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3.
Drugs ; 79(9): 929-934, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114975

RESUMO

The field of 'nutritional psychiatry' has evolved with rapidity over the past several years, with an increasing amount of dietary or nutrient-based (nutraceutical) intervention studies being initiated, and more preclinical and epidemiological data being available. This emergent paradigm involves the clinical consideration (where appropriate) of prescriptive dietary modification/improvement, and/or the select judicious use of nutrient-based supplementation to prevent or manage psychiatric disorders. In the last several years, significant links have increasingly been established between dietary quality and mental health (although not all data are supportive). Maternal and early-life nutrition may also affect the mental health outcomes in offspring. In respect to nutraceutical research, like with many recent conventional drug studies, results are fairly mixed across the board, and in many cases there is not emphatic evidence to support the use of nutraceuticals in various psychiatric disorders. This may in part be due to a preponderance of recent studies within the field revealing marked placebo effects. Due to current indicators pointing towards mental disorders having an increasing burden of disease, bold and innovative approaches on a societal level are now required. In light of the widespread use of nutrient supplements by those with and without mental disorders, it is also critical that scientifically rigorous methodologies be brought to bear on the assessment of the efficacy of these supplements, and to determine if, or what dose of, a nutrient supplement is required, for whom, and when, and under what circumstances. More simple studies of additional isolated nutrients are not of great benefit to the field (unless studied in supra-dosage in an individualised, biomarker-guided manner), nor, based on recent data, is the research of 'shotgun' formulations of nutraceuticals. The next critical step for the field is to design psychiatric interventional studies for both dietary modification and nutraceuticals, based on more of a personalised medicine approach, using biomarkers (e.g. nutrient deficiencies, inflammatory cytokine levels, genomic assessment, microbiome analysis) and a person's dietary patterns and individual macro/micronutrient requirements.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Psiquiatria/tendências
4.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(5): 291-296, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Spain, the system used to select a medical specialty is the MIR (internal resident physician) exam. The MIR selection number may reflect the interest in a given specialty. Our study objective was to confirm the increase in the selection number and to analyze possible factors influencing the decision. MATERIAL AND METHOD: To analyze change over time in the MIR number with which this specialty is chosen and to compare it with other related specialties, as well as the reasons why it is preferred using an anonymous survey to 108 MIRs of endocrinology. RESULTS: The average number of MIR for Endocrinology and Nutrition has gradually increased to 2336 in year 2018, a trend that coincides with an increase in the number of places offered but is more marked as compared to other medical specialties. Respondents weighed different factors when choosing specialty. When asked about the most positive aspects of the specialty, the highest rated was that day to day activity was "less intense". The most commonly mentioned negative aspect was the low number of techniques. When asked if the specialty had met their expectations, respondents gave an average score of 8.7, although the perceived prestige of the specialty scored only 6.7 points. CONCLUSIONS: There is an obvious deterioration of the MIR selection number of our specialty that it is not so marked in other specialties.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Endocrinologia/tendências , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Cardiologia , Estudos Transversais , Endocrinologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastroenterologia , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Internato e Residência , Ciências da Nutrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(10): 895-908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Nutritional culturomics (NCs) is a specific focus area of culturomics epistemology developing digital humanities and computational linguistics approaches to search for macro-patterns of public interest in food, nutrition and diet choice as a major component of cultural evolution. Cultural evolution is considered as a driver at the interface of environmental and food science, economy and policy. METHODS: The paper presents an epistemic programme that builds on the use of big data from webbased services such as Google Trends, Google Adwords or Google Books Ngram Viewer. RESULTS: A comparison of clearly defined NCs in terms of geography, culture, linguistics, literacy, technological setups or time period might be used to reveal variations and singularities in public's behavior in terms of adaptation and mitigation policies in the agri-food and public health sectors. CONCLUSION: The proposed NC programme is developed along major axes: (1) the definition of an NC; (2) the reconstruction of food and diet histories; (3) the nutrition related epidemiology; (4) the understanding of variability of NCs; (5) the methodological diversification of NCs; (6) the quantifiable limitations and flaws of NCs. A series of indicative examples are presented regarding these NC epistemology components.


Assuntos
Big Data , Evolução Cultural , Dieta/tendências , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Humanos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621153

RESUMO

As we move forward and continue to publish the most recent and prominent scientific findings in Nutritional Sciences for the next 10 years, the current editors-in-chief would like to take a look at the history of Nutrients[...].


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , História do Século XXI , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Espanha
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(Spec No6): 1-2, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351151
14.
Adv Nutr ; 9(6): 688-700, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184091

RESUMO

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to <10% of energy/d and replacing dietary SFAs with unsaturated fatty acids. A Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association recently released its evaluation of the relation between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and also recommended a shift from SFAs to unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in conjunction with a healthy dietary pattern. However, the suggestion to increase the intake of PUFAs in general, and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs in particular, continues to be controversial. This review was undertaken to provide an overview of the evidence and controversies regarding the effects of ω-6 PUFAs on cardiometabolic health, with emphasis on risks and risk factors for CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Results from observational studies show that higher intake of ω-6 PUFAs, when compared with SFAs or carbohydrate, is associated with lower risks for CVD events (10-30%), CVD and total mortality (10-40%), and T2D (20-50%). Findings from intervention studies on cardiometabolic risk factors suggest that ω-6 PUFAs reduce concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner compared with dietary carbohydrate, and have a neutral effect on blood pressure. Despite the concern that ω-6 fatty acids increase inflammation, current evidence from studies in humans does not support this view. In conclusion, these findings support current recommendations to emphasize consumption of ω-6 PUFAs as a replacement of SFAs; additional randomized controlled trials with cardiometabolic disease outcomes will help to more clearly define the benefits and risks of this policy.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Política Nutricional
16.
Adv Nutr ; 9(6): 655-670, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204836

RESUMO

Today, it seems that nutrition is in a state of great confusion, especially for the general public. For decades, some nutrients (e.g., cholesterol, saturated fats, sugars, gluten, salt) and food groups (e.g., dairy, cereals, meats) have been regularly denigrated. In this position paper, we hypothesize that such a state of confusion is mainly the result of the reductionist paradigm applied to nutrition research for more than a century, and by being pushed to its extreme, this perspective has led to accusations about some nutrients and foods. However, the real issue is about foods taken as a whole and therefore about their degree of processing, which affects both the food matrix and composition. Indeed, we eat whole foods, not nutrients. Therefore, the objectives of this article are to emphasize the need for more holistic approaches in nutrition to preserve our health, animal welfare, and planet. We propose to first redefine the food health potential on a holistic basis and then to show that reductionism and holism are interconnected approaches that should coexist. Then, we try to explain how extreme reductionism has been disconnected from reality and ethical considerations and has ultimately led to environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity, notably through very specific crops, and to an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Furthermore, to address the confusion of the general public and to simplify nutritional messages, we propose 3 holistic golden rules based on scientific evidence to protect human health, animal welfare, and the environment (climate and biodiversity). Finally, we try to show how these 3 rules can be easily applied worldwide while respecting the environment, cultural traditions, and heritage.


Assuntos
Ética em Pesquisa , Saúde Holística/ética , Ciências da Nutrição/ética , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos/ética , Humanos
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(n.extr.4): 3-9, sept. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181535

RESUMO

La gastronomía y las ciencias ómicas están teniendo una gran influencia sobre el presente y el futuro de la ingesta alimentaria habitual de la población. Un porcentaje muy importante de la población realiza al menos una comida fuera del hogar, y este impacto alimentario se mantiene durante un periodo prolongado de tiempo. La producción y la distribución de alimentos, así como la industria alimentaria (incluidos la hostelería y la restauración: el canal horeca), tienen una gran trascendencia en la oferta de alimentos y bebidas y en su composición e idoneidad en cantidad, calidad y precio. Sobre esta disponibilidad de alimentos el consumidor configurará su cesta de la compra y la elección de alimentos, en muchos casos por precio, comodidad, percepción sensorial e incluso por su impacto potencial en la salud. Las ciencias ómicas pueden tener una gran trascendencia en un futuro cercano, concretando la configuración de la alimentación de precisión y estimulando la investigación de nuevos alimentos y componentes que posibiliten un mejor estado de salud, una mejor funcionalidad y una mayor esperanza de vida sin discapacidad. Todo este panorama necesita un marco legislativo que asegure el principio de precaución y una óptima situación de seguridad alimentaria. En este complicado camino, la colaboración entre la ciencia, la industria, las organizaciones de consumidores y la Administración debe facilitar el objetivo de que el alimento sea una herramienta de promoción de la salud y del bienestar


The gastronomy and the Omic sciences are having a great influence on the present and the future of the habitual food intake of the population. A very large percentage of the population makes at least one meal outside the home and this food impact is maintained over an extended period of time. Food production, food industry and food distribution (including hotels and restaurants, HORECA channel) have a great importance in the supply of food and beverages, its composition and suitability in quantity, quality and price. Based on this availability of food, the consumer will make-up the shopping basket and will choose foods in many cases considering price, comfort, sensory perception and even for its potential impact on health. Omic sciences can be of great importance in the near future by specifying the configuration of the precision feed and stimulating the investigation of new foods and components that help contribute to better health, better functionality and longer life expectancy without disability. This whole panorama needs a legislative framework that ensures the precautionary principle and an optimal food safety. In this complicated way the collaboration between science, industry, consumer organizations and the administration must facilitate the objective of making food a tool for promoting health and well-being


Assuntos
Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Culinária , Política Nutricional , Restaurantes
18.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(n.extr.4): 19-27, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181537

RESUMO

Tanto la nutrigenética como la nutrigenómica son disciplinas dentro de la denominada genómica nutricional, que, en sentido amplio, proporciona el marco de integración de las distintas ómicas con las ciencias de la alimentación y nutrición. Tras décadas de estudios nutrigenéticos y nutrigenómicos, se dispone de una cantidad relevante de conocimientos para plantear su aplicación en la denominada nutrición de precisión. Esta nueva disciplina plantea que hay que tener en cuenta las características particulares de la persona para proporcionar la mejor dieta para prevenir o tratar la enfermedad. Los marcadores ómicos se consideran relevantes en dicha personalización. Existen muchos alimentos, nutrientes y patrones de dieta que se han investigado en nutrigenética y nutrigenómica; entre ellos, podemos mencionar el patrón de dieta mediterránea. A pesar de la heterogeneidad en la definición de dieta mediterránea, existen varios estudios que muestran que la dieta mediterránea puede interaccionar con el genoma, disminuyendo el riesgo de enfermedad en las personas genéticamente más susceptibles. Paralelamente, algunos estudios están mostrando los mecanismos por los que la dieta mediterránea puede ejercer este efecto protector. Conocer con más detalle la susceptibilidad genética, los mecanismos epigenéticos, la influencia del metaboloma y de otras ómicas puede ser relevante en gastronomía, entendida como la práctica del arte de elegir, cocinar y comer los alimentos. Esta influencia ómica no solo podemos encontrarla en los fenotipos de salud-enfermedad, sino también en la percepción del sabor y del olor de los alimentos (las preferencias por determinadas comidas). Todo ello, bien integrado, puede contribuir al incremento del disfrute a la vez que se sigue una alimentación saludable


Both nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are disciplines that form part of what is known as Nutritional Genomics, which, in the widest sense, provides the framework for integrating different omics with food and nutrition sciences. After decades of nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic studies, there is a large enough amount of knowledge to consider its application in so-called precision nutrition. This new discipline seeks to take into account the particular characteristics of the individual in order to provide the best diet for preventing or treating a disease. Omic markers are considered to be of importance to that personalization. There are many foods, nutrients and dietary patterns that have been researched in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, including the Mediterranean Diet pattern. Despite heterogeneity in defining the Mediterranean Diet, there are various studies that show that the Mediterranean Diet can interact with the genome, so reducing the risk of disease in the most genetically susceptible individuals. Likewise, several studies have recently been revealing the mechanisms through which the Mediterranean Diet may exercise this protective effect. Understanding genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms, the influence of the metabolome and other omics in more detail may be important in gastronomy, understood as the practice of selecting, cooking and eating food. This omic influence can not only be found in health-disease phenotypes, but also in food taste and smell perception and preferences for certain dishes. Considering all of these together may contribute to an increase in enjoying and at the same time pursuing healthy eating


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Nutrigenômica/tendências , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Tecnologia de Alimentos
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(n.extr.4): 39-43, sept. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181540

RESUMO

Durante la segunda mitad del siglo xx la nutrición se ha desarrollado de forma acelerada, basada en los conocimientos de ciencias básicas, como la bioquímica y la fisiología, y de ciencias aplicadas, como la epidemiología y la salud pública. En ese periodo se han establecido recomendaciones de nutrientes para determinados segmentos de población según su sexo, edad y condición fisiológica. No obstante, a pesar de los conocimientos generados, la desnutrición, tanto por defecto (deficiencia proteico-energética y de micronutrientes) como por exceso (sobrepeso y obesidad), representa una lacra para numerosos países. En septiembre de 2015, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas estableció los denominados Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) con el fin de "garantizar una vida sana y promover el bienestar para todos en todas las edades", y se determinaron una serie de metas específicas para la nutrición materna, la de los lactantes y la de los niños de corta edad, así como para la prevención y control de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. A pesar de que existen recomendaciones de ingesta de nutrientes a nivel poblacional, los individuos responden de forma diferente a las intervenciones en los estilos de vida a causa de que sus variantes génicas influyen en la absorción y utilización metabólica de los nutrientes. Es decir, la respuesta de un individuo a la ingesta de alimentos (y, por lo tanto, de los nutrientes) resulta de la interacción de factores metabólicos, genéticos, ambientales y sociales. La genómica nutricional es la ciencia que trata de facilitar una explicación a nivel molecular de cómo los nutrientes y otros componentes de los alimentos interaccionan con el conjunto de genes de un individuo y su repercusión sobre el estado de salud. Las herramientas de las ciencias ómicas (genómica, epigenómica, transcriptómica, proteómica y metabolómica) aplicadas a la nutrición posibilitan el desarrollo de la genómica nutricional. Mientras que el concepto de "nutrición personalizada" se refiere a la adaptación de la dieta a las necesidades y preferencias individuales, la "nutrición de precisión" predice si un individuo concreto va a responder a determinados nutrientes y patrones dietéticos, de forma que la utilización de la información genética y fenotípica del individuo puede contribuir a la prevención de la enfermedad. Uno de los mayores retos de la nutrición es posibilitar una nutrición de precisión basada en el conocimiento para contribuir así a mejorar la salud de la población y disminuir la incidencia de enfermedades crónicas


During the last half of the 20th century, Nutrition has evolved in a quick way based on the knowledge of both basic sciences as Biochemistry and Physiology and applied sciences as Epidemiology and Public Health. In that period the nutritional requirements for different population groups grouped by sex, age and physiological conditions have been established. However, in spite of the enormous knowledge in food and nutritional sciences, malnutrition by nutrient deficiencies (protein-energy undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies) and by excess of nutrient intake (overweight and obesity) continues being a critical burden and challenge for numerous countries. In September 2015, the General Assembly of the United Nations established the "Sustainable Development Goals" with the aim of "to warrant a healthy life and promote the welfare for all in all ages", and defined a number of targets to reach maternal, infant and childhood nutrition, as well as to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases. Even though there are food intake guidelines and general recommendations for population nutrient intakes, individuals respond differently to lifestyle interventions depending on their genetic variants, which in turn influence the absorption and metabolism of nutrients. Indeed, the response of an individual to food intake and nutrients is the result of the interaction of a number of metabolic, genetic, environmental and social factors. Nutritional genomics is the science trying to facilitate an explanation at molecular levels of how nutrients and other bioactive food components interact with the genes of an individual and their effects on health. The new "omics" science tools (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) applied to nutrition is currently allowing the development of nutritional genomics. While "personalized nutrition" refers to the adaptation of the diet to individual needs and preferences, "precision nutrition" predicts whether an individual is responding or not to specific nutrients and food and dietary patterns in such a way they can contribute to the prevention of disease based on the genetic information and phenotype of that particular individual. One of the biggest challenges of nutrition today is to make possible precision nutrition in order to contribute to the improvement of the population and decrease the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criança , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Promoção da Saúde , Nutrigenômica/tendências
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(n.extr.4): 70-74, sept. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181547

RESUMO

Objetivos: conocer mejor al consumidor para poder informarle, mejorar su protección y fomentar su responsabilidad, incidiendo en el papel de las organizaciones de consumidores en la alfabetización alimentaria de la población española. Métodos: más de 2.000 familias de todas las comunidades autónomas participaron en la Encuesta sobre hábitos de consumo 2016, cuyo objetivo era conocer mejor el perfil del nuevo consumidor español y fomentar el consumo responsable. Se analizan los hábitos de consumo, los factores que influyen en la compra y el nivel de información de consumidores. Resultados: el 65% de los consumidores elige el supermercado como lugar de compra habitual; la compra de productos frescos se impone al resto. Los datos reflejan hábitos alimentarios de los ciudadanos menos saludables de lo recomendable y un bajo conocimiento sobre alimentos libres de alérgenos, ecológicos o transgénicos. El 75% reconoce que la situación económica le ha obligado a cambiar en parte sus hábitos de consumo y alimentación. Lo más valorado a la hora de seleccionar un producto son la calidad y el precio, factores que junto con la proximidad del establecimiento condicionan la elección del lugar de compra. El 71% de los consumidores dicen buscar información sobre productos antes de comprarlos y encontrarla en el etiquetado. Valoran la información sobre caducidad, ingredientes, precio, lugar de origen e información nutricional. Solo el 71% diferencia entre fecha de caducidad y de consumo preferente. Conclusiones: para una asociación de consumidores, la educación nutricional no solo debe contemplar la difusión de información acerca de alimentos y nutrientes, sino también proporcionar herramientas para saber qué hacer y cómo actuar para mejorar la nutrición, creando entornos que faciliten buenas opciones alimentarias y capacidades que permitan a individuos, instituciones y empresas comprometerse con la adopción de prácticas más saludables


Objectives: to gain a better understanding about consumers in order to be able to inform them, improve their protection and promote their responsibility, emphasizing the role of consumer organizations in improving the food literacy of the Spanish population. Methods: more than 2,000 families from all the Autonomous Regions of Spain participated in the "Survey on consumer habits 2016", which aimed to better understand the profile of the new Spanish consumer and encourage responsible consumption. We analysed consumer habits, factors that influence purchase and level of information of consumers. Results: some 65% of consumers choose supermarkets as their usual place of purchase; the purchase of fresh products is imposed on the rest. The data reflect dietary habits of citizens are less healthy than recommended and little knowledge about food allergen-free, ecological or transgenic foods. About 75% acknowledge that the economic situation forced them to change partially consumption and food habits. When selecting a product, people value the most quality and price, factors that together with the proximity of the point-of-purchase influence the choice of place of purchase. 71% of consumers say they look for information about products before buying them and find it on labels. They value information on expiration date, ingredients, price, place of origin and nutritional information. Only 71% difference between expiration date and preferential consumption. Conclusions: for a consumer association, nutrition education should not only contemplate the dissemination of information about food and nutrients, but also provide tools to know what to do and how to act to improve nutrition, creating environments that provide good food options and capabilities that allow to individuals, institutions and companies to commit to adopting healthier practices


Assuntos
Humanos , Associações de Consumidores/tendências , Dieta , Educação em Saúde/tendências , Ciências da Nutrição/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar , Indústria Alimentícia , Promoção da Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde
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