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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946892

RESUMO

Recent discoveries in the "omics" field and the growing focus on preventive health have opened new avenues for personalized nutrition (PN), which is becoming an important theme in the strategic plans of organizations that are active in healthcare, food, and nutrition research. PN holds great potential for individual health optimization, disease management, public health interventions, and product innovation. However, there are still multiple challenges to overcome before PN can be truly embraced by the public and healthcare stakeholders. The diagnosis and management of lactose intolerance (LI), a common condition with a strong inter-individual component, is explored as an interesting example for the potential role of these technologies and the challenges of PN. From the development of genetic and metabolomic LI diagnostic tests that can be carried out in the home, to advances in the understanding of LI pathology and individualized treatment optimization, PN in LI care has shown substantial progress. However, there are still many research gaps to address, including the understanding of epigenetic regulation of lactase expression and how lactose is metabolized by the gut microbiota, in order to achieve better LI detection and effective therapeutic interventions to reverse the potential health consequences of LI.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Lactose/dietoterapia , Ciências da Nutrição , Medicina de Precisão , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Lactase/metabolismo , Lactose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Lactose/fisiopatologia
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 280, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor-quality diet is associated with one in five deaths globally. In the United States, it is the leading cause of death, representing a bigger risk factor than even smoking. For many, education on a healthy diet comes from their physician. However, as few as 25% of medical schools currently offer a dedicated nutrition course. We hypothesized that an active learning, culinary nutrition experience for medical students would improve the quality of their diets and better equip them to counsel future patients on food and nutrition. METHODS: This was a prospective, interventional, uncontrolled, non-randomized, pilot study. Ten first-year medical students at the Wayne State University School of Medicine completed a 4-part, 8-h course in culinary-nutritional instruction and hands-on cooking. Online assessment surveys were completed immediately prior to, immediately following, and 2 months after the intervention. There was a 100% retention rate and 98.8% item-completion rate on the questionnaires. The primary outcome was changes in attitudes regarding counselling patients on a healthy diet. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary habits and acquisition of culinary knowledge. Average within-person change between timepoints was determined using ordinary least squares fixed-effect models. Statistical significance was defined as P ≤ .05. RESULTS: Participants felt better prepared to counsel patients on a healthy diet immediately post-intervention (coefficient = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 4.0 points; P < .001) and 2 months later (2.2 [1.0, 3.4]; P = .002). Scores on the objective test of culinary knowledge increased immediately after (3.6 [2.4, 4.9]; P < .001) and 2 months after (1.6 [0.4, 2.9]; P = .01) the intervention. Two months post-intervention, participants reported that a higher percentage of their meals were homemade compared to pre-intervention (13.7 [2.1, 25.3]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: An experiential culinary nutrition course may improve medical students' readiness to provide dietary counselling. Further research will be necessary to determine what effects such interventions may have on the quality of participants' own diets.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição , Médicos , Currículo , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919680

RESUMO

Nutritional sciences have been recognized as being of paramount importance for the prevention of non-communicable diseases. Among others, mental health disorders have been hypothesized to be influenced by dietary risk through a variety of molecular mechanisms. The improvements in the technology and implementation of-omics sciences in terms of nutrition have created the possibility of studying the relation between diet, gut microbiota and mental health. The gut-brain-axis represents the core rationale setting the stage for a relatively new discipline of study defined as "nutritional psychiatry". Research on this matter will help to better understand the relation between food and mood, sleep quality, cognition, and mental health in general.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Sono/fisiologia
4.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 125-132, 20210000.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178956

RESUMO

La transición demográfica mundial, ha permitido identificar el creciente aumento de la población mayor de 60 años, lo que conlleva la necesidad de generar políticas, programas o acciones que conserven o mejoren la calidad de vida de personas en esta etapa del curso vital. Una alimentación equilibrada y suficiente garantiza un bienestar integral; sin embargo, la globalización ha permeado las concepciones de una alimentación saludable, situación que ha favorecido la presencia de malnutrición y por lo mismo, el deterioro de sistemas y órganos en el que se incluye el tracto gastrointestinal. En los cuidados destinados al envejecimiento y a las personas mayores, la salud gastrointestinal presenta una destacada importancia, debido al rol que en la actualidad se le reconoce la microbiota en el eje intestino-cerebro, en la modulación del sistema inmunológico y en la etiología de enfermedades inflamatorias, neurodegenerativas o de salud mental. La siguiente revisión presenta como objetivo el desarrollar una búsqueda en diversas fuentes de información sobre la relevancia de la alimentación y nutrición para la mantención y equilibrio de la microbiota en personas mayores. Entre sus resultados se reconocen conceptos generales sobre la microbiota y el entrelazado que se genera con la nutrición y también la alimentación. A lo anterior, la revisión centra la atención en el rol de presenta la microbiota en las personas mayores, menciona algunos aportes de nuevas investigaciones y concluye con reflexiones sobre la importancia de incorporar los cuidados de la microbiota en la mantención estilos de vida saludables.


The global demographic transition has allowed to identify a growing increase in the population over 60 years old, which entails the need to generate policies, programs or actions that preserve or improve the quality of life of people at this stage of life. A balanced and sufficient diet guarantees an integral well-being; however, globalization has permeated the conceptions of a healthy diet, a situation that has favored the presence of malnutrition and, therefore, the deterioration of systems and organs including the gastrointestinal tract. In care for elderly aging, gastrointestinal health is of outstanding importance, due to the role that the microbiota is currently recognized in the gut-brain axis, in the modulation of the immune system and in the etiology of inflammatory, neurodegenerative or mental health diseases. The following review presents the objective of developing a search in various sources of information on the relevance of food and nutrition for the maintenance and balance of the microbiota in older people. Among their results, general concepts about the microbiota and the intertwining that is generated with nutrition and food are recognized. On the above, the review focuses on the role of the microbiota in older people, mentions some contributions from new research and ends with reflections about the importance of incorporating microbiota care in maintaining healthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Desnutrição , Cérebro , Trato Gastrointestinal , Ciências da Nutrição , Dieta Saudável , Sistema Imunitário
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803970

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak rapidly became a worldwide pandemic in early 2020. In Australia, government-mandated restrictions on non-essential face-to-face contact in the healthcare setting have been crucial for limiting opportunities for COVID-19 transmission, but they have severely limited, and even halted, many research activities. Our institute's research practices in the vulnerable populations of pregnant women and young infants needed to adapt in order to continue without exposing participants, or staff, to an increased risk of exposure to COVID-19. Here, we discuss our pre-and-post COVID-19 methods for conducting research regarding nutrition during pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood. We discuss modifications to study methods implemented to avoid face-to-face contact when identifying and recruiting potential participants, gaining informed consent, conducting appointments, and collecting outcome data, and the implications of these changes. The COVID-19 pandemic has required numerous changes to the conduct of research activities, but many of those modifications will be useful in post-COVID-19 research settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Austrália , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez
6.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(4): 256-261, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830689

RESUMO

The knowledge of physicians regarding nutrition is often far below the expectations of patients, and does not comply with official recommendations. However, poor-quality nutrition and diet represent the first cause of mortality worldwide. As a result of an insufficient training and awareness, many physicians cannot meet patients' expectations. Moreover, nutrition is sometimes felt as a field of low scientific level, thereby opening the area to pseudo-scientific drifts. We advocate an improvement in the training in nutrition during the medical cursus, namely by the transversal integration of nutritional insights into medical courses, and the recognition of post-university training validated by the academic authorities. A clarification of the roles and the recognition of the competency are urgently required to promote the professionalism of nutritional counselling.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Ciências da Nutrição , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924965

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, forcing countries around the world to confine their population to halt the rapid spread of the virus. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in dietary habits and lifestyle during the COVID-19 lockdown a specific population with academic and professional knowledge in food sciences from Spain. An online questionnaire, based on 41 items, including sociodemographic data, dietary habits, food-related behaviors, and lifestyle were distributed using academic and institutional mailing lists and social media. Results showed a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, legumes, eggs, fish, and yogurt together with a decrease in consumption of alcoholic beverages between before and during the lockdown period. Nevertheless, an increase in consumption of some fruitive foods and an increase in self-reported weight were also observed, although in lower percentages than in other populations. A worse sleep quality and an increase in working hours and sitting time were also reported. Overall, trends towards healthier dietary habits were observed within the study sample during COVID-19 confinement period.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Ciências da Nutrição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809505

RESUMO

Suboptimal nutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United Kingdom (UK). Although patients cite physicians as trusted information sources on diet and weight loss, studies suggest that the management of nutrition-related disorders is hindered by insufficient medical education and training. Objectives of this study were to: (1) Quantify nutrition-related learning objectives (NLOs) in UK postgraduate medical training curriculums and assess variation across specialties; (2) assess inclusion of nutrition-related modules; (3) assess the extent to which NLOs are knowledge-, skill-, or behaviour-based, and in which Good Medical Practice (GMP) Domain(s) they fall. 43 current postgraduate curriculums, approved by the General Medical Council (GMC) and representing a spectrum of patient-facing training pathways in the UK, were included. NLOs were identified using four keywords: 'nutrition', 'diet', 'obesity', and 'lifestyle'. Where a keyword was used in a titled section followed by a number of objectives, this was designated as a 'module'. Where possible, NLOs were coded with the information to address objective 3. A median of 15 NLOs (mean 24) were identified per curriculum. Eleven specialties (25.6%) had five or less NLOs identified, including General Practice. Surgical curriculums had a higher number of NLOs compared with medical (median 30 and 8.5, respectively), as well as a higher inclusion rate of nutrition-related modules (100% of curriculums versus 34.4%, respectively). 52.9% of NLOs were knowledge-based, 34.9% skill-based, and 12.2% behaviour-based. The most common GMP Domain assigned to NLOs was Domain 1: Knowledge, Skills and Performance (53.0%), followed by Domain 2: Safety and Quality (20.6%), 3: Communication, Partnership and Teamwork (18.7%), and 4: Maintaining Trust (7.7%). This study demonstrates considerable variability in the number of nutrition-related learning objectives in UK postgraduate medical training. As insufficient nutrition education and training may underlie inadequate doctor-patient discussions, the results of this analysis suggest a need for further evaluation of nutrition-related competencies in postgraduate training.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Currículo , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Reino Unido
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-03-05. (PAHO/NMH/RF/21-0002).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53328

RESUMO

This fact-sheet presents the results of the first study to take place in the Caribbean to examine the best performing front-of-package labeling (FOPL). It was conducted by the Ministry of Health and Wellness of Jamaica, the University of Technology, Jamaica, and the Pan American Health Organization, and contributes to the evidence that has been accumulated in the Region of the Americas on the topic. Consumers showed the octagonal warning labels had the highest chances of correctly identifying when products were excessive in sugars, sodium, or saturated fats, of correctly identifying the least harmful option, and of choosing the least harmful or none of the products more often.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Ciências da Nutrição , Desnutrição , Fatores de Risco , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Gorduras , Açúcares , Sódio , Jamaica
11.
J Nutr ; 151(3): 598-604, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition plays a major role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases; hence, nutrition research is a priority for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The purpose of this analysis is to describe the scope of NHLBI-funded extramural nutrition research grants over the past decade and offer insights into future opportunities for nutrition research relevant to NHLBI's mission. METHODS: Data were extracted using the Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization spending categories from the publicly available NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results. New 2018 and 2019 grants were coded into categories and mapped to the 2016 NHLBI Strategic Vision priorities. RESULTS: Approximately 90% of nutrition research funds supported extramural grants, particularly through investigator-initiated R series grants (69.6%). Of these, 19.8% were classified as clinical trials. Consistent nutrition-related topics, including physical activity, weight loss, fatty acids, metabolic syndrome, childhood obesity, and other topics such as gut microbiota, arterial stiffness, sleep duration, and meal timing, emerged in 2014-2019.  Mapping of the NHLBI Strategic Vision objectives revealed that 32% of newly funded grants focused on pathobiological mechanisms important to the onset and progression of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, with opportunities including developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and clinical and implementation science research. DISCUSSION: The findings show the breadth of NHLBI-funded nutrition research and highlight potential research opportunities for nutrition scientists.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/economia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/tendências , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Ciências da Nutrição/economia , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 136, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low- and Middle-income countries (LMIC) face considerable health and nutrition challenges, many of which can be addressed through strong academic leadership and robust research translated into evidence-based practice. A North-South-South partnership between three universities was established to implement a master's programme in nutritional epidemiology at the Kinshasa School of Public Health (KSPH), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The partnership aimed to develop academic leadership and research capacity in the field of nutrition in the DRC. In this article we describe the educational approach and processes used, and discuss successes, challenges, and lessons learned. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires, which included both open and closed questions, were sent to all graduates and students on the master's programme to explore students' experiences and perceptions of all aspects of the educational programme. Quantitative data was analysed using frequencies, and a thematic approach was used to analyse responses to open-ended questions. RESULTS: A two-year master's programme in Nutritional Epidemiology was established in 2014, and 40 students had graduated by 2020. Key elements included using principles of authentic learning, deployment of students for an internship at a rural residential research site, and support of selected students with bursaries. Academic staff from all partner universities participated in teaching and research supervision. The curriculum and teaching approach were well received by most students, although a number of challenges were identified. Most students reported benefits from the rural internship experience but were challenged by the isolation of the rural site, and felt unsupported by their supervisors, undermining students' experiences and potentially the quality of the research. Financial barriers were also reported as challenges by students, even among those who received bursaries. CONCLUSION: The partnership was successful in establishing a Master Programme in Nutritional Epidemiology increasing the number of nutrition researchers in the DRC. This approach could be used in other LMIC settings to address health and nutrition challenges.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/normas , Epidemiologia/educação , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 88, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a poor diet is the number one risk factor for early death in the United States and globally, physicians receive little to no training in dietary interventions and lack confidence counseling patients about lifestyle modifications. Innovative, interprofessional strategies to address these gaps include the emergence of culinary medicine, a hands-on approach to teaching the role of food in health outcomes. We sought to assess the impact of a culinary medicine elective on counseling confidence, awareness of an evidence-based approach to nutrition, and understanding of the role of interprofessional teamwork in dietary lifestyle change among medical students at one undergraduate medical school. METHODS: We administered pre- and post-course surveys to two cohorts of medical students (n = 64 at pre-test and n = 60 at post-test) participating in a culinary medicine enrichment elective. Chi-square analysis was used to assess the relationship between participation in the course and a positive response to each survey item. RESULTS: Compared with the baseline, students participating in culinary medicine were more likely to feel confident discussing nutrition with patients (29% vs 92%; p < 0.001), to feel familiar with the Mediterranean diet (54% vs. 97%; p < 0.001), and to understand the role of dietitians in patient care (37% vs. 93%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Culinary medicine shows promise as an impactful educational strategy among first-year medical students for increasing counseling confidence, promoting familiarity with evidence-based nutrition interventions, and augmenting understanding of the role of interprofessional engagement to address lifestyle-related disease.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição , Estudantes de Medicina , Aconselhamento , Currículo , Dieta , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(4): E702-E715, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522396

RESUMO

Elevated postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet methods to quantitate postmeal handling of dietary lipids in humans are limited. This study tested a new method to track dietary lipid appearance using a stable isotope tracer (2H11-oleate) in liquid meals containing three levels of fat [low fat (LF), 15 g; moderate fat (MF), 30 g; high fat (HF), 60 g]. Meals were fed to 12 healthy men [means ± SD, age 31.3 ± 9.2 yr, body mass index (BMI) 24.5 ± 1.9 kg/m2] during four randomized study visits; the HF meal was administered twice for reproducibility. Blood was collected over 8 h postprandially, triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL), and particles with a Svedberg flotation rate >400 (Sf > 400, n = 8) were isolated by ultracentrifugation, and labeling of two TG species (54:3 and 52:2) was quantified by LC-MS. Total plasma TRL-TG concentrations were threefold greater than Sf > 400-TG. Both Sf > 400- and TRL-TG 54:3 were present at higher concentrations than 52:2, and singly labeled TG concentrations were higher than doubly labeled. Furthermore, TG 54:3 and the singly labeled molecules demonstrated higher plasma absolute entry rates differing significantly across fat levels within a single TG species (P < 0.01). Calculation of fractional entry showed no significant differences in label handling supporting the utility of either TG species for appearance rate calculations. These data demonstrate the utility of labeling research meals with stable isotopes to investigate human postprandial lipemia while simultaneously highlighting the importance of examining individual responses. Meal type and timing, control of prestudy activities, and effects of sex on outcomes should match the research goals. The method, optimized here, will be beneficial to conduct basic science research in precision nutrition and clinical drug development.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A novel method to test human intestinal lipid handling using stable isotope labeling is presented and, for the first time, plasma appearance and lipid turnover were quantified in 12 healthy men following meals with varying amounts of fat. The method can be applied to studies in precision nutrition characterizing individual response to support basic science research or drug development. This report discusses key questions for consideration in precision nutrition that were highlighted by the data.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/diagnóstico , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Refeições , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 18, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although school garden programs have been shown to improve dietary behaviors, there has not been a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to examine the effects of school garden programs on obesity or other health outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a one-year school-based gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (called Texas Sprouts) on dietary intake, obesity outcomes, and blood pressure in elementary school children. METHODS: This study was a school-based cluster RCT with 16 elementary schools that were randomly assigned to either the Texas Sprouts intervention (n = 8 schools) or to control (delayed intervention, n = 8 schools). The intervention was one school year long (9 months) and consisted of: a) Garden Leadership Committee formation; b) a 0.25-acre outdoor teaching garden; c) 18 student gardening, nutrition, and cooking lessons taught by trained educators throughout the school-year; and d) nine monthly parent lessons. The delayed intervention was implemented the following academic year and received the same protocol as the intervention arm. Child outcomes measured were anthropometrics (i.e., BMI parameters, waist circumference, and body fat percentage via bioelectrical impedance), blood pressure, and dietary intake (i.e., vegetable, fruit, and sugar sweetened beverages) via survey. Data were analyzed with complete cases and with imputations at random. Generalized weighted linear mixed models were used to test the intervention effects and to account for clustering effect of sampling by school. RESULTS: A total of 3135 children were enrolled in the study (intervention n = 1412, 45%). Average age was 9.2 years, 64% Hispanic, 47% male, and 69% eligible for free and reduced lunch. The intervention compared to control resulted in increased vegetable intake (+ 0.48 vs. + 0.04 frequency/day, p = 0.02). There were no effects of the intervention compared to control on fruit intake, sugar sweetened beverages, any of the obesity measures or blood pressure. CONCLUSION: While this school-based gardening, nutrition, and cooking program did not reduce obesity markers or blood pressure, it did result in increased vegetable intake. It is possible that a longer and more sustained effect of increased vegetable intake is needed to lead to reductions in obesity markers and blood pressure. CLINICAL TRIALS NUMBER: NCT02668744 .


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Dieta , Jardinagem/educação , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Jardinagem/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Texas/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 517-524, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515017

RESUMO

The use of classic nonparametric tests (cNPTs), such as the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, in the presence of unequal variance for between-group comparisons of means and medians may lead to marked increases in the rate of falsely rejecting null hypotheses and decreases in statistical power. Yet, this practice remains prevalent in the scientific literature, including nutrition and obesity literature. Some nutrition and obesity studies use a cNPT in the presence of unequal variance (i.e., heteroscedasticity), sometimes because of the mistaken rationale that the test corrects for heteroscedasticity. Herein, we discuss misconceptions of using cNPTs in the presence of heteroscedasticity. We then discuss assumptions, purposes, and limitations of 3 common tests used to test for mean differences between multiple groups, including 2 parametric tests: Fisher's ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA; and 1 cNPT: the Kruskal-Wallis test. To document the impact of heteroscedasticity on the validity of these tests under conditions similar to those used in nutrition and obesity research, we conducted simple simulations and assessed type I error rates (i.e., false positives, defined as incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis). We demonstrate that type I error rates for Fisher's ANOVA, which does not account for heteroscedasticity, and Kruskal-Wallis, which tests for differences in distributions rather than means, deviated from the expected significance level. Greater deviation from the expected type I error rate was observed as the heterogeneity increased, especially in the presence of an imbalanced sample size. We provide brief tutorial guidance for authors, editors, and reviewers to identify appropriate statistical tests when test assumptions are violated, with a particular focus on cNPTs.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Ciências da Nutrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Nutrition ; 82: 111060, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to provide bibliometric and Altmetric overviews and visualization and to evaluate the correlation between traditional bibliometric and Altmetric analyses in the field of malnutrition. METHODS: Articles published in the past decade were identified by searching for the term "malnutrition" on the Web of Science indexing database and research platform. The top 50 cited articles were analyzed in terms of title, study type, topic of study, first author, publication year, citation number, keywords, organizations, average citations per year, journal H index, impact factor, and Altmetric attention score. Also, the top 50 Altmetric articles published in the past decade about malnutrition were provided on the website Altmetric.com. RESULTS: Among the top 50 cited articles, the most common study type, topic of study, publication year, and keyword were, respectively, original scientific paper (n = 26), definition-diagnosis of malnutrition (n = 17), 2010 (n = 13), and malnutrition (n = 18). The article titled "Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries" in Lancet had the highest citation number, and the article "Impacts of COVID-19 on childhood malnutrition and nutrition-related mortality" in Lancet had the highest Altmetric score. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating academic publications with an Altmeric analysis in addition to a traditional bibliometric analysis is beneficial because Altmetric attention scores can give information about what the population wants to know about malnutrition and allows us to develop appropriate policies.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Desnutrição , Ciências da Nutrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos
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