Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.504
Filtrar
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 244, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198545

RESUMO

The information available on microalgae-sourced compounds, especially antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, and their potential commercial applications is still insufficient. In this study, antibacterial activity, metabolites, and molecular characterization of Phormidium autumnale, which was isolated from samples collected from different natural freshwater sources in Ankara, Turkey, were investigated. Sequencing results of 16s rDNA confirmed the molecular identification of P. autumnale by 99%. It was determined that the peak values of some phenolic compounds and cyclic peptides were consistent with the 1653-1389 cm-1 band regions in the FTIR spectra of the species. The antibacterial activities of P. autumnale cyanobacteria (CBA) extracts that were obtained by using different solvents were tested on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Enterococcus faecalis by using a disc diffusion method. Also, the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial indexes of all extracts were determined. It was found that P. autumnale methanol extracts showed antibacterial activity on all test bacteria, whereas acetone extracts showed effects only on E. coli. For the inhibition of MR S. aureus, the control methanol extract was found to give very similar results to those exhibited by the control antibiotics, and the antimicrobial index results were determined to be 58.7-67.5%. According to the results of the analysis of methanol extract, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and catechin (especially phenolic compounds) were determined to be the active compounds. It can be concluded that P. autumnale is an alternative to current commercial applications as an antibacterial agent in phytotherapy.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Escherichia coli , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Turquia
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(6): 3219-3227, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077281

RESUMO

Human release of reactive nitrogen (N) to the environment has increased 10-fold since 1860 and is expected to increase by a further ∼75% by 2050. Much of this N enters phosphorus (P)-rich, eutrophic lakes in agricultural and urbanized watersheds. While N pollution of eutrophic lakes can promote toxic cyanobacterial growth, some cases of extreme N loading have led to the dominance of chlorophytes (green algae). As N loads required to shift communities from cyanobacterial to chlorophyte dominance are unclear, we experimentally tested phytoplankton responses to a gradient of N loading in a P-rich lake. Low-to-moderate doses (1-3 mg N L-1 week-1) promoted toxic cyanobacterial dominance and elevated concentrations of the hepatotoxin microcystin. Conversely, loads characteristic of pure urban or agricultural effluents (up to 18 mg N L-1 week-1) led to the dominance of chlorophytes over cyanobacteria and lower microcystin content. This indicates that N loads needed to sustain chlorophyte dominance are uncommon, likely restricted to select shallow lakes directly exposed to urban or agricultural effluents. As most N pollution regimes in P-rich lakes will favor toxic cyanobacterial dominance, restricting future N pollution will help curb further cyanobacterial dominance in lakes both directly and by constraining the capacity for future P loading and climate warming to drive cyanobacterial growth.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Lagos , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 113, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938950

RESUMO

The present study provides a detailed analysis of the factors influencing variation in cyanobacterial communities of a large shallow off-river drinking water reservoir on the east coast of Australia. Receiving multiple inflows from two unprotected mixed land-use catchments, the Grahamstown Reservoir is a model example of a reservoir which is highly vulnerable to adverse water quality issues, including phytoplankton blooms and the resulting filtration, toxin and taste and odour problems produced. The spatial and temporal distributions of cyanobacteria were assessed for a period of 3 years (January 2012-December 2014) based on samples collected from three monitoring stations within the reservoir. Relationships between cyanobacterial abundance and a range of environmental factors were evaluated by application of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis.Results of the analysis indicated that among the 22 physico-chemical variables and 14 cyanobacterial taxa measured, the vertical temperature gradient within the water column and nutrient availability were the most powerful explanatory factors for the observed temporal and spatial distribution patterns in the densities of cyanobacterial taxa. The abundance patterns of the dominant cyanobacterial taxa-Aphanocapsa, Aphanothece, Microcystis and Pseudanabaena-were strongly linked with rainfall and run-off patterns into the reservoir, while Coelosphaerium and Microcystis were the taxa most influenced by the apparent occurrence of thermal stratification. The findings demonstrate the capacity of rigorous multivariate data analysis to identify more subtle relationships between water quality variables, catchment factors and cyanobacterial growth in drinking water reservoirs.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Água Potável , Austrália , Água Potável/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Água Doce , Microbiologia da Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 134654, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905575

RESUMO

Biocrusts are an important drylands landscape component, which enriches the upper millimeters of the soil with organic matter and initiates biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the influence of biocrusts on soil bacterial community structure and diversity. Different biocrust types representing a successional gradient were studied. This gradient, from the earliest to the latest successional stages, consisted of an incipient cyanobacterial biocrust < mature cyanobacterial biocrusts < biocrust dominated by the Squamarina lentigera and Diploschistes diacapsis lichens < Biocrust characterized by the Lepraria isidiata lichen. Moreover, in each biocrust type, four different percentages of biocrust cover were also selected. Soil diversity gradually increased with biocrust successional stage and percentage of biocrust cover. The biocrust cover had an important role in the total abundance of bacteria, generally increasing in soils colonized by the highest percentages of cover. Biocrust successional stage was the most important factor, significantly influencing 108 soil bacteria genera, whereas biocrust cover showed significant differences in only 10 genera. Principal Component Analysis showed contrasting microbial composition across the biocrust successional gradient. Some bacterial taxa were dominant in the soil colonized by different biocrust types. Thus, Leptolyngbya, Rubrobacter, Solirubrobacter, Geodermatophilus, etc., were more abundant in incipient cyanobacteria; Nostocales, Chroococcidiopsaceae, Coleofasciculaceae etc., under mature cyanobacterial biocrusts; Truepera, Sphingobacteriaceae, Actinophytocola, Kribella, etc., below the S. lentigera and D. diacapsis community, and Bryobacter, Ohtaekwangia, Opitutus, Pedosphaeraceae, etc., in soils colonized by L. isidiata. Several soil bacteria taxa showed significant correlations (p < 0.05) with chemical soil properties (pH, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, available phosphorous and electrical conductivity). We discuss the role of biocrusts influencing these chemical soil parameters, including the presence of certain metabolites secreted by biocrusts, and also their effects on soil moisture and several physical soil features, as well as their association with different microclimates, all of which could favor a more selective environment for certain bacteria.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Briófitas , Cianobactérias , Ecossistema , Líquens , Solo
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(6): 3386-3394, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961660

RESUMO

Although the fate of nanoplastics (<100 nm) in freshwater systems is increasingly well studied, much less is known about its potential threats to cyanobacterial blooms, the ultimate phenomenon of eutrophication occurrence worldwide. Previous studies have evaluated the consequences of nanoplastics increasing the membrane permeability of microbes, however, there is no direct evidence for interactions between nanoplastics and microcystin; intracellular hepatotoxins are produced by some genera of cyanobacteria. Here, we show that the amino-modified polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NH2) promote microcystin synthesis and release from Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant species causing cyanobacterial blooms, even without the change of coloration. We demonstrate that PS-NH2 inhibits photosystem II efficiency, reduces organic substance synthesis, and induces oxidative stress, enhancing the synthesis of microcystin. Furthermore, PS-NH2 promotes the extracellular release of microcystin from M. aeruginosa via transporter protein upregulation and impaired cell membrane integrity. Our findings propose that the presence of nanoplastics in freshwater ecosystems might enhance the threat of eutrophication to aquatic ecology and human health.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcystis , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Microcistinas
6.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996419

RESUMO

We conducted a global characterization of the microbial communities of shipping ports to serve as a novel system to investigate microbial biogeography. The community structures of port microbes from marine and freshwater habitats house relatively similar phyla, despite spanning large spatial scales. As part of this project, we collected 1,218 surface water samples from 604 locations across eight countries and three continents to catalogue a total of 20 shipping ports distributed across the East and West Coast of the United States, Europe, and Asia to represent the largest study of port-associated microbial communities to date. Here, we demonstrated the utility of machine learning to leverage this robust system to characterize microbial biogeography by identifying trends in biodiversity across broad spatial scales. We found that for geographic locations sharing similar environmental conditions, subpopulations from the dominant phyla of these habitats (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria) can be used to differentiate 20 geographic locations distributed globally. These results suggest that despite the overwhelming diversity within microbial communities, members of the most abundant and ubiquitous microbial groups in the system can be used to differentiate a geospatial location across global spatial scales. Our study provides insight into how microbes are dispersed spatially and robust methods whereby we can interrogate microbial biogeography.IMPORTANCE Microbes are ubiquitous throughout the world and are highly diverse. Characterizing the extent of variation in the microbial diversity across large geographic spatial scales is a challenge yet can reveal a lot about what biogeography can tell us about microbial populations and their behavior. Machine learning approaches have been used mostly to examine the human microbiome and, to some extent, microbial communities from the environment. Here, we display how supervised machine learning approaches can be useful to understand microbial biodiversity and biogeography using microbes from globally distributed shipping ports. Our findings indicate that the members of globally dominant phyla are important for differentiating locations, which reduces the reliance on rare taxa to probe geography. Further, this study displays how global biogeographic patterning of aquatic microbial communities (and other systems) can be assessed through populations of the highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa that dominant the system.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Biodiversidade , Cianobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/classificação , Microbiologia da Água , Ásia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Europa (Continente) , Água Doce/microbiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Microbiota , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Navios , Estados Unidos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135756, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940734

RESUMO

In cyanobacteria bloom-affected areas, drinking water treatment processes are optimized to ensure the absence of cyanotoxins in their finished water. A concern about the sludge generated from water treatment has emerged because the removed cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria can get concentrated in the sludge, called water treatment residuals (WTR), and these WTR are often applied on land for beneficial purposes. However, the impact of WTR from bloom-affected areas on the agricultural application and public health is hardly reported. The objective of this study was to characterize bloom-affected WTR by focusing on cyanotoxins, toxin-producing cyanobacteria, microbiomes, and resistome profiles. In addition, the fate of WTR-originated microcystin in crops and soil was examined. WTR samples were obtained from a bloom-affected area in Ohio, USA in November 2017. Cyanotoxins and toxin-producing cyanobacteria were quantified with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and droplet digital PCR, respectively. Microbiome and resistome were determined with Nanopore sequencing. Cyanotoxin concentrations were measured: microcystin (259 µg/kg), saxitoxin (0.16 µg/kg), anatoxin-a (not detected), and ß-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) (575 µg/kg). MC-producing cyanobacteria concentrations were determined: Planktothrix (5.3 × 107 gene copies/g) and Microcystis (3.3 × 103 gene copies/g). Proteobacteria was the most predominant and Planktothrix phage was a remarkably dominant virus in the WTR microbiome. Aminoglycoside resistance was the most abundant class, and antibiotic resistance was found in multiple pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium). WTR land application was simulated by growing carrots with a mixture of WTR and soil in a greenhouse. At harvest, ~80% of WTR-originated microcystin was found in the soil (83-96 µg/kg) and 5% accumulated in carrots (19-28 µg/kg). This study provides the first insight into the cyanotoxin, microbiome, and resistome profile of bloom-affected WTR. Our finding suggests that careful WTR management is needed for the beneficial use of WTR for protecting agricultural environments, especially soil and groundwater, and food safety.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cianobactérias , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Purificação da Água , Toxinas Bacterianas , Água Potável , Eutrofização , Microcistinas , Microcystis , Ohio
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122758, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986373

RESUMO

Cultivating sand-consolidating cyanobacteria using wastewater has unique advantages on both nutrients recycling and ecological restoration by transferring excessive nutrients from wastewaters to desert areas. Although previous study showed that sand-consolidating cyanobacterium well adapted to synthetic domestic wastewater, no study has been carried out on actual wastewater. This study aims to investigate the sand-consolidating cyanobacterial biomass production and nutrients removal by cultivating Scytonema hyalinum in the municipal wastewater under different temperatures. The results showed that biomass accumulation increased with temperature from 20 â„ƒ to 30 â„ƒ, while severely depressed at 35 â„ƒ. More than 81.63% sCOD, 90.64% TDN and 97.08% TDP were removed by day 30 under each temperature except for 35℃. The inoculation of S. hyalinum strongly regulated the native wastewater bacterial community. These results indicated that sand-consolidating cyanobacterium S. hyalinum well adapted to municipal wastewater and temperature had remarkable effects on cyanobacterial biomass accumulation, nutrients removal and wastewater native bacterial community dynamics.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Águas Residuárias , Biomassa , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Areia , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(5): 1977-1991, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965222

RESUMO

As photosynthetic microbes, cyanobacteria are attractive hosts for the production of high-value molecules from CO2 and light. Strategies for genetic engineering and tightly controlled gene expression are essential for the biotechnological application of these organisms. Numerous heterologous or native promoter systems were used for constitutive and inducible expression, yet many of them suffer either from leakiness or from a low expression output. Anyway, in recent years, existing systems have been improved and new promoters have been discovered or engineered for cyanobacteria. Moreover, alternative tools and strategies for expression control such as riboswitches, riboregulators or genetic circuits have been developed. In this mini-review, we provide a broad overview on the different tools and approaches for the regulation of gene expression in cyanobacteria and explain their advantages and disadvantages.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Riboswitch , Biologia Sintética
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(5): 2051-2066, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930452

RESUMO

Looking for new ene-reductases with uncovered features beneficial for biotechnological applications, by mining genomes of photosynthetic extremophile organisms, we identified two new Old Yellow Enzyme homologues: CtOYE, deriving from the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis thermalis, and GsOYE, from the alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Both enzymes were produced and purified with very good yields and displayed catalytic activity on a broad substrate spectrum by reducing α,ß-unsaturated ketones, aldehydes, maleimides and nitroalkenes with good to excellent stereoselectivity. Both enzymes prefer NADPH but demonstrate a good acceptance of NADH as cofactor. CtOYE and GsOYE represent robust biocatalysts showing high thermostability, a wide range of pH optimum and good co-solvent tolerance. High resolution X-ray crystal structures of both enzymes have been determined, revealing conserved features of the classical OYE subfamily as well as unique properties, such as a very long loop entering the active site or an additional C-terminal alpha helix in GsOYE. Not surprisingly, the active site of CtOYE and GsOYE structures revealed high affinity toward anions caught from the mother liquor and trapped in the anion hole where electron-withdrawing groups such as carbonyl group are engaged. Ligands (para-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-methyl-cyclopenten-1-one) added on purpose to study complexes of GsOYE were detected in the enzyme catalytic cavity, stacking on top of the FMN cofactor, and support the key role of conserved residues and FMN cofactor in the catalysis.


Assuntos
Extremófilos/enzimologia , NADPH Desidrogenase/química , NADPH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Alcenos/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cianobactérias/enzimologia , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estabilidade Enzimática , Extremófilos/genética , Extremófilos/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , NADP/metabolismo , NADPH Desidrogenase/genética , NADPH Desidrogenase/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Rodófitas/enzimologia , Rodófitas/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
11.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113515, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706760

RESUMO

Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles are used as in-fuel catalysts and in manufacturing processes, creating a potential for release to aquatic environments. Exposures at 1 and 10 µg/L CeO2-nanoparticles were made to assess effects during the development of river biofilm communities. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) indicated extensive sorption of nanoparticles to the community and co-localization with lipid moieties. Following 8 weeks of development, polycarbonate coupons were removed from the reactors and used for molecular analyses, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE-16S rRNA) and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Microscopic imaging of the biofilm communities (bacterial, photosynthetic biomass, exopolymer composition, thickness, protozoan numbers), as well as carbon substrate utilization fingerprinting was performed. There was a trend toward reduced photosynthetic biomass, but no significant effects of CeO2 exposure were found on photosynthetic and bacterial biomass or biofilm thickness. Sole carbon source utilization analyses indicated increased utilization of 10 carbon sources in the carbohydrate, carboxylic acid and amino acids categories related to CeO2 exposures; however, predominantly, no significant effects (p < 0.05) were detected. Measures of microbial diversity, lectin binding affinities of exopolymeric substances and results of DGGE analyses, indicated significant changes to community composition (p < 0.05) with CeO2 exposure. Increased binding of the lectin Canavalia ensiformis was observed, consistent with changes in bacterial-associated polymers. Whereas, no significant changes were observed in binding to residues associated with algal and cyanobacterial exopolymers. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of community DNA indicated changes in diversity and shifts in community composition; however, these did not trend with increasing CeO2 exposure. Counting of protozoans in the biofilm communities indicated no significant effects on this trophic level. Thus, based on biomass and functional measures, CeO2 nanoparticles did not appear to have significant effects; however, there was evidence of selection pressure resulting in significant changes in microbial community composition.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cério/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Rios/microbiologia , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 511-521, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671055

RESUMO

A novel haloalkaliphilic bacterium, designated G-116T, was isolated from the decaying biomass of a laboratory culture of cyanobacterium Geitlerinema species. Cells of strain G-116T were Gram-stain-negative, motile spirilla. Strain G-116T showed high halotolerance to 20 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth at 3.5-6.0 %, w/v) and obligately alkaliphilic growth within the pH range 7.3-10.4 (optimum growth at pH 8.7-8.9). The major fatty acids identified were C16:0, summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/C18 :1 ω6c), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16 :1 ω6c) and C19:0 cyclo ω8c. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified amino lipids and five unidentified lipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the closest genus with a validly published name is a monotypic Salinispirillum and strain G-116T clustered with Salinispirillum marinum GCWy1T with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.3 %. Based on the data obtained from phenotypic and chemotaxonomic studies and the phylogenetic analysis, the isolate is proposed to be a representative of a novel genus and a novel species, Natronospirillum operosum gen. nov., sp. nov. Together with S. marinum they form a separate clade, for which a novel family, Natronospirillaceae fam. nov., is proposed. In addition, Saccharospirillaceae fam. nov. and Gynuellaceae fam. nov. are proposed to encompass the genera Saccharospirillum and Reinekea, and the genus Gynuella, respectively. All three novel families are within the order Oceanospirillales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. The type strain of the type species, Natronospirillum operosum gen. nov., sp. nov. is G-116T (=VKM B-3134T=KCTC 62956T).


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Biomassa , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
13.
Water Res ; 169: 115222, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675609

RESUMO

Benthic cyanobacteria are a nuisance because they produce highly potent toxins and taste and odour compounds. Despite this, benthic cyanobacteria remain far less studied than their planktonic counterparts. For example, little is known about their growth or the seasonality of their secondary metabolite production. Moreover, sampling and monitoring techniques commonly used for the survey of planktonic species are not necessarily applicable to benthic forms. This study aimed to develop and validate a new sampling device for the routine monitoring of benthic mats. Molecular monitoring techniques were established and validated on environmental samples collected in a South Australian reservoir (SA-L2). A total of eight qPCR assays were applied to samples in order to track seasonal variations in cyanobacteria concentrations and associated secondary metabolite production. Next Generation Sequencing was utilised to conduct a microbial community composition analysis and to select the most appropriate substrate material for the sampling of benthic cyanobacteria. The concentration of the secondary metabolites geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol were quantified using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, and concentrations of key nutrients (N, P) were quantified in water samples. The sampling device designed proved efficient and easy to use in the field. The qPCR assay designed for the amplification of the cyanobacterial MIB synthase had a high efficiency with a minimum limit of quantification of 4 cell-equivalents per reaction and identified a potential source of MIB in SA-L2 Reservoir. The peak season for benthic growth and secondary metabolite production was observed in spring. Proportionally, 35% of the variability in water geosmin concentrations can be explained by benthic actinobacterial and cyanobacterial activity, showing that freshwater benthic mats represent a significant source of taste and odour compounds.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Austrália , Água Doce , Odorantes , Paladar
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(3): 481-490, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690227

RESUMO

ChlR is a MarR-type transcriptional regulator that activates the transcription of the chlAII-ho2-hemN operon in response to low oxygen conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Upon exposure to low oxygen conditions, ChlR activates transcription of the operon that encodes enzymes critical to tetrapyrrole biosynthesis under low oxygen conditions. We previously identified a super-activator variant, D35H, of ChlR that constitutively activates transcription of the operon. To gain insight into the low-oxygen induced activation of ChlR, we obtained eight additional super-activator variants of ChlR including D35H from pseudorevertants of a chlAI-disrupted mutant. Most substitutions were located in the N-terminal region of ChlR. Mapping of the substituted amino acid residues provided valuable structural insights that uncovered the activation mechanism of ChlR.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tetrapirróis/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/química
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122418, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761632

RESUMO

The study evaluates 36 filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria for the treatment of biogas slurry from pig farm and the accumulation of biomass for bioenergy production. The results showed that only the strains B, J, and L were able to adapt to a 10% biogas slurry. The removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus for strains J and L were 92.46%-97.97%, 73.79%-79.90%, and 97.14%-98.46%, respectively, higher than that of strain B. Strain J had the highest biomass productivity and lipid productivity. Based on the biodiesel prediction results, it was concluded that strains J and L are more suitable for biodiesel production. The estimation of theoretical methane potential suggests that the algal biomass of strain J also have the desirable possibility of biogas generation. In summary, algal strain J (Nostoc sp.) offers great potential for biogas slurry treatment and for the production of bioenergy.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Cianobactérias , Animais , Biomassa , Fazendas , Fósforo , Suínos
16.
Planta Med ; 86(2): 96-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777053

RESUMO

Novel immunomodulating agents are currently sought after for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancers. In this context, a screening campaign of a collection of 575 cyanobacteria extracts for immunomodulatory effects has been conducted. The screening resulted in several active extracts. Here we report the results of subsequent studies on an extract from the cyanobacterium Hapalosiphon sp. CBT1235. We identified 5 hapalindoles as the compounds responsible for the observed immunomodulatory effect. These indole alkaloids are produced by several strains of the cyanobacterial family Hapalosiphonaceae. They are known for their anti-infective, cytotoxic, and other bioactivities. Modulation of the activity of human immune cells has not yet been described. The immunomodulatory activity of the hapalindoles was characterized in vitro using flow cytometry-based measurements of T cell proliferation after carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining, and apoptosis and necrosis induction after annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The most potent compound, hapalindole A, reduced T cell proliferation with an IC50 of 1.56 µM, while relevant levels of apoptosis were measurable only at 10-fold higher concentrations. Hapalindole A-formamide and hapalindole J-formamide, isolated for the first time from a natural source, had much lower activity than the nonformylated derivatives while, at the same time, being less selective for antiproliferative over apoptotic effects.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianobactérias/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Linfócitos T/citologia
17.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109862, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778869

RESUMO

Due to specific physical properties, hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is assigned to the powerful technologies for treating the biotic contamination in water including cyanobacteria. Contaminated water stream (CWS) can be cavitated directly by passing through some HC device, or indirectly when high-pressure jet stream (HPJS) is directed against its flow. Relatively small HPJS stream can thus treat a big volume of CWS in a short time or even work in continuous mode. Cyanobacteria floating in the CWS are forced to flow through the mixing cavitation zone. Within 2 h after single HC treatment, cyanobacterial cell suspensions showed disintegration of larger colonies and enhanced biomass sedimentation. Additional pre-treatment of CWS with low amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 33, 66 and 99 µmol/L) enhanced the effect of HC and led to further inhibition of cyanobacterial photosynthesis (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II decreased by up to 60%). The number of cyanobacterial cells in the treated CWS decreased continuously over 48 and 72 h, though some cells remained alive and were able to recover photosynthetic activity. The technique proposed (direction of a HPJS against a CWS and pre-treatment with low H2O2 concentrations) provides (i) effective removal of cells from the water column, and (ii) reduced contamination by organic compounds released from the cells (especially cyanotoxins) as the cell membranes are not destroyed and the cells remain alive. This process shows potential as an effective pre-treatment step in water purification processes related to cyanobacterial contamination.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Purificação da Água , Hidrodinâmica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Compostos Orgânicos
18.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125060, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629243

RESUMO

Eutrophication of freshwater bodies increases the occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms. The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is receiving great interest due to its increasing presence in waterbodies. However, the toxic effects of CYN on zebrafish development are poorly understood, especially the toxicological mechanism, which is still unclear. In this study, we examined the adverse effects of CYN on embryonic development in zebrafish. CYN (2-2000 nM) exposure decreased embryos survival rate, hatching rate, body length and eye size in a concentration-dependent manner and caused abnormalities in embryo morphology, including pericardial edema, spinal curvature, tail deformity, uninflated swim bladder, cardiac and vascular defects. CYN at concentrations of 20 nM or higher significantly increased ROS level and promoted cell apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. To preliminarily elucidate the potential mechanism of zebrafish developmental toxicity caused by CYN, we examined the expression of oxidative stress- and apoptotic-related genes. CYN could promote the expression of oxidative stress-related genes (SOD1, CAT and GPx1) and induce changes in transcriptional levels of apoptotic-related genes (p53, Bax and Bcl-2). Taken together, CYN induced adverse effects on zebrafish embryos development, which may associate with oxidative stress and apoptosis. These outcomes will advance our understanding of CYN toxicity, environmental problems and health hazards caused by climate changes and eutrophication.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcistinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianobactérias/patogenicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Eutrofização , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Uracila/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Comput Biol Chem ; 84: 107141, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839562

RESUMO

Glutaredoxins (Grxs), the oxidoreductase proteins, are involved in several cellular processes, including maintenance of cellular redox potential and iron-sulfur homeostasis. The analysis of 503 amino acid sequences from 167 cyanobacterial species led to the identification of four classes of cyanobacterial Grxs, i.e., class I, II, V, and VI Grxs. Class III and IV Grxs were absent in cyanobacteria. Class I and II Grxs are single module oxidoreductase while class V and VI Grxs are multimodular proteins having additional modules at their C-terminal and N-terminal end, respectively. Furthermore, class VI Grxs were exclusively present in marine cyanobacteria. We also report the identification of class VI Grxs with two novel active site motif compositions. Detailed phylogenetic analysis of all four classes of Grxs revealed the presence of several subgroups within each class of Grx having variable dithiol and/or monothiol catalytic active site motif and putative glutathione binding sites. However, class II Grxs possess CGFS-type highly conserved monothiol catalytic active site motif. Sequence analysis confirmed the highly diverse nature of Grx proteins in terms of their amino acid composition; though, sequence diversity does not affect the overall 3D structure of cyanobacterial Grxs. The active site residues and putative GSH binding residues are uncharged amino acids which are present on the surface of the protein. Additionally, the presence of hydrophilic residues at the surface of Grxs confirms their solubility. Protein-ligand interaction analysis identified novel glutathione binding sites on Grxs. Regulation of Grxs encoding genes expression by light quality and quantity as well as salinity suggests their role in determining the fitness of organisms under abiotic factors.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/química , Glutarredoxinas/química , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , Biologia Computacional , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Glutarredoxinas/classificação , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Luz , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Water Environ Res ; 92(1): 138-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486194

RESUMO

Nutrient enrichment facilitates algal outbreaks in eutrophic shallow lakes. To further understand the influence of various inorganic nutrient forms on cyanobacterial blooms, a nitrate (NO3 ), ammonium (NH4 ), and orthophosphate (PO4 ) amendment experiment was conducted in a large shallow lake of China (Lake Taihu) during summer. The results showed that the photosynthetic performance of phytoplankton responded more positively to phosphorus (P) than nitrogen (N), and NH4 addition stimulated higher algal photosynthetic activities in P-enriched waters. Individual inorganic N or PO4 addition significantly activated cyanobacteria and green algae. Meanwhile, the N plus P amendment promoted higher biomass of the planktonic microbial community, and the dual addition of NH4  + PO4 yielded the highest chlorophyll a concentration. NH4 additions provisionally promoted higher green algae than cyanobacteria biomass in the beginning, while cyanobacteria dominated again with increasing NH4 :PO4 ratios. These results revealed that increasing ammonium would enhance the increase in phytoplankton biomass in advance and prolong the duration of algal blooms. Hence, based on the control of P loading, the reduction in external inorganic N focusing on ammonium sources (such as ammonia N fertilizer) at the watershed scale would help to alleviate eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms over the long term in Lake Taihu. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Ammonium addition stimulated higher algal photosynthetic activities in P-enriched waters. Individual inorganic N or PO4 addition significantly activated cyanobacteria and green algae. The dual addition of NH4  + PO4 yielded the highest chlorophyll a concentration. Increasing NH4 would enhance the increase in phytoplankton biomass in advance and prolong the duration of cyanobacterial blooms.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Lagos , Baías , Biomassa , China , Clorofila A , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA