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1.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1844394, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167822

RESUMO

Calls to reform medical education recommend explicit training in professional identity formation to promote the development of humanistic, compassionate physicians. The authors report their experience offering The Physician Healer Track, a 500-contact-hour curricula integrated over 4 years, focusing on self-awareness, reflection, being-with-suffering, communication and professional identity development. The voluntary scholarly-concentration program comprises 4 years of monthly dinner meetings with faculty mentors, a two-month preceptorship in the first year, a one-month immersion course in MS4 and one elective. Training in mindfulness, cognitive behavioral therapy, nonviolent communication, motivational interviewing, spirituality in healthcare, wellness, equanimity, and 'being with suffering' is reinforced across all 4 years. Community building and reflection are integral to the training both in the monthly sessions and the immersion courses. Enrollment has grown from 26 students in the first year (11% of class) to a total of 258 students across our first 6 years (average of 20-26% of each class). Graduates in our first two cohorts of PHT have exceeded the numbers in the eight other scholarly concentrations offered at UTMB. Among students participating in the summer preceptorship, there has been less than 1% attrition. In serial assessments, students report continued growth in personal development, professional development, and the ability to empathize. Offering PHT has resulted in the growth of training for our medical residents, faculty, physical therapy students and the creation of a student healer association. Despite the demands on student's time, they are voluntarily participating in a challenging program of integrated training with the intention of keeping them connected to their humanity during the rigors of medical school training.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Educação Médica , Empatia , Ciências Humanas , Atenção Plena , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Docentes , Humanismo , Ciências Humanas/educação , Humanos , Mentores , Médicos , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227022

RESUMO

Several physicians have been nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature, but so far none of them have received it. Because physicians as women and men of letters have been a major topic of feuilletons, seminars and books for many years, questions arise to what extent medicine was a topic in the proposals for the Nobel Prize and in the Nobel jury evaluations: how were the nominees enacted (or not) as physicians, and why were none of them awarded? Drawing on nomination letters and evaluations by the Nobel committee for literature collected in the archive of the Swedish Academy in Stockholm, this article offers a first overview of nominated physician-author candidates. The focus is on the Austrian historian of medicine Max Neuburger (1868-1955), the German novelist Hans Carossa (1878-1956), and the German poet Gottfried Benn (1886-1956), but it also briefly takes further physician-author nominees into account such as Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965). The article is part of an interdisciplinary medical humanities project that analyses nominations and committee reports for physicians and natural scientists nominated for the Nobel Prize from 1901 to 1970.


Assuntos
Prêmio Nobel , Médicos , Distinções e Prêmios , História do Século XX , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Literatura , Medicina
4.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899861

RESUMO

Perceived stress affects emotional eating and food choices. However, the extent to which stress associates with food choice motives is not completely understood. This study assessed whether emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress levels and food choice motives (i.e., health, mood, convenience, natural content, price, sensory appeal, familiarities, weight control, and ethical concerns) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 800 respondents were surveyed in the United States in June 2020. Their perceived stress, emotional eating, and food choice motives were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Food Choice Questionnaire, respectively. Moderate to high levels of perceived stress were experienced by the majority (73.6%) of respondents. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with emotional eating (r = 0.26) as well as five out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.32), convenience (r = 0.28), natural content (r = -0.14), price (r = 0.27), and familiarity (r = 0.15). Emotional eating was significantly correlated with four out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.27), convenience (r = 0.23), price (r = 0.16), and familiarity (r = 0.16). The mediation analyses showed that emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress and five food choices motives: mood, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Findings were interpreted using theories and concepts from the humanities, specifically, folklore studies, ritual studies, and symbolic anthropology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções , Feminino , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
6.
Hist Psychol ; 23(3): 226-229, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940504

RESUMO

This comment engages with Henley's (2020) proposal for a history of psychology that addresses important transformations in mind and behavior across all periods of humanity's deep history. To the extent that the history of psychology pays attention to the human past, Henley observes, that history is dominated by evolutionary perspectives focused on the biological changes that took place in the Pleistocene. Using the recent archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe as a case study, his article draws attention to important psychological changes that have taken place in the more recent past and have unfolded over shorter time scales. This comment seeks to amplify some of Henley's claims and, by advocating for a historical metanarrative described here as "psychology in history," proposes an alternative framework for achieving some of the goals that Henley has articulated. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Ciências Humanas , Humanos
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1574-1578, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880115

RESUMO

Precision medicine aims to tailor prevention and treatment to individual data. Although different markers can be used (e.g. transcriptome or proteome), its rise is closely linked to that of genomics, owing to the henceforth reasonable cost of DNA sequencing. The enormous datasets thus generated can be exploited due to remarkable advances in bioinformatics and information sciences. However, beyond the technological endeavor, humanities and social sciences also play a central role to redefine health and illness. The precision medicine unit at CHUV gathers stakeholders from these various domains in order to demonstrate the utility of precision medicine and catalyze its integration into healthcare, to the benefit of the patient.


Assuntos
Genômica , Ciências Humanas , Informática Médica , Biologia Molecular , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Humanos
8.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 531-534, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840841

RESUMO

To say that coronavirus is highly visible is a massive understatement in terms of its omnipresence in our lives and media coverage concerning it, yet also clearly untrue in terms of the virus itself. COVID-19 is our invisible enemy, changing our lives radically without ever revealing itself directly. In this paper I explore its invisibility and how it relates to and exposes other invisible enemies we are and have been fighting, in many cases without even realizing. First, I analyse the virus itself and how its stealthy nature has transformed our lives. Second, I describe how the invisible epidemic of social media sharing of fake news about the virus worsens the situation further. Third, I explore how the virus has revealed to us what really matters in our lives and has forced us to re-evaluate our priorities. Fourth, I go on to explore the underlying structural weaknesses and disparities in society that have been exposed by the virus but previously remained unconsidered for so long that they too have become camouflaged, even if their effects are all too apparent; like the virus, neoliberal capitalism is an invisible enemy that has made prisoners of us all. I conclude by suggesting that the coronavirus pandemic represents a hidden opportunity to overcome perhaps the biggest invisible enemy of all: the moral distance that separates us from others. Only by rendering the rest of humanity morally visible to ourselves can we overcome capitalism and stop treating other people as invisible enemies.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/ética , Ciências Humanas , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , /virologia , Capitalismo , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Metáfora , Mídias Sociais , Valores Sociais
9.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 507-513, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840843

RESUMO

Numerous scholars in the social sciences and humanities have speedily analysed and interpreted the COVID-19-induced social and political crisis. While the commitment to address an urgent topic is to be appreciated, this article suggests that the combination of confidence in the applicability of one's tools and belief in the certainty of the available knowledge can be counter-productive in the face of a phenomenon that in significant respects is unprecedented. Starting out from the plurality of forms of knowledge that are mobilized to analyse COVID-19 and its consequences as well as the lack of any clearly hegemonic knowledge, the article tries to understand how a limited convergence in the politico-medical responses to the crisis emerged, and speculates on what would have happened if this had not been the case. In conclusion, it is argued that this pandemic demands a greater awareness of the uncertainty of our knowledge and of the consequences of our actions, both in terms of being situated in time and of aiming at timeliness.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Pandemias , Política , Saúde Pública , Ciência , Ciências Sociais , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Incerteza
10.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(2): 101442, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473810

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Humanities in Predoctoral Dental Education: A Scoping Review. Marti KC, Mylonas AI, MacEachern M, Gruppen L. J Dent Educ 2019;83(10):1174-1198. SOURCE OF FUNDING: None declared. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: A scoping review.


Assuntos
Currículo , Ciências Humanas , Educação em Odontologia , Humanos
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 269: 439-452, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594014

RESUMO

This chapter builds upon prior research on the interconnectedness of context to content as it relates to health and health literacy. The authors focus on the use of the arts as a novel way to engage with and to promote health and health communication. Most published efforts exploring the humanities and health emphasize how healthcare practitioners can enhance their clinical skills, promote wellness, and prevent burnout through engagement with the arts. The current chapter adds how the arts inform us about health, and more broadly, the lessons to be learned from appreciating multidimensional contexts. The authors underscore the role of the arts to address context and introduce how the arts impact health literacy. The authors provide an overview of TRACE, a unique pedagogical program that explores both the content and context communicated via the arts, with a focus on lessons for medicine and health, including health literacy. The chapter suggests enhanced provider apperception via arts exposure has implications to improve clinical practice and health literacy.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Competência Clínica , Assistência à Saúde , Ciências Humanas , Aprendizagem
12.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(6): 443-444, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432971

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to elucidate psychosocial reactions to plagues by analyzing three landmark descriptions from different eras: Thucydides' description of the plague of Athens (430 BC) in The History of the Peloponnesian War, Giovanni Boccaccio's description of the plague in Florence (1348) in The Decameron, and Albert Camus' description in The Plague (1947). Using a narrative inquiry, we found psychosocial reactions to be complex and ambivalent and could discern several coping strategies. We propose that this knowledge can help psychiatrists and other healthcare professionals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura/história , Pandemias/história , Peste/história , Comportamento Social/história , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Ciências Humanas/história , Humanos
13.
14.
Acad Med ; 95(6): 819, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452851
15.
Acad Med ; 95(6): 819-820, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452852
16.
Gerontologist ; 60(4): 591-597, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413144

RESUMO

Perspectives from the humanities and arts (H&A) on old age have deep roots in history; they emerged over the centuries along with concurrent scientific investigations. Provisionally invited into the scientific ranks of The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) during the late 1970s, H&A prospered, but grew amid tensions. During 75th-anniversary celebrations, Society members will assess H&A's role in GSA. How can H&A continue to enrich scientific research? How can H&A further advance its own meaningful contributions? Or, should H&A and GSA reconfigure its partnership?


Assuntos
Geriatria , Ciências Humanas , História do Século XX , Humanos , Sociedades
17.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(6): 443-444, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472811

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to elucidate psychosocial reactions to plagues by analyzing three landmark descriptions from different eras: Thucydides' description of the plague of Athens (430 BC) in The History of the Peloponnesian War, Giovanni Boccaccio's description of the plague in Florence (1348) in The Decameron, and Albert Camus' description in The Plague (1947). Using a narrative inquiry, we found psychosocial reactions to be complex and ambivalent and could discern several coping strategies. We propose that this knowledge can help psychiatrists and other healthcare professionals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura/história , Pandemias/história , Peste/história , Comportamento Social/história , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Ciências Humanas/história , Humanos
19.
Soins ; 65(842): 51-54, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245560

RESUMO

When medicine and humanities are dissociated and then reconciled, what is the meaning of "medical humanities" today? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the French system? At a time when the link between the humanities and medicine seems more distended than ever, ten recommendations for developing and changing the way future doctors look at things are presented.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/organização & administração , Ciências Humanas/educação , França , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina
20.
Acad Med ; 95(8): 1191-1200, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134785

RESUMO

The medical education community acknowledges the importance of including the humanities in general, and the liberal arts in particular, in the education of health professionals. Among the liberal arts, theater is especially helpful for educators wanting to bring experiences that are both real and challenging to the learning encounter in an interactive, engaging, and reflective way. In this Perspective, the authors share what they have learned after working together with a company of actors for 8 years (2012-2019) in different obligatory and elective curricular activities. Influenced by Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed and the ideas of Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed, Medical Education Empowered by Theater (MEET) embraces social accountability and applies the concept of sensible cognition to empower medical students as the protagonists of their learning and professional development to become agents of change-both in patients' lives and in health care systems. The MEET theoretical framework builds on the concepts of liberation, emancipatory education, critical pedagogy, and participatory theater to offer medical students and teachers an opportunity to problematize, criticize, and hopefully reform the hierarchical and often oppressive structures of medical education and practice. MEET sessions include activating previous knowledge and experiences, warm-up exercises, different improvisational exercises, debriefing, and synthesis. Vital to the praxis of MEET is applying theater-teaching traditions to develop capacities important in medicine: presence, empathy, improvisation, communication (verbal and nonverbal), and scenic intelligence (i.e., the capacity to self-assess one's performance while performing). The authors believe that theater offers a venue to integrate both the personal and professional development of students into a process of reflection and action, targeting the transformation of the medical culture toward social justice.


Assuntos
Drama , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Modelos Educacionais , Brasil , Comunicação , Empatia , Ciências Humanas , Humanos
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