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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 89, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been mirrored by diffusion of misinformation and conspiracy theories about its origins (such as 5G cellular networks) and the motivations of preventive measures like vaccination, social distancing, and face masks (for example, as a political ploy). These beliefs have resulted in substantive, negative real-world outcomes but remain largely unstudied. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, online survey (n=660). Participants were asked about the believability of five selected COVID-19 narratives, their political orientation, their religious commitment, and their trust in science (a 21-item scale), along with sociodemographic items. Data were assessed descriptively, then latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar believability profiles. Bivariate (ANOVA) analyses were run, then multivariable, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with membership in specific COVID-19 narrative believability profiles. RESULTS: For the full sample, believability of the narratives varied, from a low of 1.94 (SD=1.72) for the 5G narrative to a high of 5.56 (SD=1.64) for the zoonotic (scientific consensus) narrative. Four distinct belief profiles emerged, with the preponderance (70%) of the sample falling into Profile 1, which believed the scientifically accepted narrative (zoonotic origin) but not the misinformed or conspiratorial narratives. Other profiles did not disbelieve the zoonotic explanation, but rather believed additional misinformation to varying degrees. Controlling for sociodemographics, political orientation and religious commitment were marginally, and typically non-significantly, associated with COVID-19 belief profile membership. However, trust in science was a strong, significant predictor of profile membership, with lower trust being substantively associated with belonging to Profiles 2 through 4. CONCLUSIONS: Belief in misinformation or conspiratorial narratives may not be mutually exclusive from belief in the narrative reflecting scientific consensus; that is, profiles were distinguished not by belief in the zoonotic narrative, but rather by concomitant belief or disbelief in additional narratives. Additional, renewed dissemination of scientifically accepted narratives may not attenuate belief in misinformation. However, prophylaxis of COVID-19 misinformation might be achieved by taking concrete steps to improve trust in science and scientists, such as building understanding of the scientific process and supporting open science initiatives.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Política , Religião , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Liberdade , Humanos , Internet , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Máscaras , Análise Multivariada , Ciência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1145942

RESUMO

Resumen: El "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" (Librito de las Hierbas Medicinales de los Indios) fue elaborado por los sabios indígenas Martín De la Cruz y Juan Badiano, 31 años después de la caída del imperio azteca. El primero es su autor, el segundo tradujo el manuscrito del Náhuatl al latín. Contiene numerosas recetas para tratar enfermedades humanas y 185 dibujos a color de las plantas utilizadas. En 1939 se publicó por primera vez como "Un Herbario Azteca". Empero, también contiene enfermedades y prácticas médicas europeas del siglo XVI. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de este hermoso códice, su historia, concepción, creadores y botánica; además, la química y farmacología de cinco plantas ahí citadas. El Libellus es una ventana en el tiempo que permite la investigación científica del antiguo conocimiento etnofarmacológico en Mesoamérica y documentar su persistencia, desaparición o transformación. Sin embargo, esto requiere superar desafíos lingüísticos, pero también derivados de su contexto histórico, antropológico, cultural, botánico y médico.


Abstract: The "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" (Little Book of Indian Medicinal Plants) was composed by the indigenous sages Martín De la Cruz and Juan Badiano, 31 years after the Aztec Empire fall. The former was the author, and the latter translated the manuscript from the Nahuatl language to Latin. It contains numerous recipes for treating human diseases and 185 colored drawings of the prescribed plants. In 1939 it was first published as "An Aztec Herbarium". However, it also contains XVI century European diseases and medical practices. We present an updated review of this beautiful codex, its history, conception, creators, and botany; as well as, the chemistry and pharmacology of five plants therein cited. The Libellus is a window in the time that allows the scientific research of ancient ethnopharmacological knowledge in Mesoamerica and document its persistence, disappearance, or transformation. However, this requires overcoming linguistic defies, but also derived from its historical, anthropological, cultural, botanical, and medical context.


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , Plantas Medicinais , Ciência/história , América , Etnofarmacologia , México
7.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 929-932, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338406

RESUMO

As part of our commitment to amplifying the voices of underrepresented scientists, we are publishing the insights and experiences of a panel of underrepresented scientists in a series of questions and answers. Here, they tell us about barriers they faced in pursuing a scientific career. These are the personal opinions of the authors and may not reflect the views of their institutions.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Ciência , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Mulheres/psicologia
8.
Soins ; 65(849): 72-75, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357626

RESUMO

Quelles leçons conceptuelles tirer de la crise sanitaire ? Si nous avons encore peu de recul sur cet épisode, plusieurs pistes se dessinent : nouvelle narration collective de l'événement, banalisation de l'état d'exception, prolifération de l'information, présence renforcée de la science dans le débat, intolérance au risque et à la mort… Autant d'éléments qui posent les jalons d'un nouveau paradigme encore en cours de construction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Mortalidade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Ciência
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 942-959, out.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145570

RESUMO

A mídia funciona como uma ponte entre a medicina e o público, e impacta como a informação é organizada e apresentada às pessoas. Realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo, quantitativo e qualitativo, dos enquadramentos principais nas matérias sobre medicina regenerativa publicadas pela Folha de São Paulo e O Globo, entre janeiro de 2012 e maio do 2019. A análise mostrou algumas limitações nas informações publicadas: um número bastante escasso de relatos, com poucas matérias sobre controvérsias sociais e regulatórias e matérias de tons otimistas demais sobre os benefícios das terapias celulares. Conclui-se que falta uma contribuição mais sistemática da imprensa à legitimação social e institucional desta área de ponta no país, desenvolvida com recursos públicos e que oferece uma oportunidade imperdível no aumento da consciência em saúde coletiva, assim como, na participação competitiva do Brasil no cenário global.


Mass media works as a bridge between medicine and the public and produces an impact according to how information is organized and presented. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was developed on the main framings on regenerative medicine found in reports by the newspapers Folha de São Paulo and O Globo between January 2012 and May 2019. The analysis found limitations in the information published: a reduced number of stories, the presence of few articles on social and regulatory controversies and a portrayal of over-optimistic accounts on the benefits of cellular-based therapies. The article concludes that there is a lack of a more systematic contribution of the printed press to the social and institutional legitimation of the local area, one developed with public resources and that offers a valuable opportunity to raise awareness on collective health, as well as, for a competitive inclusion of Brazil at the global level.


Los medios de comunicación masiva funcionan como un puente entre la medicina y el público, e impactan en los públicos según cómo la información sea organizada y presentada. Se realizó un análisis de contenido, cuantitativo y cualitativo, de los encuadramientos principales en los diarios: Folha de S.Paulo y O Globo sobre la medicina regenerativa entre enero de 2012 y mayo de 2019. El análisis demostró las limitaciones de los contenidos: um número bastante escaso de reportajes, pocas noticias sobre debates y controversias sociales y de tono demasiado optimista acerca de los beneficios de las terapias celulares. Se concluye que falta una contribución sistemática de la prensa a la legitimación social e institucional de esta área de punta em el país, desarrollada com recursos públicos y que ofrece una valiosa oportunidad para un aumento de conciencia sobre la salud colectiva y una participación competitiva de Brazil en el escenario global.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Pública , Medicina Regenerativa , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pobreza , Ciência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Violência , Alocação de Recursos , Mídias Sociais , Governo Eletrônico
14.
Nature ; 586(7828): 200, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024329

Assuntos
Governo , Ciência , Japão
20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960891

RESUMO

Engagement with scientific manuscripts is frequently facilitated by Twitter and other social media platforms. As such, the demographics of a paper's social media audience provide a wealth of information about how scholarly research is transmitted, consumed, and interpreted by online communities. By paying attention to public perceptions of their publications, scientists can learn whether their research is stimulating positive scholarly and public thought. They can also become aware of potentially negative patterns of interest from groups that misinterpret their work in harmful ways, either willfully or unintentionally, and devise strategies for altering their messaging to mitigate these impacts. In this study, we collected 331,696 Twitter posts referencing 1,800 highly tweeted bioRxiv preprints and leveraged topic modeling to infer the characteristics of various communities engaging with each preprint on Twitter. We agnostically learned the characteristics of these audience sectors from keywords each user's followers provide in their Twitter biographies. We estimate that 96% of the preprints analyzed are dominated by academic audiences on Twitter, suggesting that social media attention does not always correspond to greater public exposure. We further demonstrate how our audience segmentation method can quantify the level of interest from nonspecialist audience sectors such as mental health advocates, dog lovers, video game developers, vegans, bitcoin investors, conspiracy theorists, journalists, religious groups, and political constituencies. Surprisingly, we also found that 10% of the preprints analyzed have sizable (>5%) audience sectors that are associated with right-wing white nationalist communities. Although none of these preprints appear to intentionally espouse any right-wing extremist messages, cases exist in which extremist appropriation comprises more than 50% of the tweets referencing a given preprint. These results present unique opportunities for improving and contextualizing the public discourse surrounding scientific research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Mudança Social , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativismo Político , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/normas , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
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