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4.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(7): 636-644, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543207

RESUMO

Purpose: Culinary medicine, a combination of nutrition science and the culinary arts, is an emerging approach for teaching nutrition to medical students and improving their competence in counseling patients with diet-associated diseases. Data are, however, lacking on the impact of culinary medicine courses directed at clinically experienced students. This study reports initial outcomes of a pilot nutrition and culinary medicine course targeting 4th-year medical students. Methods: An elective course on culinary medicine was offered to 4th-year medical students at the Perelman School of Medicine, comprising seven disease-focused sessions, with a final capstone session. Students read primary literature for each session. Individual sessions consisted of culinary literacy, cooking, and a case discussion led by physicians and registered dietitians. In addition, students participated in a nutrition education initiative in a local high school. Students completed pre-and postcourse surveys that evaluated perceived nutrition knowledge and counseling skills and personal dietary choices, and included free-text options for qualitative comments. Results: Thirty-one 4th-year medical students participated in three offerings of the course in 2018 and 2019. There was strong student enthusiasm for the course as (1) all the available slots for each course offering were filled within 2 h of an e-mail announcement to the students; (2) student attendance was consistently very high; and (3) student feedback about the course was uniformly positive. Students reported significant increases in their confidence regarding (1) knowledge of pertinent nutrition information; (2) discussing nutrition with patients; and (3) ability to impact patient behavior through counseling (p < 0.001). Qualitative comments suggested that students were contemplating or implementing changes in their dietary habits and food choices. Conclusion: A culinary medicine course for clinically experienced medical students may improve perceived nutrition knowledge and increases confidence in counseling patients with diet-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Culinária , Currículo , Dieta , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Terapia Nutricional , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Competência Clínica , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos
5.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(1): 77-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To provide a questionnaire, with Shanghai medical interns as respondents, analyzing knowledge (K), attitude (A), and practice (P) in relation to clinical nutrition, and to explore factors that could affect KAP scores. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The cross- sectional study used 330 interns from Shanghai medical universities responding to general material data questionnaires and KAP questionnaires on clinical nutrition. RESULTS: The mean KAP score was 210.26±25.9 (X±SD), and the score for each part of the KAP questionnaire was just within the threshold for qualified. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors influencing the proportion of excellent scores for K were preventive medicine major (OR=3.45, p<0.001), senior intern (OR=2.52, p=0.002), and tertiary intern hospital (OR=2.31, p=0.006). The only factor influencing the proportion of excellent scores for P was accessing nutritional information one to three times per week (OR=3.95, p=0.011). Nutrition course had no relation to any scores of K, A, P. CONCLUSIONS: The mean scores of overall KAP and the individual K, A, P were all categorized as qualified. The P score was the lowest and only influenced by how frequently information was accessed. In summary, nutrition knowledge and regular practical training gained from intern hospital could be a better way to enable senior interns to quickly and competently address patient nutrition problems at the commencement of their careers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Terapia Nutricional , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(7): 1119-1132, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food preparation interventions are an increasingly popular target for hands-on nutrition education for adults, children, and families, but assessment tools are lacking. Objective data on home cooking practices, and how they are interpreted through different data collection methods, are needed. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the utility of the Healthy Cooking Index in coding multiple types of home food preparation data and elucidating healthy cooking behavior patterns. DESIGN: Parent-child dyads were recruited between October 2017 and June 2018 in Houston and Austin, Texas for this observational study. Food preparation events were observed and video recorded. Participants also wore a body camera (eButton) and completed a questionnaire during the same event. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Parents with a school-aged child were recruited as dyads (n=40). Data collection procedures took place in participant homes during evening meal preparation events. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food preparation data were collected from parents through direct observation during preparation as well as eButton and paper questionnaires completed immediately after the event. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: All data sets were analyzed using the Healthy Cooking Index coding system and compared for concordance. A paired sample t test was used to examine significant differences between the scores. Cronbach's α and principal components analysis were conducted on the observed Healthy Cooking Index items to examine patterns of cooking practices. RESULTS: Two main components of cooking practices emerged from the principal components analysis: one focused on meat products and another on health and taste enhancing practices. The eButton was more accurate in collecting Healthy Cooking Index practices than the self-report questionnaire. Significant differences were found between participant reported and observed summative Healthy Cooking Index scores (P<0.001), with no significant differences between scores computed from eButton images and observations (P=0.187). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine nutrition optimizing home cooking practices by observational, wearable camera and self-report data collection methods. By strengthening cooking behavior assessment tools, future research will be able to elucidate the transmission of cooking education through interventions and the relationships between cooking practices, disease prevention, and health.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Refeições , Pais , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar , Gravação em Vídeo
7.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(2): 203-209, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243221

RESUMO

Peer evaluation skills are not typically taught to students, yet they are expected to provide high-quality feedback to their peers. Gameful learning, a pedagogy supporting student-driven learning, can further reinforce the development of peer evaluation skills, if students are motivated to improve upon them. To better understand the effects of a peer evaluation training on the quality of student-generated peer evaluations, we scored peer evaluations from two cohorts taking a graduate-level nutritional sciences class using gameful learning pedagogy. The intervention group completed a peer evaluation training before engaging in peer reviews, while the control group did not. The training included two readings, a video, and reflection questions. The peer evaluations submitted by both the intervention and control groups were assessed on a validated rubric. The peer evaluation training had a positive effect on the quality of the submitted peer evaluations. The intervention group had a 10.8% higher score on its first submitted peer evaluation compared with controls (P = 0.003). The intervention group improved the quality of its future submissions by a further 8.9%, whereas the controls did not continue to improve substantially (P < 0.001). Overall, peer review training enhanced the quality of peer evaluations and allowed students to develop professional skills that they can utilize in any biomedical profession. Our results highlight the importance of peer evaluation training in combination with repeated practice and student-driven learning brought forth by gameful learning pedagogy in improving the quality of evaluations and developing professional skills.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Ciências da Nutrição/normas , Grupo Associado , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Universidades/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 246-251, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238238

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutrition has been underrepresented in the curriculum of many medical schools and therefore physicians do not feel adequately prepared to provide dietary counselling. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of a Nutrition and Metabolism curricular unit on nutrition attitudes, knowledge and confidence on future clinical practice of medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the students enrolled in the curricular unit (2017/2018) were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing their nutritional knowledge and eating habits at the beginning and at the end of the semester (n = 310). RESULTS: Initially, students reported good eating habits and nutrition knowledge. These aspects improved at the end of the study. Moreover, students reported that they felt more confident to do dietary counselling after intervention. DISCUSSION: Most medical students answered affirmatively to all questions related with good habits or eating behaviours, and the acquisition of knowledge had an impact in specific attitudes. After the Nutrition and Metabolism classes the students felt able to provide dietary counselling in different clinical settings, but none of the students felt extremely confident about their competencies for dietary counselling. This can be due to the fact that the students involved were in the first year of the integrated master's degree in medicine, which is a preclinical year, and thus distant from the medical reality and from contact with patients. CONCLUSION: Nutrition education can have a positive impact on attitudes and eating behaviours, knowledge and in the perception of competencies for dietary counselling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Aconselhamento/educação , Currículo , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Portugal , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Adv Nutr ; 11(2): 357-374, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173754

RESUMO

Farm to school programs (F2SPs) operate in 42% of school districts and are supported in part through federal and state policies as well as philanthropic funding. Although research evaluating the effects of farm to school-related activities on student outcomes is growing, a systematic review of the results and thus a synthesis of implications for future programming have not occurred. The primary objective of this systematic literature review is to summarize and evaluate studies on student outcomes associated with farm to school-related activities up to 1 September, 2017. Four databases spanning 4 research disciplines were used to identify full-text, English-language studies. Twenty-one studies were reviewed: 7 explicitly investigated F2SPs, and 14 evaluated the impact of school-based interventions that were relevant to activities reported in the 2013 and/or 2015 Farm to School Census. All of the F2SP studies (n = 7) and 85.7% of farm to school-related activity studies (n = 12) were multicomponent, and there was a wide variety of implemented intervention components across the reviewed studies. Results from F2SP and farm to school-related activity studies consistently show positive impacts on food and nutrition-related knowledge; most studies also suggest a positive relation between farm to school-related activities and healthy food selection during school meals, nutrition self-efficacy, and willingness to try fruits and vegetables. The impact of farm to school activities on fruit and vegetable consumption and preferences is unclear. The most common F2SP study limitations were study designs that preclude causal inference, outcome measurement with no reported or limited psychometric testing, lack of long-term outcome evaluation, and challenges related to quantifying intervention implementation. These findings underscore the need for more conclusive evidence on the relation between farm to school-related activities and changes in fruit and vegetable consumption.


Assuntos
Currículo , Dieta Saudável , Fazendas , Assistência Alimentar , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes , Criança , Preferências Alimentares , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Frutas , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Almoço , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Verduras
10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 170-175, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141594

RESUMO

Background: Nutrition education in school may positively affect students' eating behaviour. Teachers need to be empowered to teach nutrition, but no studies have investigated teachers' views on this topic in Saudi Arabia. Aims: This study investigated the perspective of teachers on nutrition education and their confidence in teaching it in boys' public high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In 2015, 80 boys' public high schools were randomly selected from four areas of Riyadh, and 80 teachers (biological sciences, physical education and health education teachers) were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. A Fisher exact test was run to test the relationship between teachers' perspective and confidence level, and their subject taught. Results: Almost all the teachers (98%) agreed that the health education curriculum should be taught as a core subject for high-school students. Most of the teachers (89%) were interested in teaching nutrition. However, 64% indicated that they did not have adequate nutrition curricular materials and 70% considered that they had not received adequate training on nutrition education. However, 89% were confident that their students would be interested in nutrition and that such education would change their dietary behaviour. Science and health education teachers were more interested in teaching nutrition and were more confident in their ability to do so than physical education teachers (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the teachers were interested in teaching nutrition but barriers existed, such as lack of training and teaching materials, which affected teachers' confidence in delivering nutrition education in their curricula.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração
11.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012993

RESUMO

The internet is the fastest growing source of nutrition information for consumers. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide and avenue for nutrition professionals' urgent need to respond to consumer demand for low-cost, accessible and engaging information. This research aimed to evaluate learner participation and perceptions in an evidence-based nutrition MOOC and provide recommendations for engaging international online lay audiences. Learners completed pre and post course surveys including quantitative and open-ended questions. Pre-course surveys collected demographic data, prior nutrition knowledge and motivations for doing the course. Post-course surveys evaluated their preferred learning modes and learners' opinions of the course. Quantitative were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Conventional content analysis was conducted on learners' responses to open-ended survey questions using an inductive approach. Learners represented 158 countries from a range of educational backgrounds. There were 3799 qualitative comments related to learners' learning and course content preferences. Qualitative analysis identified key themes related to (1) online interaction, the (2) value of the evidence presented by nutrition experts and (3) the course structure and practical aspects. Divergent opinions were expressed within these themes. Satisfying the needs of large international audiences with diverse backgrounds is challenging in promoting sound evidence-based nutrition messages. MOOCs provide a means for delivering evidence based global nutrition education in the online space crowded with food advertising and nutrition conjecture. Recommendations are made as to how to construct and engage diverse on-line audiences.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Educação em Saúde , Internet , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012994

RESUMO

Research suggests national dietary guidelines are losing public resonance, with consumers actively seeking alternate nutrition advice from unregulated online platforms that often propagate misinformation. Improved diet quality can beneficially affect inflammation, and with science relating to nutrition and inflammation also appealing to consumers, this emerging topic provides an opportunity to consider how novel engagement strategies can be used to increase public support of expert-generated advice. This study aimed to qualitatively explore MOOC learners' perceptions and experiences of following diets believed to help manage inflammation. Data were collected from an evidence-based nutrition-focused Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), which included a unit titled Foods and Inflammation. The Framework method was used to analyze 12,622 learner comments, taken from the MOOC's online discussion forum and questionnaire. Learners identified avoidance of core food groups, such as dairy and grains, as key in managing inflammation. Dietary advice came mainly from the internet, and health professionals reportedly lacked an appreciation of the learners' underlying nutrition knowledge, providing oversimplified advice that did not satisfy their scientific curiosity. To help build consumer trust and increase engagement, health professionals need to consider innovative education strategies that utilize novel topics such as nutrition and inflammation, in a safe and accurate manner.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Inflamação/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Comunicação , Avaliação Educacional , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem
13.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106539

RESUMO

The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic disease is increasing. Doctors in primary care are ideally placed to support patient nutrition care, but recent reviews show education is still lacking. This study aimed to identify medical students' attitudes towards the role of nutrition in health, nutrition knowledge, and perceptions of nutrition education, in postgraduate (Australia) and undergraduate (New Zealand) programs in order to identify gaps in nutrition knowledge and skills to better inform future education. Second-year graduate and third-year undergraduate students participated in semi-structured focus groups and interviews. A general inductive approach was used to investigate students' 1) attitudes toward the role of nutrition in health, 2) nutrition knowledge based on nutrition-specific competencies and 3) perceived adequacy of nutrition education received. Interviews (nine) and focus groups (seven) identified four common themes: 1) role of medical practitioners in nutrition care, 2) barriers to nutrition education, 3) nutrition knowledge, and 4) nutrition-related skills. Students perceive that doctors are well-placed to provide some level of nutrition care, but poor translation of nutrition knowledge to clinical contexts is a key limitation in nutrition education. In summary, nutrition education may be insufficient to support the nutrition-related competency development of the undergraduate and postgraduate student participants in this study. Focusing on the integration of these skills into the curriculum may be a priority.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Competência Clínica , Terapia Nutricional , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Austrália , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(7): 1163-1171, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rural Americans have higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than urban populations and more limited access to behavioral programs to promote healthy lifestyle habits. Descriptive evidence from the Rural Lifestyle Intervention Treatment Effectiveness trial delivered through local cooperative extension service offices in rural areas previously identified that behavioral modification with both nutrition education and coaching resulted in a lower program delivery cost per kilogram of weight loss maintained at 2-years compared with an education-only comparator intervention. OBJECTIVE: This analysis extended earlier Rural Lifestyle Intervention Treatment Effectiveness trial research regarding weight loss outcomes to assess whether nutrition education with behavioral coaching delivered through cooperative extension service offices is cost-effective relative to nutrition education only in reducing T2D cases in rural areas. DESIGN: A cost-utility analysis was conducted. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Trial participants (n=317) from June 2008 through June 2014 were adults residing in rural Florida counties with a baseline body mass index between 30 and 45, but otherwise identified as healthy. INTERVENTION: Trial participants were randomly assigned to low, moderate, or high doses of behavioral coaching with nutrition education (ie, 16, 32, or 48 sessions over 24 months) or a comparator intervention that included 16 sessions of nutrition education without coaching. Participant glycated hemoglobin level was measured at baseline and the end of the trial to assess T2D status. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: T2D categories by treatment arm were used to estimate participants' expected annual health care expenditures and expected health-related utility measured as quality adjusted life years (ie, QALYs) over a 5-year time horizon. Discounted incremental costs and QALYs were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for each behavioral coaching intervention dose relative to the education-only comparator. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Using a third-party payer perspective, Markov transition matrices were used to model participant transitions between T2D states. Replications of the individual participant behavior were conducted using Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: All three doses of the behavioral coaching intervention had lower expected total costs and higher estimated QALYs than the education-only comparator. The moderate dose behavioral coaching intervention was associated with higher estimated QALYs but was costlier than the low dose; the moderate dose was favored over the low dose with willingness to pay thresholds over $107,895/QALY. The low dose behavioral coaching intervention was otherwise favored. CONCLUSIONS: Because most rural Americans live in counties with cooperative extension service offices, nutrition education with behavioral coaching programs similar to those delivered through this trial may be effective and efficient in preventing or delaying T2D-associated consequences of obesity for rural adults.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Feminino , Florida , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Educação em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nutr Diet ; 77(1): 121-130, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957210

RESUMO

AIM: Dietetic intervention delivered by Accredited Practising Dietitians is demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the accessibility to dietetic intervention for people with type 2 diabetes in Australia. METHODS: Prevalence data and dietitian workforce distribution data were sourced from Diabetes Australia and Dietitians Association of Australia, respectively. Geographical information system mapping and statistical analysis were used to compare the ratios of dietitians to people with type 2 diabetes across the states of Australia and by index of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage in each state. RESULTS: An inequitable distribution of the dietetic workforce and that of the people with type 2 diabetes across Australia was demonstrated. An uneven distribution of the workforce is evidenced across states when compared to the distribution of type 2 diabetes prevalence; with New South Wales having a better ratio than Victoria and South Australia. Maps and prevalence data revealed the dietetic workforce was mostly concentrated in affluent urban centres whereas the type 2 diabetes prevalence rates were higher in rural and remote areas and in areas of lower socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: This research highlights the need to address the limited access to dietetic intervention for those in rural, remote and disadvantaged areas which also have the greatest need. The financial burden of treating diabetic complications on the national health budget necessitates government initiatives. These should include better use of telehealth dietetic consultations and incentives for dietitians to work in rural, remote and disadvantaged areas.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Serviços de Dietética , Dietética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Serviços de Alimentação , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Nutricionistas , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , População Rural , Telemedicina , Recursos Humanos
16.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(1): 61-80, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important. The quantity and quality of formalized nutrition education is shrinking in curricula of health professions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of general nutrition knowledge in students enrolled in the B.Sc. degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics in Spain and already graduated dieticians, and compare knowledge status across different occupations. The secondary aim was to investigate the variation in knowledge among the cohort according to academic year, years of experience and area of expertise. METHODS: Food and Nutritional Sciences students, dieticians and other health professionals in Spain were invited to participate in an online survey in 2018. The questionnaire comprised 7 relevant socio-demographic questions and 16 items related to personal beliefs and dietary aspects, eating recommendations, degrees of evidence and studies funding. Subjects were divided into different groups for analysis, according to discipline, academic year, years of experience and area of expertise. RESULTS: 364 subjects participated in the study. Overall, dieticians suggested there is no ideal distribution of macronutrients along the day, Harvard plate is the guide with the greatest scientific support for the Spanish population and agreed on meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to be the study type with the greatest degree of evidence. 44.5% of dieticians asserted that studies financed by the industry have no credibility or reliability and he most experienced ones (>20 years' experience) agreed that pharmaceutical industry and food industry with high conflict of interest were the source of funding of high impact studies. On the other hand, students believed university contributes an outdated knowledge in the majority of the content. Freshmen and sophomore students supported eating 4-5 times/day, while juniors and seniors would personalize the recommendation depending on the patient. CONCLUSION: The general nutrition knowledge level appeared to be disparate between students and practicing dieticians. Overall knowledge was influenced by discipline, academic year and area of expertise. Strategies to fill the gaps in nutrition education are needed


ANTECEDENTES: La aplicación de conocimientos y habilidades nutricionales a todos los aspectos de la atención médica es extremadamente importante. La cantidad y calidad de la educación nutricional formalizada se está reduciendo en los planes de estudio de las profesiones de la salud. OBJETIVO: Describir el nivel de conocimiento general de nutrición en estudiantes matriculados en Nutrición Humana y Dietética en España y dietistas ya graduados, y comparar el estado del conocimiento en diferentes ocupaciones. El objetivo secundario fue investigar la variación en el conocimiento entre la cohorte según el año académico, años de experiencia y área de especialización. MÉTODOS: Se invitó a estudiantes de ciencias de la alimentación y nutrición, dietistas y otros profesionales de la salud en España a participar en una encuesta en línea en 2018. El cuestionario constaba de 7 preguntas sociodemográficas relevantes y 16 ítems relacionados con creencias personales y aspectos dietéticos, recomendaciones alimentarias, títulos de evidencia y financiación de estudios. Los sujetos se dividieron en diferentes grupos para su análisis, según la disciplina, el año académico, los años de experiencia y el área de especialización. RESULTADOS: 364 sujetos participaron en el estudio. En general, los dietistas sugirieron que no hay una distribución ideal de macronutrientes a lo largo del día, la placa de Harvard es la guía con el mayor respaldo científico para la población española y acordó que el metanálisis de ensayos clínicos aleatorios sea el tipo de estudio con mayor grado de evidencia. El 44.5% de los dietistas afirmaron que los estudios financiados por la industria no tienen credibilidad o confiabilidad y los más experimentados (> 20 años de experiencia) estuvieron de acuerdo en que la industria farmacéutica y la industria alimentaria con alto conflicto de intereses fueron la fuente de financiación de los estudios de alto impacto. Por otro lado, los estudiantes creían que la universidad aporta un conocimiento desactualizado en la mayoría del contenido. Los estudiantes de primer año y segundo año apoyaron comer 4-5 veces / día, mientras que los estudiantes de tercer y cuarto año personalizarían la recomendación según el paciente. CONCLUSIÓN: El nivel general de conocimiento de nutrición parecía ser disparejo entre los estudiantes y los dietistas practicantes. El conocimiento general estuvo influenciado por la disciplina, el año académico y el área de especialización. Se necesitan estrategias para llenar los vacíos en la educación nutricional


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
17.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 59(2): 78-86, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the current practice of nutritional group programmes, the need for further development and training needs of the nutritional teams in medical rehabilitation in Germany. METHODS: 546 psychosomatic and somatic inpatient rehabilitation clinics were contacted. 192 clinics and 202 teams of nutritionists took part in the questionnaire survey. RESULTS: In 89% of the clinics one nutritional team is responsible for all rehabilitation patients. Teams are responsible for an average of 3,4 indication groups (SD=2,4). They report group programms of M=4,9 performance units (SD=1,6). 56% of the group programmes (n=998; nutritional training group, seminar, lecture, unit of an educational programme) are applied across indications. 73% comprise only one unit, the duration is usually up to 60 minutes (93%). 76% of the groups have ≤ 15 participants, and 93% are at least partially manual-based. On average 5,8 topics (SD=1,5), 1,9 didactic methods (SD=0,8) and 1,9 materials (SD=0,9) are reported. In part, there are differences between programme units. The number of participants and the number of sessions showed significant correlations to didactic methods and materials. Programmes conducted in larger groups (>15 participants) or single sessions used more lectures, whereas programmes comprising less participants or several sessions used more interactive methods and materials. For further development, flexible combinable modules are seen as more helpful than completely manualised group concepts. Main concepts should focus on motivation and behaviour change in everyday life as well as healthy eating in different life situations. There is a high interest in advanced training (M=8,5; SD=2,2; maximum=10) with a preference for attendance-based seminars. Prefered contents are motivation, behaviour change in everyday life, and management of difficult group situations. CONCLUSION: Current practice comprises a variety of nutritional group programmes with substantial heterogeneity between the nutritional teams. Therefore, separate modules which can be used for different programmes as well as trainings adressing particularly issues such as motivation and behaviour change in everyday life may be useful for further development and improvement.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Reabilitação , Alemanha , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nutr Diet ; 77(1): 151-159, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854509

RESUMO

AIM: Systematic reviews (SRs) are a core component of evidence-based practice and are widely used in developing nutrition policy. This study aimed to examine nutrition professionals and students' perceptions, barriers and use of SRs. A secondary aim was to examine confidence using and conducting SRs. METHODS: A self-administered online survey was developed, pilot-tested and implemented via SurveyMonkey. The survey consisted of 29 items separated into demographics, perceptions, use, and knowledge of SRs, confidence in using and conducting SRs, and barriers to use and conduct of SRs. The survey was disseminated via professional newsletters and social media. RESULTS: Ninety-four nutrition professionals/students completed the survey. Survey results indicated respondents valued SRs, with SRs used most commonly to update knowledge. While most respondents (67%) were confident in using SRs, many (59%) expressed a lack of confidence in conducting a SR. In particular, few respondents (12%) reported confidence in conducting meta-analyses. The majority of respondents were aware that SRs underpinned guidelines and nutrition resources, however, few (21%) respondents identified that self-substantiation of health claims were based on SRs. Time, access to scientific database, lack of workplace support and confidence were the main barriers to SRs use. CONCLUSIONS: SRs were reported as being valued by nutrition professionals and students, though time constraints, a lack of confidence and organisations which did not prioritise research were barriers to conducting SRs. The findings of this survey highlight a need for training and education as potential strategies to promote SR engagement in nutrition professionals and students.


Assuntos
Nutricionistas/educação , Percepção , Estudantes , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dietética/educação , Humanos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Nutricionistas/classificação , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
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