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1.
Chemosphere ; 234: 640-647, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234081

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to metals can have an adverse effect on the cardiovascular system. However, epidemiological studies of the associations of metals expose with hypertension among occupationally exposed workers were limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between urinary metal levels and the risk of hypertension among molybdenum miners and iron and steel foundry workers. The cross-sectional study had 395 participants. Urinary metal levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Log-binomial regression model and two-piece-wise regression model were applied to assess the dose-response relationship between metal exposure and hypertension. We observed that increased prevalence ratios for hypertension among the quartile of urinary concentrations of molybdenum, arsenic and lead were positive (all P for trend <0.05). Compared with the lowest quartiles, participants in the highest quartiles of molybdenum, arsenic and lead had a 2.58-fold, 4.30-fold and 4.85-fold increased probability of having hypertension, respectively. In the threshold effect analyses, we found the relationship was nonlinear between urinary molybdenum, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic and lead concentrations and the prevalence of hypertension. In addition, Pb, Mo, As and Co may have joint effect, and a strong positive correlation with the prevalence of hypertension. Conversely, the association between the joint effect of Cd, Pb and Mo versus the prevalence of hypertension is not significant. We provide reference levels of molybdenum, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic and lead that can be used to assess the effects of occupational metal exposure on hypertension.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Cobalto/urina , Hipertensão/urina , Chumbo/urina , Molibdênio/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino
2.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 36-43, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109619

RESUMO

Data (N = 9882) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003-2014 for US adults aged ≥20 years were analyzed to evaluate the variabilities in concentrations of blood and urine lead across various stages of glomerular function. Those who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in glomerular function stage 1 (GF-1), those who had eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-2, those who had eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-3A, those who had eGFR between 15 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-3B/4. There were consistent increases in adjusted geometric means (AGM) for both blood and urine lead from GF-1 to GF-3A even though increases were not uniform from one GF stage to another. For the total population, AGMs for blood lead were 1.23, 1.78, 2.25, and 2.25 µg/dL for GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. AGMs for urine lead were 0.49, 0.61, 0.68, and 0.47 µg/L for GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. Thus, from GF-3A to GF-3B/4, AGMs for both blood and urine lead decreased. However, percent increases from GF-1 to GF-3A for urine lead were smaller than for blood lead and percent decreases from GF-3A to GF-3B/4 for urine lead were larger than for blood lead. Females had lower AGMs than males for both blood and urine lead. Also, smoker-nonsmoker differences for blood lead narrowed as kidney function deteriorated but smoker-nonsmoker differences for urine cadmium lead as kidney function deteriorated. Smokers had sharper increases in AGMs for blood and urine lead than nonsmokers from GF-1 to GF-3A but at GF-3B/4, this difference was reduced to 0.17 µg/dL.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Int ; 125: 75-81, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary lead (Pb) is generally considered to have limited use in biomonitoring environmental exposure to lead. Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM BC) is an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived aerosol particles. In urban environments, atmospheric Pb and black carbon may have common sources. We aimed to study the temporal change of urinary Pb (U-Pb) when exposure to outdoor air pollution changes, and the relationship between U-Pb and AM BC. METHODS: A panel of 50 young healthy adults [mean (SD) 26.7 (5.2) years], including 17 long-term (>1 year) residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE), 15 and 18 newcomers (arrived <3 weeks) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC), respectively, underwent 8 repeated measurements at 6 weeks intervals. In urine spot samples obtained at 5 time points (T1, T2, T4, T6, T8), 24 trace elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. At each time point, AM BC was quantified as the median surface of black inclusions (in µm2) by means of image analysis of 25 macrophages obtained by induced sputum. Changes in urinary metal concentrations (with and without creatinine correction) and the relationship between U-Pb and AM BC were estimated using linear mixed models adjusted for covariates and potential confounders. RESULTS: Only U-Pb differed between groups and exhibited significant time trends. Participants from the LMIC group had significantly higher initial U-Pb (1.18 µg/g creat) than the HIC group (0.44 µg/g creat) and BE group (0.45 µg/g creat). In the LMIC group, U-Pb decreased significantly with time by 0.061 µg/g creatinine per 30 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.034, 0.088]. U-Pb remained unchanged in the other two groups. An increase in AM BC of 1 µm2 was associated with an increase in U-Pb of 0.369 µg/g creat (95% CI: 0.145, 0.593). CONCLUSION: This panel study demonstrates that U-Pb may be a valid alternative to blood Pb for biomonitoring changes in exposure to lead, at least at group level. In addition, we identified a positive association between U-Pb and AM BC, a biomarker of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, suggesting the existence of common sources of Pb and black carbon in urban environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/urina , Chumbo/urina , Macrófagos/química , Fuligem/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar , Bélgica , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 173: 429-435, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798186

RESUMO

Both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure can induce kidney damage. However, the effects of combined exposure to Cd and Pb on renal function at environmental levels have not been fully clarified. In this study we investigated the renal function in a Chinese population co-exposed to Cd and Pb. A total of 331 subjects (215 women and 116 men), living in either a control or a polluted area, were included in this study. Cd and Pb in blood and urine (BCd, BPb, UCd, and UPb), and kidney effect markers including urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), were determined, and the association between exposure markers and renal effect biomarkers were analyzed. The exposure levels in the polluted area were significantly higher than in the control area (all p < 0.01). The eGFR of subjects in the polluted area was decreased compared with that in the control area (p < 0.01). The subjects with high BCd/BPb (BCd ≥ 2 µg/L, BPb ≥ 100 µg/L) or high UCd/UPb (UCd ≥ 3 µg/g creatinine, UPb ≥ 10 µg/g creatinine) showed higher UNAG and UALB levels compared with other subgroups (p < 0.01). The probability of having elevated UNAG in subjects with high BCd/BPb was greater than those with low BCd/BPb [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-4.7), low BCd/high BPb (OR =3.1, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6), and high BCd/low BPb (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2). The OR of subjects with low UCd and high UPb, high UCd and low UPb, and high UCd/UPb were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.4-5.7), 3.3 (95% CI: 1.5-7.2), and 7.7 (95% CI: 4.0-14.7), respectively, compared with those with low UCd/UPb. The risk of decrease in eGFR was also higher in subjects with high UCd/UPb than for those with low UCd/UPb (OR = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.8-62.2). Our data demonstrate that Cd and Pb exposure, alone or in combination, are associated with renal impairment. In addition, co-exposure to Pb and Cd propagates the renal tubular dysfunction compared with Cd or Pb exposure alone.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Acetilglucosaminidase/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 6048-6064, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612372

RESUMO

Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7-84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993-1996 (93-96) and 2005-2008 (05-08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants' urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93-96 (N = 821)/05-08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND-13.90)/0.72 (ND-7.44), 2.28 (ND-63.60)/1.09 (0.04-48.88), 0.91 (0.08-17.30)/1.05 (0.05-22.43), and 16.87 (2.62-158.28)/13.66 (1.67-189.70) µg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05-08 (Pb 1.09 µg/L, Cu 13.66 µg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93-96 (Pb 2.28 µg/L, Cu 16.87 µg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05-08 (Cd 0.72 µg/L, Co 1.05 µg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais Pesados/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Cobalto/urina , Cobre/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 189(1): 1-9, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054879

RESUMO

The exposure of heavy metals (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and metalloid arsenicals) and their effects on workers' health from a lead-zinc mine (145 workers) and a steel smelting plant (162 workers) was investigated. Information on subject characteristics was obtained through a questionnaire. We determined the urinary levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and arsenicals (including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), as were 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cystatin C. Lead-zinc mine foundry workers had significantly higher concentrations of urinary Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, iAs, and MMA than did steel smelting plant workers. Individuals who had consumed seafood in the previous 3 days had higher concentrations of urinary Ni than did individuals who had not consumed seafood. The urinary Cd concentrations in the two groups of factory workers may have been affected by daily smoking. There was no significant difference in urinary 8-OHdG between workers from the lead-zinc mine foundry and the steel smelting plant. Urinary Pb and Cd had significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG. Urinary cystatin C, a sensitive biological indicator reflecting early renal damage, was found at higher levels in lead-zinc mine workers than in steel smelting plant workers. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age and urinary Cd were significantly associated with urinary cystatin C. These results indicated that workers from lead-zinc mines may be exposed to higher levels of heavy metals which could lead to greater risk of kidney damage.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Ferro/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Aço , Adulto , Arsenicais/urina , Cádmio/urina , Cobre/urina , Humanos , Ferro/urina , Chumbo/urina , Metais Pesados/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níquel/urina , Zinco/urina
7.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 190(1): 1-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215191

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease; exogenous factors-including heavy metals-may have a role in the disease pathogenesis. In this context, a study on the quantification of Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb in blood and urine of 27 SSc patients and 30 controls was carried out. Main findings were that Al was significantly depleted in blood and increased in urine of SSc patients respect to controls; and Pb was found slightly increased in blood and significantly decreased in SSc group. In addition, higher Hg levels in urine were found in SSc subjects with the higher severity of the disease. Females showed the most marked differences in the levels of blood Al, blood Pb, and urine Cd between patients and controls. Smoking, hobby, ingestion of contaminated food, job exposure may contribute to the bodily levels of Al, Hg, Pb in SSc patients. The results indicated that low, chronic, and multiple exposures to heavy metals-also through habits, diet, and environment-may influence the risk for SSc.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Alumínio/sangue , Alumínio/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1355-1362, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary metals are considered measures of long-term exposures of metals, such as cadmium (Cd). Some studies indicate reduced renal function may affect the urinary excretion of several metals in general population making assessments difficult. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether reduced renal function is associated with reduced urinary excretion of 12 metals or their metabolites and, in turn, an underestimated measure of Cd in general population. METHODS: We conducted analyses using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between urinary metal levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Restricted cubic spline regression models were used to evaluate the nonlinearity. RESULTS: Urinary metal levels significantly increased (p < 0.001) with increasing eGFR, except for antimony (p = 0.172). Urinary levels of arsenic, dimethylarsonic acid, cobalt, molybdenum and tungsten increased linearly with eGFR, while Cd, lead, mercury, barium, cesium and thallium increased nonlinearly (p < 0.001) with eGFR. Based on a restricted cubic spline regression model, we found, corresponding to a fixed blood Cd adverse cutpoint of 5 µg/L, predicted urinary Cd cutpoints substantially varied from 0.78-1.21 µg/g for urinary Cd between those aged <40 years and who had chronic kidney disease and those aged 60 years or over with normal renal function, respectively. CONCLUSION: Reduced renal function is associated with reduced urinary metals; and associations are also observed across the eGFR range not just in the reduced range. Urinary abnormal cutpoints of metals are likely dependent on eGFR and age. The associations between urinary exposure of metals and disease risk are likely underestimated without considering the modifying effect of renal function.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cádmio/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(19): 983-997, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296394

RESUMO

Lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) are among the major toxicants in mining environments. Miners are commonly and repeatedly exposed to this toxic mixture. Some adverse effects may appear at concentrations below environmental quality guidelines for individual mixture components. Further, Pb, Mn, and As induce common adverse outcomes, such as interferences in the cholinergic system and heme synthesis. It is thus vital to monitor miners through biomarkers (BM), such that subclinical effects may be identified at an early stage. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the exposure of a mining population to these three metals and determine alterations in cholinergic and heme synthesis parameters. Blood and urine samples of workers (n = 60) were obtained from a Portuguese mining industry and compared with a control population (n = 80). The levels of the metals were determined in biological samples, as well as urinary heme precursor levels, delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphyrins, and blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The miners exhibited significantly higher values of Pb and As in blood and urine compared to control. In the case of Mn near or slightly higher than limit values were found. Our data show that heme precursors may be used simultaneously with metal levels as BMs for multiple metal exposures on an individual basis, resulting in 94.3% and 95.7% accuracy, respectively, in blood and urine, for subjects correctly identified with respect to occupation. This study also revealed that biological monitoring of this working population regarding metal body burden and heme precursor accumulation is advisable.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Animais , Arsênico/sangue , Arsênico/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Heme , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Portugal , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 50: 312-319, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262297

RESUMO

The aim of the present survey was to determine differences in the serum and urinary concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cs and Pb) between long distance runners and non-sportsmen living in the same area of Extremadura (Spain) in basal conditions as well as after the performance of a maximal effort test until exhaustion. 21 Spanish national long-distance runners were recruited before the start of their training season and 26 untrained students. All of them had similar ages. The effort test consisted in running on a treadmill incrementally in stages, until exhaustion. Serum and urine analysis of trace metals was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the statistics the urine and blood basal concentrations was analyzed first using Student t test. Then the differences between the pre and post-test values were analyzed using Wilcoxon test. The serum concentrations of Be (p < 0.001), Cd (p < 0.01), Cs (p < 0.001) and Pb (p < 0.001) were higher in the athletes than the control groups in basal conditions. In relation to the exercise, the results showed that there were lower serum concentrations of Be, Cd and Pb after the test, but without statistically significance, in both groups. Cs (p < 0.001) concentrations were statistically lower after the exercise tests in both groups, but if the parameters were corrected in relation to hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations the differences were significant only among the athletes. In urine, the concentrations of Be (p < 0.001) and Cd (p < 0.01) were higher among athletes than among controls, being the opposite case for urinary Pb values. In relation to the exercise-induced effect of the test, the results showed that among controls only Cd values were modified, but if creatinine corrections are applied this difference does not reach statistical significance. However, sportsmen suffered a diminution in Be values, that can be observed only if urine values are corrected. Also, an increase in Cd, both in corrected and normal values, was observed, fact that occurred also in the case of Cs, but only if urinary values are corrected. It can be concluded that an incremental exercise to exhaustion among elite athletes of long distance modalities can produce changes in serum and urinary concentrations of toxic trace elements which may reflect an adaptive mechanism to prevent toxicity, and which could be an interesting outcome for physicians in the treatment and prevention of toxic situations.


Assuntos
Atletas , Exercício/fisiologia , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/urina , Adulto , Antropometria , Arsênico/sangue , Arsênico/toxicidade , Arsênico/urina , Berílio/sangue , Berílio/toxicidade , Berílio/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/urina , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Minerais/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Chemosphere ; 212: 694-704, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176551

RESUMO

The global burden of water-based lead (Pb) exposure on children is largely unknown; however, the importance of water sources as a path of Pb exposure is receiving increased attention due to recent prominent exposure events related to corroded plumbing infrastructure in the US. This study investigated the contribution of Pb in household drinking and cooking water to Pb levels in blood (PbB) and urine (PbU) within 353 early school-aged children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Additionally, the analysis considered the child's iron status and the water content of iron (WFe) and zinc (WZn) in relation to water Pb and blood/urine Pb concentrations. Lead concentrations for both PbB and PbU were fairly low (M ±â€¯SD: 4.2 ±â€¯2.1 µg/dL; Median [5%, 95%]: 1.9 [0.6, 5.1 µg/L, respectively]); however 21% of the sample had a PbB >5 µg/dL but ≤ 10 µg/dL. Overall, there was little evidence of an association between water metal concentrations and children's PbB/PbU. However, when the sample was stratified by children's iron status, WPb was positively related to PbU, but negatively related to PbB in iron-replete children, even after adjusting for WFe and WZn. In iron-deficient children, there was no elevation in PbU with increasing WPb. In this sample of children with low Pb levels, there were no overwhelming relationships between WPb and either PbB or PbU, however, there was some evidence that iron-replete status promotes excretion of WPb.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ferro/química , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/química , Chumbo/urina , Zinco/química , Criança , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Uruguai , Zinco/análise
12.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 15(12): 833-840, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207929

RESUMO

The assessment of co-exposure to several types of metal contamination poses a hurdle for occupational monitoring. Determination of elements in biological samples is an important way to evaluate occupational exposure. However, optimized methods for the extraction of multiple metals from biological samples have not been reported in recent studies. Therefore, solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on the functionalized nano-zeolite Y was suggested for the biomonitoring of metal co-exposure. SPE was conducted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) surrounded by Triton X-100 micelles, which were loaded into the pores of nano-zeolite Y. In this study, SPE was optimized for pre-concentration of trace amounts of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in urine samples with respect to the pH, APDC concentration, elution condition, amount of functionalized nano-zeolite Y, and sample volume. This method has been successfully optimized for the extraction of the mentioned multiple metals with >97% efficiency and an acceptable reproducibility with a coefficient variation of <10%. This method could be used in the extraction of multiple metals in environmental and occupational exposure conditions. In this study, urine samples of welding workers were evaluated following this optimized method.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Cádmio/urina , Cromo/urina , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Nanopartículas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Soldagem , Zeolitas/química
13.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e021565, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternal exposure to lead (Pb) has been suggested to correlate with adverse birth outcomes, but evidence supporting an association between Pb exposure and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is limited. The aim of our study was to investigate whether maternal Pb exposure was associated with PROM and preterm PROM. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. STUDY POPULATION: The present study involved 7290 pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort in Wuhan, China, during 2012-2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROM was defined as spontaneous rupture of amniotic membranes before the onset of labour and was determined with a pH ≥6.5 for vaginal fluid. Maternal urinary Pb level was adjusted by creatinine concentration, and its relationship with PROM was analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The IQR of maternal urinary Pb concentrations of the study population was 2.30-5.64 µg/g creatinine with a median of 3.44 µg/g creatinine. Increased risk of PROM was significantly associated with elevated levels of Pb in maternal urine (adjusted OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.47 for the medium tertile; adjusted OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.80 for the highest tertile). The risk of preterm PROM associated with Pb levels was significantly higher when compared with the lowest tertile (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.92 for the medium tertile; adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.60 for the highest tertile). In addition, the relationship between Pb and PROM was more pronounced among primiparous women than multiparous women (p for interaction <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that higher levels of maternal Pb exposure was associated with increased risk of PROM, indicating that exposure to Pb during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for PROM.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/química , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/induzido quimicamente , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Pública , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/urina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/urina , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/urina
14.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 28(6): 642-652, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052069

RESUMO

Vulnerability assessments are commonly based on complex indices that may be inappropriate for characterizing risks in small groups of people exposed to environmental hazards. The aim was to present a multivariate and geostatistical approach to explore human health risks at the individual, household and community level. First, biological and socioeconomic characteristics from 179 children were used in a cluster analysis to find groups and identify vulnerability profiles. Then, both the exposure of children to arsenic and lead in soils and their accessibility to community resources were assessed using a geospatial analysis. The results identified three vulnerability profiles among children that were not in agreement with the environmental exposure and deficit of community resources. The proposed approach helps optimize strategies to manage both environmental and social risks based on the vulnerability of the exposed population.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/urina , Criança , Chile , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/urina , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/urina , Análise Espacial
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890770

RESUMO

Background: Heavy metals are known to be harmful for neurodevelopment and they may correlate to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we aim to explore the relationships between multiple heavy metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, mercury, antimony, and bismuth), neurocognitive function, and ADHD symptoms. Methods: We recruited 29 patients with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I), 47 patients with ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity type (ADHD-H/I), and 46 healthy control children. Urine samples were obtained to measure the levels of the aforementioned heavy metals in each child. Participants’ cognitive function and clinical symptoms were assessed, respectively. Results: We found ADHD-H/I patients demonstrated the highest antimony levels (p = 0.028), and ADHD-I patients demonstrated the highest cadmium levels (p = 0.034). Antimony levels were positively correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms that were rated by teachers, and cadmium levels were negatively correlated with the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient. Lead levels were negatively correlated with most indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children⁻Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), but positively correlated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Lead, cadmium and antimony were associated with susceptibility to ADHD and symptom severity in school-age children. Eliminating exposure to heavy metals may help to prevent neurodevelopmental disorders in children.


Assuntos
Antimônio/toxicidade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Cádmio/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adolescente , Antimônio/urina , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Metais Pesados , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 157: 1-9, 2018 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753141

RESUMO

A simple and applied method based on ultrasound assisted-Ionic liquid trap-micro solid phase extraction (USA-ILT-µSPE) was demonstrated for preconcentration/separation of lead (Pb) in human blood and urine samples. By proposed method, the amine-functionalized bimodal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NH2-UVM7) as solid phase sorbent was used for lead analysis in human biological samples at pH ≈ 7.0. After shaking/centrifuging of sample, the Pb (II) was extracted with NH2-UVM7 without any chelating agents, trapped in ionic liquid phase and settled down in conical centrifuge tube as a residual solution [Pb→:NH2-UVM7]. Finally, the lead ions was back extracted from residual solution and determined by atom trap flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AT-FAAS). Under the optimal conditions, the linear range (LR), limit of detection (LOD) and preconcentration factor (PF) were obtained (10-950 µg L-1; 2.0-210 µg L-1), (2.8 µg L-1; 0.6 µg L-1) and (19.8; 99.7) for human blood and urine samples, respectively (% RSD < 1, intra-day). The reusability and adsorption capacity of the sorbent were also obtained 24 and 213.8 mg g-1, respectively. Validation of methodology was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST, CRM).


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Chumbo/urina , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Adsorção , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Chumbo/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
17.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 48: 224-232, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Shotgun pellets containing bismuth (Bi) as substitute for lead (Pb) are increasingly being used due to environmental concerns. Information on toxicokinetics of Bi is lacking for the assessment of humans accidentally shot by Bi-containing shotgun alloy pellets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to miniature alloy pellets containing Bi, tin (Sn) and minor amounts of Pb by implantation in muscle tissues of the hind legs. RESULTS: The concentrations of Bi in whole blood and urine increased up to 53 weeks after implantation. The highest concentrations of Sn in whole blood were observed three weeks after implantation, then declining to background levels 53 weeks after implantation. Lead in whole blood increased up to 13 weeks of exposure, and declined for the remaining observation period. Bismuth and Sn accumulated mainly in kidney, but also in liver, testicle and brain. Analytical field emission scanning electron microscopy of post-implant pellets showed depletion of Pb towards the pellet surface. Oxygen and chlorine accumulated in Sn rich lamellas in areas next to the pellet surface. The distribution of Bi remained visually unaffected as compared to pre-implant pellets. CONCLUSION: The concentration of Bi increased during the whole observation period in blood, urine, kidney, brain, testicle and liver. The decline in the concentrations of Pb and Sn in blood and urine after reaching the peak concentration may be related to alterations in the chemical composition and element distribution of the implanted alloy pellets.


Assuntos
Bismuto/farmacocinética , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Estanho/farmacocinética , Animais , Bismuto/sangue , Bismuto/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Cinética , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estanho/sangue , Estanho/urina , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Anal Chem ; 90(11): 6519-6525, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767947

RESUMO

We report, for the first time, the use of a 13-amino-acid peptide sequence derived from the calcium-binding site of E-cadherin in the fabrication of an electrochemical peptide-based (E-PB) Pb(II) sensor. The sensing mechanism is analogous to that of previously developed E-PB sensors. Binding of Pb(II) rigidifies the surface-immobilized and methylene blue (MB)-modified peptide probe, thereby limiting the accessibility of the tethered MB to the electrode surface. This change in probe flexibility results in a reduction in the MB current that is dependent on the target concentration. The sensor behaves as a "signal-off" sensor in alternating current voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry, but it can behave as a "signal-on" sensor in differential pulse voltammetry when a longer pulse width is employed. It is capable of specific detection of Pb(II) and is selective enough to be employed in realistically complex samples such as diluted tap water, saliva, and urine samples. The detection is fast; signal saturation can be achieved in <60 s. The sensor can also be fabricated on gold-plated screen-printed carbon electrodes, electrode substrates that are ideal for cost-effective analysis of Pb(II) in real-world settings.


Assuntos
Caderinas/química , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/urina , Peptídeos/química , Saliva/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cálcio/química , Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Ouro/química , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/química
19.
Environ Int ; 111: 43-51, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172090

RESUMO

Lead exposure remains an important public health problem. Contaminated foods may act as a source of lead exposure, while certain nutrients may reduce lead absorption. We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary patterns and the intake of several nutrients and foods with blood (Pb-B) and urinary (Pb-U) lead concentrations in children (5-8y) from Montevideo, Uruguay. From two 24-hour recalls completed by caregivers, we derived the mean daily intake of select nutrients and food groups (dairy, milk, fruit, root vegetables, foods rich in heme and non-heme iron), as well as "nutrient dense" and "processed" food patterns. Pb-B (n=315) was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry; Pb-U (n=321) using ICP-MS. Pb-U was adjusted for specific gravity and log-transformed to approximate a normal distribution. Iron deficiency (ID) and dietary variables were tested as predictors of Pb-B and log-Pb-U in covariate-adjusted regressions. Median [5%, 95%] Pb-B and Pb-U were 3.8 [0.8-7.8] µg/dL and 1.9 [0.6-5.1] µg/L, respectively; ~25% of Pb-B above current U.S. CDC reference concentration of 5µg/dL. ID was associated with 0.75µg/dL higher Pb-B, compared to non-ID (p<0.05). Consumption of root vegetables was not associated with Pb-B or log-Pb-U. Higher scores on the nutrient-dense pattern were related with higher Pb-Bs, possibly due to consumption of green leafy vegetables. Dietary intake of iron or iron-rich foods was not associated with biomarkers of lead. Conversely, children consuming more calcium, dairy, milk and yogurt had lower Pb-B and log-Pb-U. Our findings appear consistent with existing recommendations on including calcium-rich, but not iron- or vitamin-C-rich foods in the diets of lead-exposed children, especially where the consumption of these foods is low.


Assuntos
Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Estado Nutricional , Criança , Cidades , Laticínios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Uruguai , Verduras
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(2): 246-251, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162486

RESUMO

Previous studies provided a strong evidence of the association between environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and hypertension in the general population. However, the role of Cd in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) remains unclear. A total of 5429 pregnant women was selected from a birth cohort in Wuhan, China to investigate the association between Cd exposure and risk of PIH. Among them, 199 (3.7%) women were diagnosed with PIH. The Cd concentrations in maternal urine collected at delivery were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression was performed on Cd concentrations as a continuous variable (natural logarithm transformed) or as a categorical variable (tertiles). For about 3-fold increase in urinary Cd concentrations, there was 75% increase in the odds of PIH after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio (OR) =1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45, 2.11). Women in the highest tertile of urinary Cd had 2.2-fold increased OR of PIH, compared with women in the lowest tertile (2.24; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.41). Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between Cd exposure and maternal socioeconomic status on PIH (P for interaction=0.04). Our findings indicate that higher Cd exposure might increase the risk of PIH, and the association might be modified by socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Exposição Materna , Adulto , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio/urina , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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