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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111039, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) exposure has been linked to atherosclerosis. Co-exposure of these two heavy metals often occurs in humans. Recent evidence has indicated a crucial role of DNA methylation in atherosclerosis, while Pb or Cd exposure has also been shown to alter DNA methylation. However, it is still unknown whether DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological mechanism of these two heavy metals in atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We enrolled 738 participants (12-30 years) to investigate the association among concentrations of urine Pb or Cd, the 5mdC/dG value (a global DNA methylation marker) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). When each heavy metal was modeled separately, the results showed urine Pb and Cd concentrations were positively associated with the 5mdC/dG value and CIMT, respectively. When the two heavy metals were analyzed in the same model, urinary Pb concentrations were positively associated with the 5mdC/dG value and CIMT, while urinary Cd concentrations were only positively associated with the CIMT. When Pb and Cd are simultaneously considered in the same logistic regression model, the odds ratios (OR) of thicker CIMT (greater than 75th percentile) with one unit increase in ln-Pb level was 1.67 (95% C.I. = 1.17-2.46, P = 0.005) when levels of 5mdC/dG were above 50th percentile, which is higher than 5mdC/dG bellow the 50th percentile (OR = 1.50 (95% C.I. = 0.96-2.35), P = 0.076). In structural equation model (SEM), Pb or Cd levels are directly associated with CIMT. Moreover, Pb or Cd had an indirect association with CIMT through the 5mdC/dG. When we considered Pb and Cd together, Pb levels had a direct association with CIMT and an indirect association with CIMT through the 5mdC/dG value, while Cd only had a direct association with CIMT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that Pb and Cd exposure might be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and global DNA methylation might mediate Pb-associated subclinical atherosclerosis in this young population. Future effort is necessary to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cádmio/urina , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Chumbo/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 53-56, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497561

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to highlight the effectiveness of urinary lead as an index of recent lead exposure. In the past scientific literature urinary lead has been studied as a parameter for recent lead exposure. It is a reliable indicator for occupational lead exposure. But, strangely enough, nowadays is scarcely used in the Netherlands and worldwide. We performed six field biological monitoring studies of preshift and postshift urinary lead tests during tank maintenance and bridge repair work. Highest values occurred during bridge repair. Mean urinary values were postshift 1,6-5 times higher than preshift values, indicating clearly recent lead exposure and failing protective measures. This is so far we know the first study combining preshift and postshift sampling of urinary lead. We compared our studies with crossectional and follow-up studies in occupational medicine. Our conclusion is that preshift and postshift urinary lead testing is a worker friendly test, ideally for detecting recent lead exposures in the field. It signals the need to review or possibly improve controls at work. There are no safe lead levels, so we recommend to use a target value for urinary lead of <3 µg/g creatinine for all lead workers in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Indústria da Construção , Chumbo/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Local de Trabalho/normas , Humanos , Países Baixos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 248-255, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental lead exposure is a known risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal and human epidemiological studies of adults, but limited research has been conducted in young populations. Moreover, the association between lead level and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) has never been documented. DESIGN: and Participants: In this study, 738 subjects were recruited from a cohort of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults to study the relationship between lead levels in urine and CVD risk factors, metabolic syndrome (MS) and CIMT. RESULTS: The geometric mean of the urine lead level was 1.50 µg/g creatinine. We found a significant positive association between urine lead levels and CVD risk factors, including diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as markers of glucose homeostasis, such as serum glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß), body mass index (BMI) z score, and CIMT. Overall, increased urine lead concentrations were positively correlated with the prevalence of MS, specifically the criteria of waist/BMI and serum HDL-C. The relationship between urine lead levels and CIMT remained unchanged in all subgroups. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found that increased urinary levels of lead were positively associated with CVD risk factors, CIMT, and MS in this cohort. Future research to explore the pathogenic basis of exposure to lead and risk of CVDs and their risk factors are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Chumbo/urina , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 193(1): 100-110, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972533

RESUMO

In this work, mesoporous strontium titanate nanoparticles (SrTiO3 NPs) were synthesized through a single-step combustion process and were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM. The effects of main parameters that may influence the extraction process (i.e., pH, sorbent amount, time of extraction, eluting agent, and the presence concomitant ions) were investigated. The optimum extraction was achieved at pH 6, 50 mg of sorbent, 20-min shaking time, and 4.0 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 thiourea as desorption agent. Under these conditions, the maximum adsorption capacity was 155.6 mg g-1 with a preconcentration factor of 250 (for a 1000 mL sample solution). The calibration graph was linear up to 1000 µg L-1 and the limit of detection was 1.75 µg L-1. The precision (as relative standard deviation) was 2.53% (n = 10). The procedure was employed for the preconcentration of Pb2+ from blood and urine samples of bladder cancer patients before its determination by FAAS.


Assuntos
Chumbo/urina , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estrôncio/química , Titânio/química , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36434-36440, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724128

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the secondary biological treatment plant effluent administration on the kidneys, urinary bladder, and testis of Wistar rats in relation to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation, since such an effluent is used for irrigation of edible plants. Male Wistar rats, randomly assigned into 5 groups, were treated with domestic sewage effluent (DSE) for 24 months. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the DSE, rats' tissues, and urine were estimated by means of atomic spectroscopy. Lead was rapidly accumulated in high amounts in rats' kidney and to a lesser extent in the testis whereas Cd concentration was raised in all tissues examined. Deposition of Cd and Pd in the kidney of the rats resulted in profound damage over time. The results showed that long-term administration to DSE as drinking water exposes living organisms to urogenital stress related to heavy metal concentration and pH of the effluent.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Água Potável/química , Chumbo/toxicidade , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Cádmio/urina , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esgotos/química , Sistema Urogenital/metabolismo , Sistema Urogenital/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
6.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105122, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with an array of detrimental health effects in children and adults, including neurological and immune dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that Pb exposure may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, however few studies have examined this association in human populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between urinary Pb concentration and the composition of the adult gut microbiota in a population-based sample of adults. METHODS: Data used in this study were collected as part of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW) and its ancillary microbiome study. The SHOW is a household-based health examination survey of Wisconsin residents, collecting a variety of survey data on health determinants and outcomes, as well as objective measurements of body habitus, and biological specimens including urine. The ancillary microbiome study added additional questions and biological specimen collection, including stool, from participants age 18+. Pb concentration was analyzed in urine samples, and gut microbiota composition was assessed using DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region, extracted from stool samples. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed in mothur, Python, R, and SAS. RESULTS: Of 696 participants, urinary Pb concentration was highest in those age 70+, females, those with a high school diploma or lower, current and former smokers, and those without indoor pets. In adjusted models, increasing urinary Pb levels were associated with increases in microbial α-diversity (p = 0.071) and richness (p = 0.005). Differences in microbial ß-diversity were significantly associated (p = 0.003) with differences in urinary Pb level. Presence of Proteobacteria, including members of the Burkholderiales, was significantly associated with increased urinary Pb. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Pb exposure is associated with differences in the composition of the adult gut microbiota in a population-based human sample. Further investigation of this association is warranted.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Chumbo/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(11): 905-909, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to summarize electronic waste (e-waste) worker health; examine associations between health and sociodemographic characteristics; and metal body burden. METHODS: In 2016, 131 e-waste recycling workers were enrolled in the study, completed a questionnaire, and gave blood and urine samples for heavy metal concentration assessment (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel). The relationship between symptoms, general health, and metals is assessed via generalized estimating equation models (adjusted for age, education, sex, and village). RESULTS: Cadmium in blood and copper in serum were most consistently associated with higher odds of poor health and prevalence of symptoms. We found inconsistent results between general health, symptom severity, and urinary nickel. Higher blood lead levels (BLL) were associated with fewer self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to certain metals in e-waste recycling communities may adversely impact health status.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , Exposição Ocupacional , Reciclagem , Adulto , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Cobre/sangue , Cobre/urina , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níquel/sangue , Níquel/urina , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autorrelato , Avaliação de Sintomas , Tailândia , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/urina
8.
Chemosphere ; 234: 640-647, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234081

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to metals can have an adverse effect on the cardiovascular system. However, epidemiological studies of the associations of metals expose with hypertension among occupationally exposed workers were limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between urinary metal levels and the risk of hypertension among molybdenum miners and iron and steel foundry workers. The cross-sectional study had 395 participants. Urinary metal levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Log-binomial regression model and two-piece-wise regression model were applied to assess the dose-response relationship between metal exposure and hypertension. We observed that increased prevalence ratios for hypertension among the quartile of urinary concentrations of molybdenum, arsenic and lead were positive (all P for trend <0.05). Compared with the lowest quartiles, participants in the highest quartiles of molybdenum, arsenic and lead had a 2.58-fold, 4.30-fold and 4.85-fold increased probability of having hypertension, respectively. In the threshold effect analyses, we found the relationship was nonlinear between urinary molybdenum, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic and lead concentrations and the prevalence of hypertension. In addition, Pb, Mo, As and Co may have joint effect, and a strong positive correlation with the prevalence of hypertension. Conversely, the association between the joint effect of Cd, Pb and Mo versus the prevalence of hypertension is not significant. We provide reference levels of molybdenum, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic and lead that can be used to assess the effects of occupational metal exposure on hypertension.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Cádmio/urina , Cobalto/urina , Hipertensão/urina , Chumbo/urina , Molibdênio/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino
9.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 36-43, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109619

RESUMO

Data (N = 9882) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003-2014 for US adults aged ≥20 years were analyzed to evaluate the variabilities in concentrations of blood and urine lead across various stages of glomerular function. Those who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in glomerular function stage 1 (GF-1), those who had eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-2, those who had eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-3A, those who had eGFR between 15 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined to be in GF-3B/4. There were consistent increases in adjusted geometric means (AGM) for both blood and urine lead from GF-1 to GF-3A even though increases were not uniform from one GF stage to another. For the total population, AGMs for blood lead were 1.23, 1.78, 2.25, and 2.25 µg/dL for GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. AGMs for urine lead were 0.49, 0.61, 0.68, and 0.47 µg/L for GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. Thus, from GF-3A to GF-3B/4, AGMs for both blood and urine lead decreased. However, percent increases from GF-1 to GF-3A for urine lead were smaller than for blood lead and percent decreases from GF-3A to GF-3B/4 for urine lead were larger than for blood lead. Females had lower AGMs than males for both blood and urine lead. Also, smoker-nonsmoker differences for blood lead narrowed as kidney function deteriorated but smoker-nonsmoker differences for urine cadmium lead as kidney function deteriorated. Smokers had sharper increases in AGMs for blood and urine lead than nonsmokers from GF-1 to GF-3A but at GF-3B/4, this difference was reduced to 0.17 µg/dL.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(5): 379-382, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983525

RESUMO

Blood lead (Pb) clearance (CbPb) and serum creatinine clearance (CsCr), a metric of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), were estimated in approximately 7,600 subjects from the NHANES (2009-2016). Median CbPb in adults was 0.04 L/day (5th-95th percentile range: 0.01-0.12). Linear regression models explained approximately 68% of variance in CbPb in adults, with >98% of explained variance attributed to CsCr. These results provide an improved quantitative understanding of the possible effects of reverse causality in the interpretation of studies of associations between blood Pb and decrements in GFR.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Chumbo/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 173: 429-435, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798186

RESUMO

Both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) exposure can induce kidney damage. However, the effects of combined exposure to Cd and Pb on renal function at environmental levels have not been fully clarified. In this study we investigated the renal function in a Chinese population co-exposed to Cd and Pb. A total of 331 subjects (215 women and 116 men), living in either a control or a polluted area, were included in this study. Cd and Pb in blood and urine (BCd, BPb, UCd, and UPb), and kidney effect markers including urinary N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), were determined, and the association between exposure markers and renal effect biomarkers were analyzed. The exposure levels in the polluted area were significantly higher than in the control area (all p < 0.01). The eGFR of subjects in the polluted area was decreased compared with that in the control area (p < 0.01). The subjects with high BCd/BPb (BCd ≥ 2 µg/L, BPb ≥ 100 µg/L) or high UCd/UPb (UCd ≥ 3 µg/g creatinine, UPb ≥ 10 µg/g creatinine) showed higher UNAG and UALB levels compared with other subgroups (p < 0.01). The probability of having elevated UNAG in subjects with high BCd/BPb was greater than those with low BCd/BPb [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-4.7), low BCd/high BPb (OR =3.1, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6), and high BCd/low BPb (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2). The OR of subjects with low UCd and high UPb, high UCd and low UPb, and high UCd/UPb were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.4-5.7), 3.3 (95% CI: 1.5-7.2), and 7.7 (95% CI: 4.0-14.7), respectively, compared with those with low UCd/UPb. The risk of decrease in eGFR was also higher in subjects with high UCd/UPb than for those with low UCd/UPb (OR = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.8-62.2). Our data demonstrate that Cd and Pb exposure, alone or in combination, are associated with renal impairment. In addition, co-exposure to Pb and Cd propagates the renal tubular dysfunction compared with Cd or Pb exposure alone.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Acetilglucosaminidase/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
12.
Environ Int ; 125: 75-81, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary lead (Pb) is generally considered to have limited use in biomonitoring environmental exposure to lead. Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM BC) is an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived aerosol particles. In urban environments, atmospheric Pb and black carbon may have common sources. We aimed to study the temporal change of urinary Pb (U-Pb) when exposure to outdoor air pollution changes, and the relationship between U-Pb and AM BC. METHODS: A panel of 50 young healthy adults [mean (SD) 26.7 (5.2) years], including 17 long-term (>1 year) residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE), 15 and 18 newcomers (arrived <3 weeks) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC), respectively, underwent 8 repeated measurements at 6 weeks intervals. In urine spot samples obtained at 5 time points (T1, T2, T4, T6, T8), 24 trace elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. At each time point, AM BC was quantified as the median surface of black inclusions (in µm2) by means of image analysis of 25 macrophages obtained by induced sputum. Changes in urinary metal concentrations (with and without creatinine correction) and the relationship between U-Pb and AM BC were estimated using linear mixed models adjusted for covariates and potential confounders. RESULTS: Only U-Pb differed between groups and exhibited significant time trends. Participants from the LMIC group had significantly higher initial U-Pb (1.18 µg/g creat) than the HIC group (0.44 µg/g creat) and BE group (0.45 µg/g creat). In the LMIC group, U-Pb decreased significantly with time by 0.061 µg/g creatinine per 30 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.034, 0.088]. U-Pb remained unchanged in the other two groups. An increase in AM BC of 1 µm2 was associated with an increase in U-Pb of 0.369 µg/g creat (95% CI: 0.145, 0.593). CONCLUSION: This panel study demonstrates that U-Pb may be a valid alternative to blood Pb for biomonitoring changes in exposure to lead, at least at group level. In addition, we identified a positive association between U-Pb and AM BC, a biomarker of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, suggesting the existence of common sources of Pb and black carbon in urban environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/urina , Chumbo/urina , Macrófagos/química , Fuligem/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar , Bélgica , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 6048-6064, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612372

RESUMO

Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7-84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993-1996 (93-96) and 2005-2008 (05-08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants' urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93-96 (N = 821)/05-08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND-13.90)/0.72 (ND-7.44), 2.28 (ND-63.60)/1.09 (0.04-48.88), 0.91 (0.08-17.30)/1.05 (0.05-22.43), and 16.87 (2.62-158.28)/13.66 (1.67-189.70) µg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05-08 (Pb 1.09 µg/L, Cu 13.66 µg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93-96 (Pb 2.28 µg/L, Cu 16.87 µg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05-08 (Cd 0.72 µg/L, Co 1.05 µg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais Pesados/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Cobalto/urina , Cobre/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 190(1): 1-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215191

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease; exogenous factors-including heavy metals-may have a role in the disease pathogenesis. In this context, a study on the quantification of Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb in blood and urine of 27 SSc patients and 30 controls was carried out. Main findings were that Al was significantly depleted in blood and increased in urine of SSc patients respect to controls; and Pb was found slightly increased in blood and significantly decreased in SSc group. In addition, higher Hg levels in urine were found in SSc subjects with the higher severity of the disease. Females showed the most marked differences in the levels of blood Al, blood Pb, and urine Cd between patients and controls. Smoking, hobby, ingestion of contaminated food, job exposure may contribute to the bodily levels of Al, Hg, Pb in SSc patients. The results indicated that low, chronic, and multiple exposures to heavy metals-also through habits, diet, and environment-may influence the risk for SSc.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Alumínio/sangue , Alumínio/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 189(1): 1-9, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054879

RESUMO

The exposure of heavy metals (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and metalloid arsenicals) and their effects on workers' health from a lead-zinc mine (145 workers) and a steel smelting plant (162 workers) was investigated. Information on subject characteristics was obtained through a questionnaire. We determined the urinary levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and arsenicals (including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), as were 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cystatin C. Lead-zinc mine foundry workers had significantly higher concentrations of urinary Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, iAs, and MMA than did steel smelting plant workers. Individuals who had consumed seafood in the previous 3 days had higher concentrations of urinary Ni than did individuals who had not consumed seafood. The urinary Cd concentrations in the two groups of factory workers may have been affected by daily smoking. There was no significant difference in urinary 8-OHdG between workers from the lead-zinc mine foundry and the steel smelting plant. Urinary Pb and Cd had significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG. Urinary cystatin C, a sensitive biological indicator reflecting early renal damage, was found at higher levels in lead-zinc mine workers than in steel smelting plant workers. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age and urinary Cd were significantly associated with urinary cystatin C. These results indicated that workers from lead-zinc mines may be exposed to higher levels of heavy metals which could lead to greater risk of kidney damage.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Ferro/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Aço , Adulto , Arsenicais/urina , Cádmio/urina , Cobre/urina , Humanos , Ferro/urina , Chumbo/urina , Metais Pesados/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níquel/urina , Zinco/urina
16.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1355-1362, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary metals are considered measures of long-term exposures of metals, such as cadmium (Cd). Some studies indicate reduced renal function may affect the urinary excretion of several metals in general population making assessments difficult. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether reduced renal function is associated with reduced urinary excretion of 12 metals or their metabolites and, in turn, an underestimated measure of Cd in general population. METHODS: We conducted analyses using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between urinary metal levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Restricted cubic spline regression models were used to evaluate the nonlinearity. RESULTS: Urinary metal levels significantly increased (p < 0.001) with increasing eGFR, except for antimony (p = 0.172). Urinary levels of arsenic, dimethylarsonic acid, cobalt, molybdenum and tungsten increased linearly with eGFR, while Cd, lead, mercury, barium, cesium and thallium increased nonlinearly (p < 0.001) with eGFR. Based on a restricted cubic spline regression model, we found, corresponding to a fixed blood Cd adverse cutpoint of 5 µg/L, predicted urinary Cd cutpoints substantially varied from 0.78-1.21 µg/g for urinary Cd between those aged <40 years and who had chronic kidney disease and those aged 60 years or over with normal renal function, respectively. CONCLUSION: Reduced renal function is associated with reduced urinary metals; and associations are also observed across the eGFR range not just in the reduced range. Urinary abnormal cutpoints of metals are likely dependent on eGFR and age. The associations between urinary exposure of metals and disease risk are likely underestimated without considering the modifying effect of renal function.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cádmio/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(19): 983-997, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296394

RESUMO

Lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) are among the major toxicants in mining environments. Miners are commonly and repeatedly exposed to this toxic mixture. Some adverse effects may appear at concentrations below environmental quality guidelines for individual mixture components. Further, Pb, Mn, and As induce common adverse outcomes, such as interferences in the cholinergic system and heme synthesis. It is thus vital to monitor miners through biomarkers (BM), such that subclinical effects may be identified at an early stage. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the exposure of a mining population to these three metals and determine alterations in cholinergic and heme synthesis parameters. Blood and urine samples of workers (n = 60) were obtained from a Portuguese mining industry and compared with a control population (n = 80). The levels of the metals were determined in biological samples, as well as urinary heme precursor levels, delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphyrins, and blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The miners exhibited significantly higher values of Pb and As in blood and urine compared to control. In the case of Mn near or slightly higher than limit values were found. Our data show that heme precursors may be used simultaneously with metal levels as BMs for multiple metal exposures on an individual basis, resulting in 94.3% and 95.7% accuracy, respectively, in blood and urine, for subjects correctly identified with respect to occupation. This study also revealed that biological monitoring of this working population regarding metal body burden and heme precursor accumulation is advisable.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Animais , Arsênico/sangue , Arsênico/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Heme , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Portugal , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chemosphere ; 212: 694-704, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176551

RESUMO

The global burden of water-based lead (Pb) exposure on children is largely unknown; however, the importance of water sources as a path of Pb exposure is receiving increased attention due to recent prominent exposure events related to corroded plumbing infrastructure in the US. This study investigated the contribution of Pb in household drinking and cooking water to Pb levels in blood (PbB) and urine (PbU) within 353 early school-aged children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Additionally, the analysis considered the child's iron status and the water content of iron (WFe) and zinc (WZn) in relation to water Pb and blood/urine Pb concentrations. Lead concentrations for both PbB and PbU were fairly low (M ±â€¯SD: 4.2 ±â€¯2.1 µg/dL; Median [5%, 95%]: 1.9 [0.6, 5.1 µg/L, respectively]); however 21% of the sample had a PbB >5 µg/dL but ≤ 10 µg/dL. Overall, there was little evidence of an association between water metal concentrations and children's PbB/PbU. However, when the sample was stratified by children's iron status, WPb was positively related to PbU, but negatively related to PbB in iron-replete children, even after adjusting for WFe and WZn. In iron-deficient children, there was no elevation in PbU with increasing WPb. In this sample of children with low Pb levels, there were no overwhelming relationships between WPb and either PbB or PbU, however, there was some evidence that iron-replete status promotes excretion of WPb.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ferro/química , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/química , Chumbo/urina , Zinco/química , Criança , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Uruguai , Zinco/análise
19.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 15(12): 833-840, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207929

RESUMO

The assessment of co-exposure to several types of metal contamination poses a hurdle for occupational monitoring. Determination of elements in biological samples is an important way to evaluate occupational exposure. However, optimized methods for the extraction of multiple metals from biological samples have not been reported in recent studies. Therefore, solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on the functionalized nano-zeolite Y was suggested for the biomonitoring of metal co-exposure. SPE was conducted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) surrounded by Triton X-100 micelles, which were loaded into the pores of nano-zeolite Y. In this study, SPE was optimized for pre-concentration of trace amounts of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in urine samples with respect to the pH, APDC concentration, elution condition, amount of functionalized nano-zeolite Y, and sample volume. This method has been successfully optimized for the extraction of the mentioned multiple metals with >97% efficiency and an acceptable reproducibility with a coefficient variation of <10%. This method could be used in the extraction of multiple metals in environmental and occupational exposure conditions. In this study, urine samples of welding workers were evaluated following this optimized method.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Cádmio/urina , Cromo/urina , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Nanopartículas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Soldagem , Zeolitas/química
20.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 50: 312-319, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262297

RESUMO

The aim of the present survey was to determine differences in the serum and urinary concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cs and Pb) between long distance runners and non-sportsmen living in the same area of Extremadura (Spain) in basal conditions as well as after the performance of a maximal effort test until exhaustion. 21 Spanish national long-distance runners were recruited before the start of their training season and 26 untrained students. All of them had similar ages. The effort test consisted in running on a treadmill incrementally in stages, until exhaustion. Serum and urine analysis of trace metals was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the statistics the urine and blood basal concentrations was analyzed first using Student t test. Then the differences between the pre and post-test values were analyzed using Wilcoxon test. The serum concentrations of Be (p < 0.001), Cd (p < 0.01), Cs (p < 0.001) and Pb (p < 0.001) were higher in the athletes than the control groups in basal conditions. In relation to the exercise, the results showed that there were lower serum concentrations of Be, Cd and Pb after the test, but without statistically significance, in both groups. Cs (p < 0.001) concentrations were statistically lower after the exercise tests in both groups, but if the parameters were corrected in relation to hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations the differences were significant only among the athletes. In urine, the concentrations of Be (p < 0.001) and Cd (p < 0.01) were higher among athletes than among controls, being the opposite case for urinary Pb values. In relation to the exercise-induced effect of the test, the results showed that among controls only Cd values were modified, but if creatinine corrections are applied this difference does not reach statistical significance. However, sportsmen suffered a diminution in Be values, that can be observed only if urine values are corrected. Also, an increase in Cd, both in corrected and normal values, was observed, fact that occurred also in the case of Cs, but only if urinary values are corrected. It can be concluded that an incremental exercise to exhaustion among elite athletes of long distance modalities can produce changes in serum and urinary concentrations of toxic trace elements which may reflect an adaptive mechanism to prevent toxicity, and which could be an interesting outcome for physicians in the treatment and prevention of toxic situations.


Assuntos
Atletas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/urina , Adulto , Antropometria , Arsênico/sangue , Arsênico/toxicidade , Arsênico/urina , Berílio/sangue , Berílio/toxicidade , Berílio/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/urina , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Minerais/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
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