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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 248-254, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932688

RESUMO

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less--complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies. Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization. These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895936

RESUMO

The Core Scientific Dataset (CSD) model with JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) serialization is presented as a lightweight, portable, and versatile standard for intra- and interdisciplinary scientific data exchange. This model supports datasets with a p-component dependent variable, {U0, …, Uq, …, Up-1}, discretely sampled at M unique points in a d-dimensional independent variable (X0, …, Xk, …, Xd-1) space. Moreover, this sampling is over an orthogonal grid, regular or rectilinear, where the principal coordinate axes of the grid are the independent variables. It can also hold correlated datasets assuming the different physical quantities (dependent variables) are sampled on the same orthogonal grid of independent variables. The model encapsulates the dependent variables' sampled data values and the minimum metadata needed to accurately represent this data in an appropriate coordinate system of independent variables. The CSD model can serve as a re-usable building block in the development of more sophisticated portable scientific dataset file standards.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 100-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920950

RESUMO

The Cornell Leadership Program for Veterinary Students is an intensive 10-week learning experience intended to guide competitively selected scholars into careers in science and public health. It features independent research, vocational counseling, and student-directed learning modules. Program scholars are encouraged to objectively evaluate graduate training as preparation for careers promoted by the program. Prominence is given to experiential learning through research, participation in program enrichment modules, and inspirational experiences achieved through group meetings and individual interactions with established scientists. Program alumni are monitored to determine how the careers they pursue relate to their earlier-stated ambitions. In addition, subjective assessments are made of the quality of graduate training and its impact on alumni career paths. The influence of mentors, vocational counseling, and inspirational experiences on subsequent training is also subjectively assessed. Information is obtained from students' anonymous responses to questionnaires and recorded interviews. Program alumni are contacted annually to determine their current activities and career aspirations. The Leadership Program encourages program graduates to undertake careers in science and public health, yet an unanticipated number of alumni enter private veterinary practice. A factor relevant to that outcome is that many students destined for practice lack a definitive career plan. Persuading veterinary students to consider careers in research or public service is challenging but worth the effort. Critical to that connection is the need for veterinary students to objectively evaluate graduate training options because the vocations they follow appear to be strongly influenced by the experiences they choose.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação em Veterinária , Ciência , Estudantes , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Educação em Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Liderança , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/educação , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(5): 333-340, sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183863

RESUMO

We developed a multivariate linear regression model to analyze factors associated with Grant for PCT national phase entries patent, in order to identify patentability success indicators. Information was gathered from the Eurostat and World Intellectual Property Indicators databases (period 2004-2014). Thre regression model were constructed using as response variable: Grant for PCT national phase entries patent in the national phase and considering 11 variables related to R&D funding and research personnel as predictor variables. Multivariate linear regression models were estimated using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The most influential predictive variables were: Total R&D personnel and researchers by performance sectors, sex and fields of science. The regression coefficient was 0.001 with (P <0.05). In conclusion, the mathematical model shows that the most effective predictors of patentability are qualified R&D personnel


No disponible


Assuntos
Patentes como Assunto , Modelos Teóricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos Lineares , Análise Estatística , Conhecimento , Indicadores de Patentes
9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213916, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943240

RESUMO

Based on the entire population of Nobel laureates in science from 1901 to 2017, we show that North America's rise as global power in science started in the 1920s. Following a transition period (1940s to 1960s), its scientific hegemony was consolidated in the 1970s. Yet since the 2000s, North America's global leadership in science has come under pressure. In that time, its share of laureates across disciplines dropped, although it has retained its attractiveness as a destination for future laureates from Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. In addition, we find that North America has become apparently less effective since 2010 in transferring capacities for conducting ground-breaking research from one generation of scientists to another. Furthermore, both Europe and the Asia-Pacific region have similarly high shares of newcomer organizations with regard to where prize-winning work is conducted, indicating that these two regions are very active in the inter-organizational competition for scientific talent. Despite this competition, however, we find no support for the rise of a new global center of science.


Assuntos
Liderança , Prêmio Nobel , Ciência/tendências , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , América do Norte , Oceania , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(6): 568-575, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988477

RESUMO

The analysis of citations to scientific publications has become a tool that is used in the evaluation of a researcher's work; especially in the face of an ever-increasing production volume1-6. Despite the acknowledged shortcomings of citation analysis and the ongoing debate on the meaning of citations7,8, citations are still primarily viewed as endorsements and as indicators of the influence of the cited reference, regardless of the context of the citation. However, only recently has attention9,10 been given to the connection between contextual information and the success of citing and cited papers, primarily because of the lack of extensive databases that cover both types of metadata. Here we address this issue by studying the usage of citations throughout the full text of 156,558 articles published by the Public Library of Science (PLoS), and by tracing their bibliometric history from among 60 million records obtained from the Web of Science. We find universal patterns of variation in the usage of citations across paper sections11. Notably, we find differences in microlevel citation patterns that were dependent on the ultimate impact of the citing paper itself; publications from high-impact groups tend to cite younger references, as well as more very young and better-cited references. Our study provides a quantitative approach to addressing the long-standing issue that not all citations count the same.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos
11.
Nature ; 566(7744): 378-382, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760923

RESUMO

One of the most universal trends in science and technology today is the growth of large teams in all areas, as solitary researchers and small teams diminish in prevalence1-3. Increases in team size have been attributed to the specialization of scientific activities3, improvements in communication technology4,5, or the complexity of modern problems that require interdisciplinary solutions6-8. This shift in team size raises the question of whether and how the character of the science and technology produced by large teams differs from that of small teams. Here we analyse more than 65 million papers, patents and software products that span the period 1954-2014, and demonstrate that across this period smaller teams have tended to disrupt science and technology with new ideas and opportunities, whereas larger teams have tended to develop existing ones. Work from larger teams builds on more-recent and popular developments, and attention to their work comes immediately. By contrast, contributions by smaller teams search more deeply into the past, are viewed as disruptive to science and technology and succeed further into the future-if at all. Observed differences between small and large teams are magnified for higher-impact work, with small teams known for disruptive work and large teams for developing work. Differences in topic and research design account for a small part of the relationship between team size and disruption; most of the effect occurs at the level of the individual, as people move between smaller and larger teams. These results demonstrate that both small and large teams are essential to a flourishing ecology of science and technology, and suggest that, to achieve this, science policies should aim to support a diversity of team sizes.


Assuntos
Difusão de Inovações , Processos Grupais , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/organização & administração , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/organização & administração , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/tendências , Prêmio Nobel , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Ciência/tendências , Software/provisão & distribução , Tecnologia/tendências
16.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0201893, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183699

RESUMO

Scientific mobility can stimulate entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, acting as a catalyst for reducing imbalances between local and global science and the resulting socio-economic damage. This study evaluates both whether scientific mobility effectively promotes these concepts and the fundamental reasons to articulate effective policies for scientific mobility. Toward this end, a survey has been prepared following the methodology of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and current scientific literature. A total of 364 researchers involved in Spanish scientific mobility took part in the study: Spanish scientists abroad (135) and scientists returned to Spain (52), as mobile groups, and young researchers in Spain (177), as a group of scientists who could go abroad, but that have not yet begun to leave. The results demonstrate that scientific mobility does promote entrepreneurship and, especially intrapreneurship. Moreover, since permanent positions are scarce for these groups and their mobility decisions largely depend on job opportunities, the involved Spanish authorities and agents can improve scientific mobility by means suitable policies that make the most of this potential to the benefit of economic growth and job creation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Contrato de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Biotecnologia/organização & administração , Biotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Contrato de Risco/organização & administração , Contrato de Risco/tendências , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/tendências , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/tendências , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Appl Psychol ; 103(12): 1283-1306, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024197

RESUMO

We examined the gender productivity gap in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and other scientific fields (i.e., applied psychology, mathematical psychology), specifically among star performers. Study 1 included 3,853 researchers who published 3,161 articles in mathematics. Study 2 included 45,007 researchers who published 7,746 articles in genetics. Study 3 included 4,081 researchers who published 2,807 articles in applied psychology and 6,337 researchers who published 3,796 articles in mathematical psychology. Results showed that (a) the power law with exponential cutoff is the best-fitting distribution of research productivity across fields and gender groups and (b) there is a considerable gender productivity gap among stars in favor of men across fields. Specifically, the underrepresentation of women is more extreme as we consider more elite ranges of performance (i.e., top 10%, 5%, and 1% of performers). Conceptually, results suggest that individuals vary in research productivity predominantly because of the generative mechanism of incremental differentiation, which is the mechanism that produces power laws with exponential cutoffs. Also, results suggest that incremental differentiation occurs to a greater degree among men and certain forms of discrimination may disproportionately constrain women's output increments. Practically, results suggest that women may have to accumulate more scientific knowledge, resources, and social capital to achieve the same level of increase in total outputs as their male counterparts. Finally, we offer recommendations on interventions aimed at reducing constraints for incremental differentiation among women that could be useful for narrowing the gender productivity gap specifically among star performers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Eficiência , Engenharia/estatística & dados numéricos , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bibliometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200597, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024893

RESUMO

Countries, research institutions, and scholars are interested in identifying and promoting high-impact and transformative scientific research. This paper presents a novel set of text- and citation-based metrics that can be used to identify high-impact and transformative works. The 11 metrics can be grouped into seven types: Radical-Generative, Radical-Destructive, Risky, Multidisciplinary, Wide Impact, Growing Impact, and Impact (overall). The metrics are exemplified, validated, and compared using a set of 10,778,696 MEDLINE articles matched to the Science Citation Index ExpandedTM. Articles are grouped into six 5-year periods (spanning 1983-2012) using publication year and into 6,159 fields constructed using comparable MeSH terms, with which each article is tagged. The analysis is conducted at the level of a field-period pair, of which 15,051 have articles and are used in this study. A factor analysis shows that transformativeness and impact are positively related (ρ = .402), but represent distinct phenomena. Looking at the subcomponents of transformativeness, there is no evidence that transformative work is adopted slowly or that the generation of important new concepts coincides with the obsolescence of existing concepts. We also find that the generation of important new concepts and highly cited work is more risky. Finally, supporting the validity of our metrics, we show that work that draws on a wider range of research fields is used more widely.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/classificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/classificação , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Editoração/classificação , Editoração/normas , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ciência/classificação , Ciência/normas
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