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 246: 114190, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252511

RESUMO

It is well known that lead-induced neurotoxicity is closely related to oxidative stress. According to previous reports, wheat germ peptides (WGPs) isolated from wheat germ have been shown to have potent antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that WGPs could protect PC12 cells from lead-induced oxidative stress. Here, the protecting-efficacies of WGPs were investigated in PC12 cells that were pretreated with WGPs (200 µM, 4 h) and exposed to lead (10 µM, 24 h). The antioxidant capacity was assessed by cell viability, ROS, MDA, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, GSH, and GSSG. The experimental results showed that WGP3, WGP8, and WGP9 could reverse the reduction of cell viability caused by lead exposure. Lead exposure causes oxidative stress by increasing the levels of ROS and MDA. Moreover, the decrease in the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GSH/GSSG could be observed. However, WGP3, WGP8, and WGP9 can protect PC12 cells against lead-induced oxidative stress by reversing these phenomena. The protein expression of TXNIP, Keap1, and Nrf2 was characterized by western blotting, and the results illustrated that lead exposure up-regulated the expression of TXNIP and Keap1 and down-regulated the expression of Nrf2, and WGP3, WGP8, and WGP9 could improve the antioxidant capacity of PC12 cells by reversing this phenomenon. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that WGP3, WGP8, and WGP9 may protect against lead-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by regulating the TXNIP/Keap1/Nrf2 pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Ratos , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 170: 113451, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198340

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) and obesity are co-occurring risk factors for metabolic disorders. However, there is still a lack of study on the combined effects of both stressors on metabolism. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 200 mg/L Pb or/and HFD for 24 weeks and were used to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic Pb exposure on obese mice. The results showed that Pb significantly increased body weight, visceral obesity, fasting blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance, and aggravated liver damage, hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in HFD-fed mice. Further analysis showed that Pb significantly inhibited insulin signaling pathway PI3K/AKT and fatty acid ß-oxidation, and accelerated fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, Pb exacerbated HFD-induced disruption of gut microbiota homeostasis, manifested by increased proportions of pathogenic genera such as Desulfovibrio, Alistipes and Helicobacter, and decreased proportions of beneficial microbes Akkermansia and Barnesiella, which were negatively associated with obesity. These results indicated that Pb exposure exacerbated the disruption of liver glucolipid metabolism in HFD mice possibly by disrupting gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Obesidade/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
11.
Environ Toxicol ; 37(12): 2990-3006, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088639

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely dispersed in the environment because of human industrial activities. Many studies revealed that Pb could adversely affect several organs, including the male reproductive system. Pb-induced reproductive toxicity could lead to infertility. Thus, finding safe and clinically applicable protective agents against this complication is important. It has been found that oxidative stress plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Pb-induced reprotoxicity. Glycine is the simplest amino acid with a wide range of pharmacological activities. It has been found that glycine could attenuate oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in various experimental models. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of glycine in Pb-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice. Male BALB/c mice received Pb (20 mg/kg/day; gavage; 35 consecutive days) and treated with glycine (250 and 500 mg/kg/day; gavage; 35 consecutive days). Then, reproductive system weight indices, biomarkers of oxidative stress in the testis and isolated sperm, sperm kinetic, sperm mitochondrial indices, and testis histopathological alterations were monitored. A significant change in testis, epididymis, and Vas deferens weight was evident in Pb-treated animals. Markers of oxidative stress were also significantly increased in the testis and isolated sperm of the Pb-treated group. A significant disruption in sperm kinetic was also evident when mice received Pb. Moreover, Pb exposure caused significant deterioration in sperm mitochondrial indices. Tubular injury, tubular desquamation, and decreased spermatogenic index were histopathological alterations detected in Pb-treated mice. It was found that glycine significantly blunted oxidative stress markers in testis and sperm, improved sperm mitochondrial parameters, causing considerable higher velocity-related indices (VSL, VCL, and VAP) and percentages of progressively motile sperm, and decreased testis histopathological changes in Pb-exposed animals. These data suggest glycine as a potential protective agent against Pb-induced reproductive toxicity. The effects of glycine on oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial function play a key role in its protective mechanism.


Assuntos
Glicina , Chumbo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sementes/metabolismo , Espermatozoides , Estresse Oxidativo , Testículo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 86(6): 1358-1372, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178811

RESUMO

Submerged plants and biofilms have significant advantages in hydro-ecology rehabilitation, but their tolerance and physiological responses to heavy metal stress have thus far been under-investigated. This study investigated the influence of lead on physiological and biochemical responses, as well as variation in bacterial communities and functional characteristics of submerged plant biofilms. The results showed that chlorophyll a content of two submerged plants decreased with increased lead concentration. The concentration of malondialdehyde of both submerged plants was higher under high lead concentrations than under low lead concentrations, and the concentrations of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in Vallisneria natans were more stable. The antioxidant enzyme systems of the two plants played protective roles against lead stress. High lead concentration can inhibit the bacterial community and lead to decreased diversity. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria (40.9%), Cyanobacteria (21.5%), and Bacteroidetes (14.3%). Proteobacteria abundance decreased with increased lead concentration, while Cyanobacteria abundance increased. The lead concentration in plants (19.7%, P < 0.01) and the lead concentration in aquatic environment (17.7%, P < 0.01) were significantly correlated with variation in bacterial communities. High lead concentration inhibits the activity of these bacteria related to the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Hydrocharitaceae , Metais Pesados , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorofila A/farmacologia , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteobactérias , Enxofre/metabolismo
13.
Epigenetics ; 17(13): 2404-2420, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148884

RESUMO

Prenatal lead (Pb) exposure is associated with adverse developmental outcomes and to epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in animal models and in newborn blood. Given the importance of the placenta in foetal development, we sought to examine how prenatal Pb exposure was associated with differential placental DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and to identify affected biological pathways linked to developmental outcomes. Maternal (n = 167) and infant (n = 172) toenail and placenta (n = 115) samples for prenatal Pb exposure were obtained from participants in a US birth cohort, and methylation and hydroxymethylation data were quantified using the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. An epigenome-wide association study was applied to identify differential methylation and hydroxymethylation associated with Pb exposure. Biological functions of the Pb-associated genes were determined by overrepresentation analysis through ConsensusPathDB. Prenatal Pb quantified from maternal toenail, infant toenail, and placenta was associated with 480, 27, and 2 differentially methylated sites (q < 0.05), respectively, with both increases and decreases associated with exposure. Alternatively, we identified 2, 1, and 14 differentially hydroxymethylated site(s) associated with maternal toenail, infant toenail, and placental Pb, respectively, with most showing increases in hydroxymethylation with exposure. Significantly overrepresented pathways amongst genes associated with differential methylation and hydroxymethylation (q < 0.10) included mechanisms pertaining to nervous system and organ development, calcium transport and regulation, and signalling activities. Our results suggest that both methylation and hydroxymethylation in the placenta can be variable based on Pb exposure and that the pathways impacted could affect placental function.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Placenta , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Placenta/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 104-114, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081232

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution is a major environmental issue affecting plant production. Spermidine (Spd) is involved in plant response to abiotic stress. However, the role and associated mechanism of Spd under Cd + Pb combined stress are poorly understood. The potential protective role of Spd at different concentration on rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings exposed to Cd + Pb treatment was investigated by a hydroponic experiment in this study. The results showed that exogenous Spd enhanced the tolerance of rice seedlings to Cd + Pb stress, resulted in an increase in plant height, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of roots and shoots. Further, application of Spd decreased the contents of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, malondialdehyde, and the accumulation of Cd and Pb, and increased the contents of mineral nutrient, carotenoids, chlorophyll, proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein, total phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and antioxidant enzymes activities in roots and shoots of rice seedlings under Cd + Pb stress. Particularly, 0.5 mmol L-1 Spd was the most effective to alleviate the adverse impacts on growth and physiological metabolism of rice seedlings under Cd + Pb stress. Principal component analysis and heat map clustering established correlations between physio-biochemical parameters and further revealed Spd alleviated Cd + Pb damage in rice seedling was associated with inhibition of accumulation and translocation of Cd and Pb, increasing the contents of photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient and stimulation of antioxidative response and osmotic adjustment. Overall, our findings provide an important prospect for use of Spd in modulating Cd + Pb tolerance in rice plants. Spd could help to alleviate Cd + Pb damage through inhibition of accumulation and translocation of Cd and Pb and stimulation of oxidant-defense system and osmotic adjustment.


Assuntos
Oryza , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Espermidina/farmacologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 323: 116189, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113290

RESUMO

The present study investigated the stabilization of fresh sewage sludge through a dual-stage biodegradation process; rotary drum composting in series with vermicomposting. After thermophilic exposure in a rotary drum composter, the partially degraded feedstock was separated into S1 without vermiculture, S2 and S3 with Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida vermi-monocultures, respectively. The S3-derived vermicompost exhibited an 80% and 88% reduction in CO2 and ammonium-nitrogen evolution rates, respectively, demonstrating the expedient stabilization of sludge. The robust, more than 85% seed germination index supported S2 and S3 derived vermicompost viability. A significant decrease in heavy metals was evinced with S2 and S3-derived vermicompost; the S1-derived end product exhibited higher Zn, Cr, and Pb levels in the absence of vermicomposting. Furthermore, soil amended with 20% vermicompost from S3 displayed 50% more plant growth than S1. Thus, the optimized thermophilic-mesophilic dual-biodegradation technique stabilizes sewage sludge quickly, has a lot of potential in sludge management facilities around the world, and produces a marketable end product.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Esgotos , Solo
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 190: 119-132, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113307

RESUMO

Lead (Pb), like other heavy metals, is not essentially required for optimal plant growth; however, plants uptake it from the soil, which poses an adverse effect on growth and yield. Asparagine (Asp) and thiourea (Thi) are known to assuage the negative impacts of heavy metal pollution on plant growth; however, combined application of Asp and Thi has rarely been tested to discern if it could improve wheat yield under Pb stress. Thus, this experimentation tested the role of individual and combined applications of Asp (40 mM) and Thi (400 mg/L) in improving wheat growth under lead (Pb as PbCl2, 0.1 mM) stress. Lead stress significantly reduced plant growth, chlorophyll contents and photosystem system II (PSII) efficiency, whereas it increased Pb accumulation in the leaves and roots, leaf proline contents, phytochelatins, and oxidative stress related attributes. The sole or combined application of Asp and Thi increased the vital antioxidant biomolecules/enzymes, including reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA), ascorbate peroxsidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Furthermore, the sole or the combined application of Asp and Thi modulated nitrogen metabolism by stimulating the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase, glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS). Asp and Thi together led to improve plant growth and vital physiological processes, but lowered down Pb accumulation compared to those by their sole application. The results suggest that Asp and Thi synergistically can improve wheat growth under Pb-toxicity.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Triticum , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Asparagina , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutamato Sintase/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrito Redutases/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Solo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tioureia/farmacologia , Triticum/metabolismo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113852, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068768

RESUMO

Contamination of agro-ecosystems with heavy metals can affect the development and reproduction of insect natural enemies. This study reports a detailed Tandem Mass Tag based quantitative proteomic analysis of underlying mechanisms responsible for stress response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri against heavy metals (cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)) transported across a multi-trophic food chain. A total of 6639 proteins were detected under Cd as well as Pb stress. In Pb versus the control cluster, 69 proteins (28 up-regulated and 41 down-regulated) were differentially expressed whereas 268 proteins were differentially expressed under Cd versus the control cluster, having 198 proteins up-regulated and 70 down-regulated proteins. The analysis of differentially expressed proteins showed that 27 proteins overlapped in both clusters representing the core proteome to Pb and Cd stress. The bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that these proteins were mapped to 57 and 99 pathways in Pb versus control and Cd versus control clusters, respectively. The functional classification by COG, GO and KEGG databases showed significant changes in protein expression by C. montrouzieri under Pb and Cd stress. The heavy metal stress (Pb and Cd) induced significant changes in expression of proteins like hexokinase (HK), succinyl-CoA, trypsin like proteins, cysteine proteases, cell division cycle proteins, and yellow gene proteins. The results provide detailed information on the protein expression levels of C. montrouzieri and will serve as basic information for future proteomic studies on heavy metal responses of insect predators within a multi-trophic food chain.


Assuntos
Besouros , Metais Pesados , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Proteômica
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158665, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096218

RESUMO

Exposure to lead (Pb), a known toxin causing developmental neurotoxicity, can impair neurogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), but the mechanism is not clarified. In the current study, we aim to explore the effects of Pb on the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells and investigate the role of heme and heme-binding protein BACH1 during differentiation. We found that Pb exposure caused a shift from OXPHOS to glycolysis, resulting in neurogenesis impairment by decreasing neurite growth and downregulation of PSD95 and Synapsin-1 in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Heme reduction mediated this mitochondria metabolism repression caused by Pb depending on BACH1 activation. Hemin supplement alleviated Pb-induced OXPHOS damage and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reduction in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, and further protected for Pb-induced damage of synapse. Heme binding factor BACH1 was negatively regulated by heme content and BACH1 knockout rescued the Pb-induced transcription and expression decline of genes related to OXPHOS and abrogated Pb-induced growth inhibition of axon promotion and synapse formation. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that heme deficiency mediates OXPHOS damage caused by Pb through BACH1 activation, resulting in neurogenesis impairment.


Assuntos
Hemina , Neuroblastoma , Humanos , Hemina/metabolismo , Hemina/farmacologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligantes de Grupo Heme , Sinapsinas/metabolismo , Sinapsinas/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Heme/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/farmacologia
19.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 2): 136365, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087724

RESUMO

Heavy metals present in the environment can cause a variety of injury symptoms in various organisms including lichens. Most studies examined metal-induced stress under controlled laboratory conditions, and little is known about actual response of lichens in their natural habitat. This study aims to recognize the effect of heavy metal accumulation (total and intracellular) on lichen physiological and biochemical parameters specifically related to the functioning of fungal component. Cladonia rei was used as a model species due to its common occurrence both in unpolluted and extremely polluted sites. We observed a decline in the fungal metabolism which was expressed by a decrease in ergosterol content and an increase in cell membrane damage as a result of increased Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni accumulation. Additionally, the results indicated that increased accumulation of xenobiotics (Pb and As) caused reduction of glutathione (GSH) concentrations and increased membrane lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we conclude that GSH does not provide high oxidative stress protection in C. rei which is somewhat against its insensitivity to pollution. The reduced pool of GSH could be explained by its oxidation to glutathione disulphide induced by heavy metal stress or its use for phytochelatin (PC) synthesis. The content of secondary metabolites was not related to heavy metal accumulation and remained at a relatively stable level. This indicates that the decline in the physiological condition did not weaken the mycobiont of C. rei enough to inhibit the synthesis of secondary metabolites and their precursors were supplied at a sufficient level. Thus, the potential function of main secondary metabolites as extracellular metal immobilizers and antioxidants is still possible even in individuals growing at extremely polluted sites. Despite the evident heavy metal stress, C. rei copes well and spreads easily through extremely polluted environments, which underlines its unique pioneering abilities in highly disturbed sites.


Assuntos
Líquens , Metais Pesados , Ascomicetos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ergosterol , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Líquens/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/química , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo
20.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 74: 127070, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the expression of Liver X receptor (Lxr), Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), apoptotic-related genes, and the protective role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the liver of rats treated with Lead (Pb). METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including G1 (control), G2 (single dose of Pb), G3 (continuous dose of Pb), G4 (single dose of Pb + NAC), and G5 (continuous dose of Pb + NAC). Lipid profiles and liver specific enzymes were assessed. Expression of Lxr, Sirt1, Bax and Caspase-3 genes was considered using RT-PCR. RESULTS: Exposure to Pb caused a significant accumulation of Pb in the blood and liver tissue, increase in serum AST, ALT and ALP enzymes, as well as lipid profiles. Chronic exposure to Pb caused a significant decrease in Lxr (3.15-fold; p < 0.001) and Sirt1 (2.78-fold; p = 0.009), but significant increase in expression of Bax (4.49-fold; p < 0.001) and Caspase-3 (4.10-fold; p < 0.001) genes when compared to the control. Combined therapy with Pb + NAC in rats caused a significant decrease in AST, ALT and ALP values (28.93%, 20.80% and 28.86%, respectively) in the blood as compared to rats treated with Pb alone. Co-treated with Pb + NAC significantly increased the expression of Lxr (1.72-fold; p = 0.043) and Sirt1 (2.45-fold; p = 0.008), but decreased the expression of Bax (1.96-fold; p = 0.03) and Caspase 3 (2.22-fold; p = 0.029) genes when compared to rats treated with Pb alone. CONCLUSION: Chronic exposure to Pb is strongly associated with accumulation of Pb in the blood and liver, hepatic cells apoptosis, down-expression of Lxr and Sirt1 genes and consequently liver injury and abnormal lipid profiles. NAC reversed the Pb-induced toxicity on the liver tissue.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Sirtuína 1 , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/farmacologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/farmacologia
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