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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(730): 529-533, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755362

RESUMO

The life course epidemiology is an interdisciplinary approach to health resulting from the convergence of centres of interest in social epidemiology, natural sciences (biology, genetics) and social sciences (psychology, sociology, history). It examines the origin of chronic diseases in the past of individuals, considering the duration and timing of exposure to different risk factors, throughout the life of the individual, from gestation to an advanced age. The life course epidemiology is interested as much in bio-psycho-social determinants as in environmental and societal influences on the trajectories of health and various diseases, either somatic or psychic.


Assuntos
Ciências Sociais , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 194, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419989

RESUMO

While digital trace data from sources like search engines hold enormous potential for tracking and understanding human behavior, these streams of data lack information about the actual experiences of those individuals generating the data. Moreover, most current methods ignore or under-utilize human processing capabilities that allow humans to solve problems not yet solvable by computers (human computation). We demonstrate how behavioral research, linking digital and real-world behavior, along with human computation, can be utilized to improve the performance of studies using digital data streams. This study looks at the use of search data to track prevalence of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI). We build a behavioral model of flu search based on survey data linked to users' online browsing data. We then utilize human computation for classifying search strings. Leveraging these resources, we construct a tracking model of ILI prevalence that outperforms strong historical benchmarks using only a limited stream of search data and lends itself to tracking ILI in smaller geographic units. While this paper only addresses searches related to ILI, the method we describe has potential for tracking a broad set of phenomena in near real-time.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Ferramenta de Busca , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Apetitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Ciências Sociais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 273-284, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farmers around the world have used Bt maize for more than two decades, delaying resistance using a high-dose/refuge strategy. Nevertheless, field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been documented. This paper describes a spatially explicit population genetics model of resistance to Bt toxins by the insect Ostrinia nubilalis and an agent-based model of farmer adoption of Bt maize incorporating social networks. The model was used to evaluate multiple resistance mitigation policies, including combinations of increased refuges for all farms, localized bans on Bt maize where resistance develops, area-wide sprays of insecticides on fields with resistance and taxes on Bt maize seed for all farms. Evaluation metrics included resistance allele frequency, pest population density, farmer adoption of Bt maize and economic surplus. RESULTS: The most effective mitigation policies for maintaining a low resistance allele frequency were 50% refuge and localized bans. Area-wide sprays were the most effective for maintaining low pest populations. Based on economic surplus, refuge requirements were the recommended policy for mitigating resistance to high-dose Bt maize. Social networks further enhanced the benefits of refuges relative to other mitigation policies but accelerated the emergence of resistance. CONCLUSION: These results support using refuges as the foundation of resistance mitigation for high-dose Bt maize, just as for resistance management. Other mitigation policies examined were more effective but more costly. Social factors had substantial effects on the recommended management and mitigation of insect resistance, suggesting that agent-based models can make useful contributions for policy analysis.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Zea mays , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Ciências Sociais , Zea mays/genética
6.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 159-173, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144427

RESUMO

Resumen La seguridad y la reconciliación son dos factores determinantes para la construcción de la paz. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tiene como objetivo comprender las ideas y creencias sobre la reconciliación desde el sector de seguridad en el contexto del posacuerdo en Colombia. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa con un diseño fenomenológico, para analizar los testimonios de 15 policías adscritos a la Unidad Policial para la Edificación de la Paz, quienes fueron responsables de la seguridad de los excombatientes de las FARC-EP en las zonas veredales donde iniciaron su reincorporación a la vida civil después de la firma del acuerdo de paz con el Gobierno colombiano. Entre los resultados se destacan tres categorías conceptuales que emergieron de las narrativas de los participantes: condiciones necesarias para la interacción con el antiguo adversario, factores que facilitan la reconciliación desde el sector de seguridad y emociones involucradas en la reconciliación. Finalmente, se presentan algunas reflexiones para comprender la reconciliación desde el sector de seguridad en un escenario de posacuerdo.


Abstract Security and reconciliation are two determining factors for peacebuilding. This article presents the results of research whose objective is to understand the ideas and beliefs regarding reconciliation from the security sector in the post-agreement context in Colombia. A qualitative methodology was used with a phenomenological design to analyze the testimonies of 15 police officers assigned to the Police Unit for Peacebuilding. They were responsible for the security of former FARC-EP combatants in the rural areas where they began their reinsertion into civilian life after signing the peace agreement with the Colombian government. Three conceptual categories stood out among the results, which emerged from the participants' narratives: the necessary conditions to interact with the former adversary, factors that facilitated reconciliation from the security sector, and the emotions involved in reconciliation. Finally, some reflections are presented to understand reconciliation from the security sector in a post-agreement setting.


Resumo Segurança e reconciliação são dois fatores determinantes para a construção da paz. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma investigação que visa compreender as ideias e crenças sobre a reconciliação do setor de segurança no contexto do pós-acordo na Colômbia. Foi utilizada uma metodologia qualitativa de desenho fenomenològico para analisar os depoimentos de 15 policiais vinculados à Unidade Policial para a Construção da Paz, responsáveis pela segurança dos ex-combatentes das FARC-EP nas áreas rurais onde iniciaram sua reincorporação à vida civil após a assinatura do acordo de paz com o Governo colombiano. Dentre os resultados, destacam-se três categorias conceituais que emergiram das narrativas dos participantes: condições necessárias para interação com o antigo adversário, fatores que facilitam a reconciliação do setor de segurança e emoções envolvidas na reconciliação. Por fim, são apresentadas algumas reflexões para entender a reconciliação do setor de segurança em um cenário pós-acordo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências Sociais , Segurança , Guerra , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
7.
Global Health ; 16(1): 120, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of integrating the social sciences in epidemic preparedness and response has become a common feature of infectious disease policy and practice debates. However to date, this integration remains inadequate, fragmented and under-funded, with limited reach and small initial investments. Based on data collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, in this paper we analysed the variety of knowledge, infrastructure and funding gaps that hinder the full integration of the social sciences in epidemics and present a strategic framework for addressing them. METHODS: Senior social scientists with expertise in public health emergencies facilitated expert deliberations, and conducted 75 key informant interviews, a consultation with 20 expert social scientists from Africa, Asia and Europe, 2 focus groups and a literature review of 128 identified high-priority peer reviewed articles. We also analysed 56 interviews from the Ebola 100 project, collected just after the West African Ebola epidemic. Analysis was conducted on gaps and recommendations. These were inductively classified according to various themes during two group prioritization exercises. The project was conducted between February and May 2019. Findings from the report were used to inform strategic prioritization of global investments in social science capacities for health emergencies. FINDINGS: Our analysis consolidated 12 knowledge and infrastructure gaps and 38 recommendations from an initial list of 600 gaps and 220 recommendations. In developing our framework, we clustered these into three areas: 1) Recommendations to improve core social science response capacities, including investments in: human resources within response agencies; the creation of social science data analysis capacities at field and global level; mechanisms for operationalizing knowledge; and a set of rapid deployment infrastructures; 2) Recommendations to strengthen applied and basic social sciences, including the need to: better define the social science agenda and core competencies; support innovative interdisciplinary science; make concerted investments in developing field ready tools and building the evidence-base; and develop codes of conduct; and 3) Recommendations for a supportive social science ecosystem, including: the essential foundational investments in institutional development; training and capacity building; awareness-raising activities with allied disciplines; and lastly, support for a community of practice. INTERPRETATION: Comprehensively integrating social science into the epidemic preparedness and response architecture demands multifaceted investments on par with allied disciplines, such as epidemiology and virology. Building core capacities and competencies should occur at multiple levels, grounded in country-led capacity building. Social science should not be a parallel system, nor should it be "siloed" into risk communication and community engagement. Rather, it should be integrated across existing systems and networks, and deploy interdisciplinary knowledge "transversally" across all preparedness and response sectors and pillars. Future work should update this framework to account for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the institutional landscape.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Ciências Sociais/organização & administração , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6377, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311448

RESUMO

Building trust in science and evidence-based decision-making depends heavily on the credibility of studies and their findings. Researchers employ many different study designs that vary in their risk of bias to evaluate the true effect of interventions or impacts. Here, we empirically quantify, on a large scale, the prevalence of different study designs and the magnitude of bias in their estimates. Randomised designs and controlled observational designs with pre-intervention sampling were used by just 23% of intervention studies in biodiversity conservation, and 36% of intervention studies in social science. We demonstrate, through pairwise within-study comparisons across 49 environmental datasets, that these types of designs usually give less biased estimates than simpler observational designs. We propose a model-based approach to combine study estimates that may suffer from different levels of study design bias, discuss the implications for evidence synthesis, and how to facilitate the use of more credible study designs.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Ciências Sociais , Viés , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Literatura , Prevalência
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326430

RESUMO

Researchers in the social sciences have increasingly studied how emotions influence decision-making. We argue that research on emotions arising naturally in real-world environments is critical for the generalizability of insights in this domain, and therefore to the development of this field. Given this, we argue for the increased use of the "quasi-field experiment" methodology, in which participants make decisions or complete tasks after as-if-random real-world events determine their emotional state. We begin by providing the first critical review of this emerging literature, which shows that real-world events provide emotional shocks that are at least as strong as what can ethically be induced under laboratory conditions. However, we also find that most previous quasi-field experiment studies use statistical techniques that may result in biased estimates. We propose a more statistically-robust approach, and illustrate it using an experiment on negative emotion and risk-taking, in which sports fans completed risk-elicitation tasks immediately after watching a series of NFL games. Overall, we argue that when appropriate statistical methods are used, the quasi-field experiment methodology represents a powerful approach for studying the impact of emotion on decision-making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Emoções , Algoritmos , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciências Sociais
10.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(6): 861-869, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886013

RESUMO

When a pandemic outbreak occurs, it seems logical that related scientific production should increase substantially; however, it is important to recognize its interdisciplinary usefulness to find a solution to the problem. The main aim of this research is to analyse the main keywords of the scientific research about COVID-19, by subject area. To discover the influence of certain terms and their transferability, synergies, and future trends, a cluster analysis of the keywords was performed. The results show that Health Sciences dominate the publications with 88.23% of the total volume. As expected, the largest volume of research was dedicated to medical aspects of the disease, like experimental treatments, its physiopathology, or its respiratory syndrome. However, other fields, like Social Sciences (6.07%), Technology (2.68%), Physical Sciences (1.95%), and Arts and Humanities (1.08%), also played an important role in research on COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Ciências Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111520, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777547

RESUMO

We propose actions to guide collaboration between 'natural' and 'social' science disciplines in marine environmental issues. Despite enthusiasm for interdisciplinarity on environmental issues, institutional and disciplinary barriers remain for interdisciplinary working in practice. This paper explores what natural and social scientists need from each other for more effective impact assessment in the marine environment. We reflect on collaboration between natural- (especially marine biology) and social scientists (especially environmental sociology) researching the Tomakomai CCS Demonstration Project in Japan; including subsequent expansion of the research team and wider evaluation of project outcomes. We identify two areas of mutual support: community and stakeholder engagement on marine monitoring; and identification of points in regulatory/policy processes where qualitative findings may gain traction alongside quantitative results. We suggest interdisciplinary collaboration for marine environmental research could be helped by making time to learn from each other within projects; and by working together more closely in the field.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Ciências Sociais , Japão
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233455, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760066

RESUMO

This study focuses on the use and users of Finnish social science research data archive. Study is based on enriched user data of the archive from years 2015-2018. Study investigates the number and type of downloaded datasets, the number of citations for data, the demographics of data downloaders and the purposes data are downloaded for. Datasets were downloaded from the archive 10346 times. Majority of the downloaded datasets are quantitative. Quantitative datasets are also more often cited, but the number of citations vary and does not always correlate with the number of downloads. Use of the archive varies by user's country, organization, and discipline. Datasets from the archive were downloaded most often for study work, bachelor's and master's theses, and research purposes. It is likely that reusing research data will increase in the near future as more data will become available, scholars are more informed about research data management, and data citation practices are established.


Assuntos
Ciências Sociais , Arquivos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Finlândia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciências Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 857-861, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716038

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been mitigated primarily using social and behavioral intervention strategies, and these strategies have social and economic impacts, as well as potential downstream health impacts that require further study. Digital and community-based interventions are being increasingly relied upon to address these health impacts and bridge the gap in health care access despite insufficient research of these interventions as a replacement for, not an adjunct to, in-person clinical care. As SARS-CoV-2 testing expands, research on encouraging uptake and appropriate interpretation of these test results is needed. All of these issues are disproportionately impacting underserved, vulnerable, and health disparities populations. This commentary describes the various initiatives of the National Institutes of Health to address these social, behavioral, economic, and health disparities impacts of the pandemic, the findings from which can improve our response to the current pandemic and prepare us better for future infectious disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/tendências , Ciências Sociais , Telemedicina , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Ciências Sociais/tendências , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718949

RESUMO

This paper outlines the rapid integration of social scientists into a Canadian province's COVID-19 response. We describe the motivating theory, deployment and initial outcomes of our team of Organisational Sociologist ethnographers, Human Factors experts and Infection Prevention and Control clinicians focused on understanding and improving Alberta's responsiveness to the pandemic. Specifically, that interdisciplinary team is working alongside acute and primary care personnel, as well as public health leaders to deliver 'situated interventions' that flow from studying communications, interpretations and implementations across responding organisations. Acting in real time, the team is providing critical insights on policy communication and implementation to targeted members of the health system. Using our rapid and ongoing deployment as a case study of social science techniques applied to a pandemic, we describe how other health systems might leverage social science to improve their preparations and communications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Ciências Sociais , Alberta , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614836

RESUMO

Human societies exhibit a diversity of social organizations that vary widely in size, structure, and complexity. Today, human sociopolitical complexity ranges from stateless small-scale societies of a few hundred individuals to complex states of millions, most of this diversity evolving only over the last few hundred years. Understanding how sociopolitical complexity evolved over time and space has always been a central focus of the social sciences. Yet despite this long-term interest, a quantitative understanding of how sociopolitical complexity varies across cultures is not well developed. Here we use scaling analysis to examine the statistical structure of a global sample of over a thousand human societies across multiple levels of sociopolitical complexity. First, we show that levels of sociopolitical complexity are self-similar as adjacent levels of jurisdictional hierarchy see a four-fold increase in population size, a two-fold increase in geographic range, and therefore a doubling of population density. Second, we show how this self-similarity leads to the scaling of population size and geographic range. As societies increase in complexity population density is reconfigured in space and quantified by scaling parameters. However, there is considerable overlap in population metrics across all scales suggesting that while more complex societies tend to have larger and denser populations, larger and denser populations are not necessarily more complex.


Assuntos
Modelos Organizacionais , Política , Densidade Demográfica , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Civilização , Diversidade Cultural , Etnologia , Governo , Humanos , Liderança , Teoria Social
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511249

RESUMO

Both the natural and the social sciences are currently facing a deep "reproducibility crisis". Two important factors in this crisis have been the selective reporting of results and methodological problems. In this article, we examine a fusion of these two factors. More specifically, we demonstrate that the uncritical import of Boolean optimization algorithms from electrical engineering into some areas of the social sciences in the late 1980s has induced algorithmic bias on a considerable scale over the last quarter century. Potentially affected are all studies that have used a method nowadays known as Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Drawing on replication material for 215 peer-reviewed QCA articles from across 109 high-profile management, political science and sociology journals, we estimate the extent this problem has assumed in empirical work. Our results suggest that one in three studies is affected, one in ten severely so. More generally, our article cautions scientists against letting methods and algorithms travel too easily across disparate disciplines without sufficient prior evaluation of their suitability for the context in hand.


Assuntos
Viés , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ciências Sociais , Algoritmos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520948

RESUMO

Proponents of big data claim it will fuel a social research revolution, but skeptics challenge its reliability and decontextualization. The largest subset of big data is not designed for social research. Data augmentation-systematic assessment of measurement against known quantities and expansion of extant data with new information-is an important tool to maximize such data's validity and research value. Using trained research assistants or specialized algorithms are common approaches to augmentation but may not scale to big data or appease skeptics. We consider a third alternative: data augmentation with online crowdsourcing. Three empirical cases illustrate strengths and limitations of crowdsourcing, using Amazon Mechanical Turk to verify automated coding, link online databases, and gather data on online resources. Using these, we develop best practice guidelines and a reporting template to enhance reproducibility. Carefully designed, correctly applied, and rigorously documented crowdsourcing help address concerns about big data's usefulness for social research.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Big Data , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ciências Sociais/tendências
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