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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 219, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103455

RESUMO

¿Se puede ver el problema de la desnutrición y la alimentación desde el punto de vista ético? Se trata de un dilema o de una contradicción, revisaremos los conceptos de ética, moral y valor. Consideraremos el reto de ser ético al usar las Redes Sociales y la posibilidad de pensar en la Nutrición Virtual(AU)


Can we see the problem of malnutrition and nutrition from an ethical point of view? It is a dilemma or a contradiction, we will review the concepts of ethics, morals and value. We will consider the challenge of being ethical when using Social Networks and the possibility of thinking about Virtual Nutrition.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pobreza/história , Classe Social , Consumo de Alimentos , Ciências da Nutrição/ética , Rede Social , Direitos Humanos
6.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47491

RESUMO

Revista de Nutrição é uma publicação bimestral do Centro de Ciências da Vida da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas. Publica trabalhos que contribuem para o estudo da Nutrição em suas diversas subáreas e interfaces; está aberta a contribuições da comunidade científica nacional e internacional. Desde 2015 a Revista é publicada apenas no formato eletrônico.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Revistas Eletrônicas , Publicação de Acesso Aberto
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-of-1 designs gain popularity in nutritional research because of the improving technological possibilities, practical applicability and promise of increased accuracy and sensitivity, especially in the field of personalized nutrition. This move asks for a search of applicable statistical methods. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the differences of three popular statistical methods in analyzing treatment effects of data obtained in N-of-1 designs. METHOD: We compare Individual-participant data meta-analysis, frequentist and Bayesian linear mixed effect models using a simulation experiment. Furthermore, we demonstrate the merits of the Bayesian model including prior information by analyzing data of an empirical study on weight loss. RESULTS: The linear mixed effect models are to be preferred over the meta-analysis method, since the individual effects are estimated more accurately as evidenced by the lower errors, especially with lower sample sizes. Differences between Bayesian and frequentist mixed models were found to be small, indicating that they will lead to the same results without including an informative prior. CONCLUSION: For empirical data, the Bayesian mixed model allows the inclusion of prior knowledge and gives potential for population based and personalized inference.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Metanálise como Assunto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Tamanho da Amostra
8.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 8(1): 1-12, Apr., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1100200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Diabetes Mellitus , Ciências da Nutrição , Hipertensão , Endocrinologia
9.
Univ. salud ; 22(1): 84-90, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1094583

RESUMO

Introducción: La alimentación adecuada es fundamental para el desarrollo físico e intelectual pleno de los niños. Objetivo: Analizar el patrón de consumo de verduras en una población infantil de Pamplona, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una investigación cualitativa mediante la metodología de discusión grupo focal con la participación de madres de familia de un hogar infantil. La información fue analizada a través de la propuesta de Attride-Stirling. Resultados: Las participantes consideraron que el consumo de verduras es importante e influye positivamente en el estado de salud. El consumo es afectado por la baja cantidad y poca frecuencia de suministro, preferencias limitadas por algunas preparaciones, ejemplo inadecuado en padres de familia. La frecuencia de compra, el lugar, precio y características organolépticas, son factores que condicionan la compra de verduras en el hogar. Se mencionaron estrategias positivas y negativas para incentivar la ingesta en los niños. Conclusiones: Las madres tienen conocimientos asertivos sobre el consumo de verduras y su relación con la salud en los niños. La cantidad consumida es inadecuada puesto que difiere de las recomendaciones establecidas. Los elogios, animación y compañía de padres para incentivar su consumo son estrategias positivas, aunque utilizan el castigo y el premio.


Introduction: Adequate nutrition is fundamental for the physical and intellectual development of children. Objective: To analyze the vegetable consumption pattern of a child population in Pamplona (Colombia). Materials and methods: We conducted a qualitative research with mothers that used children's day care facilities applying the focus group discussion methodology. The information was analyzed with the Attride-Stirling tool. Results: Participating mothers considered that vegetable consumption is important and has a positive effect on children's health. A poor consumption is caused by low quantity and frequency of supply, limited preferences for some food preparations, and inadequate examples set by parents. The purchasing frequency, place, price and organoleptic characteristics of vegetables are important factors that limit their purchase at home. Some positive and negative strategies are suggested to encourage the ingestion of vegetables in children. Conclusions: Mothers have assertive knowledge about vegetable consumption and its relation to children's health. The level of vegetable consumption was low as it differs from the established recommendations. Praise, motivation and companionship of parents are positive strategies to encourage vegetable consumption, although some prefer punishment and reward.


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Criança , Verduras , Saúde , Dieta , Ciências da Nutrição , Comportamento Alimentar
10.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 246-251, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238238

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutrition has been underrepresented in the curriculum of many medical schools and therefore physicians do not feel adequately prepared to provide dietary counselling. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of a Nutrition and Metabolism curricular unit on nutrition attitudes, knowledge and confidence on future clinical practice of medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the students enrolled in the curricular unit (2017/2018) were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing their nutritional knowledge and eating habits at the beginning and at the end of the semester (n = 310). RESULTS: Initially, students reported good eating habits and nutrition knowledge. These aspects improved at the end of the study. Moreover, students reported that they felt more confident to do dietary counselling after intervention. DISCUSSION: Most medical students answered affirmatively to all questions related with good habits or eating behaviours, and the acquisition of knowledge had an impact in specific attitudes. After the Nutrition and Metabolism classes the students felt able to provide dietary counselling in different clinical settings, but none of the students felt extremely confident about their competencies for dietary counselling. This can be due to the fact that the students involved were in the first year of the integrated master's degree in medicine, which is a preclinical year, and thus distant from the medical reality and from contact with patients. CONCLUSION: Nutrition education can have a positive impact on attitudes and eating behaviours, knowledge and in the perception of competencies for dietary counselling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Aconselhamento/educação , Currículo , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Portugal , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e43167, jan.- mar.2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103665

RESUMO

Fazer uma reflexão sobre a conjuntura brasileira relacionada à Década de Ação em Nutrição. Métodos: Ensaio desenvolvido por meio de pesquisa teórica de base bibliográfica. Resultados: A Agenda 2030 surgiu como alternativa para discutir maneiras de melhorar o quadro de necessidades humanas e as condições do meio ambiente de maneira sustentável. A nutrição tem papel de destaque nesse sentido, sendo ao menos 12 dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) relacionados ao estado nutricional. Nesse contexto, a Década de Ação em Nutrição está permeada em seis dos 17 ODS e focada no segundo que visa acabar com a fome, alcançar a segurança alimentar e nutricional, melhorar a nutrição e promover a agricultura sustentável. Como signatário da Década de Ação em Nutrição, o Brasil declarou, por meio de seis pilares, seu acordo internacional com a melhoria da qualidade da alimentação da sua população e com a promoção de um sistema alimentar sustentável. Este ensaio destaca os pilares segundo e terceiro, que enfocam a importância da cobertura universal de ações em nutrição nos sistemas de saúde e da proteção social. Realiza-se uma reflexão acerca da incorporação das ações de nutrição no sistema de saúde brasileiro e da relevância do Programa Bolsa Família na proteção social de grupos vulneráveis no país. Conclusão: Verifica-se como desafios a atuação do nutricionista, o trabalho interdisciplinar e a capacitação dos profissionais de saúde na implantação das ações de alimentação e nutrição nos serviços de saúde. Destaca-se a necessidade de mudanças estruturais no Programa Bolsa Família. (AU)


To reflect on the situation of Brazil in relation to the Decade of Action on Nutrition. Methods: Essay developed through bibliographical theoretical research. Results: The Agenda 2030 emerged as an alternative to discuss ways to improve the human needs and environmental conditions in a sustainable way. Nutrition has a prominent role in this regard, with at least 12 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) being related to nutritional status. In this context, the Decade of Action on Nutrition is permeated in six of the 17 SDGs and is the focus of the second that aims to end hunger, achieve food and nutrition security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. As a signatory of the Decade of Action on Nutrition, Brazil declared through six pillars its international agreement with the improvement of food quality of its population and with the promotion of a sustainable food system. The present essay highlights the second and third pillars, which focus on the importance of universal coverage of nutrition actions in health and social protection systems. A reflection is made about the incorporation of nutrition actions in the Brazilian health system and the relevance of the Family Allowance (Bolsa Família) Program for the social protection of vulnerable groups in the country. Conclusion: The challenges identified were the work of nutritionists, interdisciplinary work, and training of health professionals in the implementation of food and nutrition actions in health services. The need for structural changes in the Bolsa Família Program is highlighted. (AU)


Assuntos
Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Ciências da Nutrição , Política Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
12.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e39761, jan.- mar.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095648

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever o processo de construção de um QFA quantitativo segundo a classificação de alimentos NOVA, para avaliação do consumo habitual de escolares de 9-10 anos de idade. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo metodológico realizado com alunos de uma escola municipal de ensino básico. A lista de alimentos que integra o QFA foi construída a partir da aplicação do recordatório de 24 horas, em triplicata, em dias alternados da semana. Foram incluídos os alimentos que respondiam pelo fornecimento de 95% de energia, carboidratos, proteínas, lipídeos e fibras ingeridos pelos entrevistados. Após a definição dos itens alimentares, estes foram agrupados de acordo com a classificação de alimentos NOVA. Resultados: Elaborou-se lista com 81 itens alimentares, na qual arroz, carne bovina e de frango foram os alimentos mais representativos entre os alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados. Os pães (francês e caseiro de diversos tipos) se destacaram entre os alimentos processados. Já as bebidas açucaradas (refrigerante e sucos em pó) foram os mais referidos entre os alimentos ultraprocessados. Conclusão: O QFA levou em consideração os hábitos alimentares da população-alvo, uma vez que a lista de itens alimentares apresentada corresponde aos alimentos habitualmente ingeridos e responsáveis por 95% do consumo de energia, macronutrientes e fibras. (AU)


Objective: To describe the development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) according to the NOVA food classification that evaluates the eating habits of 9 and 10-year-old schoolchildren. Methods: This was a methodological study carried out with primary education students at a municipal school. The food list integrating the FFQ was compiled from the application of 24-hour dietary recalls in triplicate on every other day of the week. Foods providing 95% of the energy, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and fibers ingested by the respondents were included in the list. Once the food items were identified, they were grouped according to the NOVA food classification. Results: A list of 81 food items was elaborated. Rice, beef, and chicken were the most represented of the fresh and minimally processed foods. Bread (French and various types of homemade bread) stood out among processed foods. Sugary drinks (soft drinks and powdered juices) were the most frequently mentioned ultra-processed foods. Conclusion: The FFQ took into consideration the habits of the target population, as the list of food items reflected foods commonly eaten and responsible for 95% of the energy, macronutrients, and fiber consumption. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Consumo de Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentação Escolar/normas , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Nutrição da Criança
13.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 170-175, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141594

RESUMO

Background: Nutrition education in school may positively affect students' eating behaviour. Teachers need to be empowered to teach nutrition, but no studies have investigated teachers' views on this topic in Saudi Arabia. Aims: This study investigated the perspective of teachers on nutrition education and their confidence in teaching it in boys' public high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In 2015, 80 boys' public high schools were randomly selected from four areas of Riyadh, and 80 teachers (biological sciences, physical education and health education teachers) were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. A Fisher exact test was run to test the relationship between teachers' perspective and confidence level, and their subject taught. Results: Almost all the teachers (98%) agreed that the health education curriculum should be taught as a core subject for high-school students. Most of the teachers (89%) were interested in teaching nutrition. However, 64% indicated that they did not have adequate nutrition curricular materials and 70% considered that they had not received adequate training on nutrition education. However, 89% were confident that their students would be interested in nutrition and that such education would change their dietary behaviour. Science and health education teachers were more interested in teaching nutrition and were more confident in their ability to do so than physical education teachers (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the teachers were interested in teaching nutrition but barriers existed, such as lack of training and teaching materials, which affected teachers' confidence in delivering nutrition education in their curricula.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990946

RESUMO

Earlier studies have implied a change in dietary habits of the Swedish population towards a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. Questions have been raised about the development in recent years and potential health effects. We have investigated the dietary intake of Swedish female students enrolled in a university nutrition course between 2002 and 2017. The students carried out self-reporting of all food and drink intake over one weekday and one weekend day. Intake of macronutrients (E%) and micronutrients were calculated for the whole period while statistical analysis was performed for changes between 2009 and 2017 (729 women). Results showed significant changes in carbohydrate intake (from 47.0 to 41.4 E%) and fat intake (from 31.7 to 37.5 E%). Carbohydrate intake was significantly lower than the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (45-60 E%). However, daily fiber intake remains high (3.0 g/MJ) in a national context, and intake of vitamin D and folate appears to increase during the period. The results suggest that the observed national transition from carbohydrate to fat intake persists, and that it might be especially evident among individuals interested in food and nutrition. Considering the fiber and micronutrient intake, the change is not necessarily unfavorable for this particular group.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ciências da Nutrição , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 256-265, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regression to the mean (RTM) is a statistical phenomenon where initial measurements of a variable in a nonrandom sample at the extreme ends of a distribution tend to be closer to the mean upon a second measurement. Unfortunately, failing to account for the effects of RTM can lead to incorrect conclusions on the observed mean difference between the 2 repeated measurements in a nonrandom sample that is preferentially selected for deviating from the population mean of the measured variable in a particular direction. Study designs that are susceptible to misattributing RTM as intervention effects have been prevalent in nutrition and obesity research. This field often conducts secondary analyses of existing intervention data or evaluates intervention effects in those most at risk (i.e., those with observations at the extreme ends of a distribution). OBJECTIVES: To provide best practices to avoid unsubstantiated conclusions as a result of ignoring RTM in nutrition and obesity research. METHODS: We outlined best practices for identifying whether RTM is likely to be leading to biased inferences, using a flowchart that is available as a web-based app at https://dustyturner.shinyapps.io/DecisionTreeMeanRegression/. We also provided multiple methods to quantify the degree of RTM. RESULTS: Investigators can adjust analyses to include the RTM effect, thereby plausibly removing its biasing influence on estimating the true intervention effect. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of RTM and implementation of proper statistical practices will help advance the field by improving scientific rigor and the accuracy of conclusions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Obesidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
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