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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141569, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853936

RESUMO

Although the long-term exposure of aquatic organisms to cyanobacterial blooms is a regular occurrence in the environment, the prooxidant and neurotoxic effects of such conditions are still insufficiently investigated in situ. We examined the temporal dynamics of the biochemical parameters in the liver of Pelophylax kl. esculentus frogs that inhabit the northern (N) side of Lake Ludas (Serbia) with microcystins (MCs) produced in a cyanobacterial bloom over three summer months. The obtained data were compared with data on frogs that live on the southern (S), MC-free side of the same lake. Our results showed that the MC-producing bloom induced oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, observed as a decrease in the concentration of protein -SH groups and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver of N frogs in comparison to S frogs. Glutathione (GSH) played a key role in the transient defense against the MC-induced development of LPO. The low glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity detected in all groups of frogs from the N site was crucial for the observed prooxidant consequences. The bloom impaired cholinergic homeostasis as a result of a decrease in ChE activity. A delayed neurotoxic effect in relation to the prooxidant outcomes was observed. Our results also showed that even though the integrated biomarker response (IBR) of the antioxidant biomarkers increased during exposure, the individual biochemical parameters did not exhibit a well-defined time-dependent pattern because of specific adaptation dynamics and/or additional effects of the physicochemical parameters of the water. This comprehensive environmental ecotoxicological evaluation of the cyanobacterial bloom-induced biochemical alterations in the liver of frogs provides a new basis for further investigations of the prolonged, real-life ecotoxicity of the blooms.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Animais , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Rana esculenta/metabolismo , Sérvia
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105622, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947073

RESUMO

Hexavalent chromium, a heavy metal toxicant, abundantly found in the environment showed hepatotoxic potential in zebrafish liver and instigated the Nrf2-Keap1-ARE pathway as a cellular stress response as reported in our previous studies. In the present study we have evaluated the ameliorating effect of shinorine, a mycosporine like amino acid (MAAs) and a mammalian Keap1 antagonist against chromium induced stress in zebrafish hepatocytes. Shinorine was found to be effective in increasing the cell viability of chromium treated hepatocytes through curtailing the cellular ROS content. Trigonelline, an Nrf2 inhibitor was found to reduce the viability of hepatocyte cultures co-exposed to shinorine and chromium. In other words, trigonelline being an Nrf2 blocker neutralised the alleviating effect of shinorine. This indicated that shinorine mediated cyto-protection in Cr [VI]-intoxicated cells is Nrf2 dependent. Further, qRT-PCR analysis revealed comparatively higher expression of nfe2l2 and nqo1 in shinorine + chromium treated hepatocytes than cells exposed to chromium alone indicating a better functioning of Nrf2-Keap1-Nqo1 axis. To further confirm if shinorine can lead to disruption of Nrf2-Keap1 interaction in zebrafish hepatocytes and render cytoprotection to chromium exposure, our in silico analysis through molecular docking revealed that shinorine could bind to the active amino acid residues of the DGR domain, responsible for Nrf2-Keap1 interaction of all the three Keap1s evaluated. This is the first report about shinorine that ameliorates chromium induced toxicity through acting as an Nrf2-Keap1 interaction disruptor. We additionally carried out in-silico pharmacokinetic and ADMET studies to evaluate druglikeness of shinorine whose promising results indicated its potential to be developed as an ideal therapeutic candidate against toxicant induced pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Cicloexilaminas/isolamento & purificação , Glicina/isolamento & purificação , Glicina/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105613, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949975

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are known for their ability to produce and release mixtures of up to thousands of compounds into the environment. Recently, the production of novel metabolites, retinoids, was reported for some cyanobacterial species along with teratogenic effects of samples containing these compounds. Retinoids are natural endogenous substances derived from vitamin A that play a crucial role in early vertebrate development. Disruption of retinoid signalling- especially during the early development of the nervous system- might lead to major malfunctions and malformations. In this study, the toxicity of cyanobacterial biomass samples from the field containing retinoids was characterized by in vivo and in vitro bioassays with a focus on the potential hazards towards nervous system development and function. Additionally, in order to identify the compounds responsible for the observed in vitro and in vivo effects the complex cyanobacterial extracts were fractionated (C18 column, water-methanol gradient) and the twelve obtained fractions were tested in bioassays. In all bioassays, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was tested along with the environmental samples as a positive control. Retinoid-like activity (mediated via the retinoic acid receptor, RAR) was measured in the transgenic cell line p19/A15. The in vitro assay showed retinoid-like activity by specific interaction with RAR for the biomass samples. Neurotoxic effects of selected samples were studied on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using the light/dark transition test (Viewpoint, ZebraLab system) with 120 hpf larvae. In the behavioural assay, the cyanobacterial extracts caused significant hyperactivity in zebrafish at 120 hpf after acute exposure (3 h prior to the measurement) at concentrations below the teratogenicity LOEC (0.2 g dw L-1). Similar effect was observed after exposure to fractions of the extracts with detected retinoid-like activity and additive effect was observed after combining the fractions. However, the effect on behaviour was not observed after exposure to ATRA only. To provide additional insight into the behavioural effects and describe the underlying mechanism gene expression of selected biomarkers was measured. We evaluated an array of 28 genes related to general toxicity, neurodevelopment, retinoid and thyroid signalling. We detected several affected genes, most notably, the Cyp26 enzymes that control endogenous ATRA concentration, which documents an effect on retinoid signalling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Tretinoína/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bioensaio , Biomassa , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6033-6066, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884261

RESUMO

Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is a global ecofriendly method to develop and produce nanomaterials with unique biological, physical, and chemical properties. Recently, attention has shifted toward biological synthesis, owing to the disadvantages of physical and chemical synthesis, which include toxic yields, time and energy consumption, and high cost. Many natural sources are used in green fabrication processes, including yeasts, plants, fungi, actinomycetes, algae, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are among the most beneficial natural candidates used in the biosynthesis of NPs, due to their ability to accumulate heavy metals from their environment. They also contain a variety of bioactive compounds, such as pigments and enzymes, that may act as reducing and stabilizing agents. Cyanobacteria-mediated NPs have potential antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, anticancer, and photocatalytic activities. The present review paper highlights the characteristics and applications in various fields of NPs produced by cyanobacteria-mediated synthesis.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/química , Química Verde , Humanos
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110994, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888603

RESUMO

The effects of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (90%), Microcystis aeruginosa) and dense Elodea canadensis beds on the health endpoints of the amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus and bivalve mollusc Unio pictorum were examined in mesocosms with simulated summer conditions (July-August 2018) in the environment of the Rybinsk Reservoir (Volga River Basin, Russia). Four treatments were conducted, including one control and three treatments with influencing factors, cyanobacteria and dense elodea beds (separately and combined). After 20 days of exposure, we evaluated the frequency of malformed and dead embryos in amphipods, heart rate (HR) and its recovery (HRR) after stress tests in molluscs as well as heat tolerance (critical thermal maximum or CTMax) in both amphipods and molluscs. The significant effect, such as elevated number of malformed embryos, was recorded after exposure with cyanobacteria (separately and combined with elodea) and presence of microcystins (MC) in water (0.17 µg/l, 40% of the most toxic MC-LR contribution). This study provided evidence that an elevated number (>5% of the total number per female) of malformed embryos in amphipods showed noticeable toxicity effects in the presence of cyanobacteria. The decreased oxygen under the influence of dense elodea beds led to a decrease in HR (and an increase in HRR) in molluscs. The notable effects on all studied biomarkers, embryo malformation frequency and heat tolerance in the amphipod G. fasciatus, as well as the heat tolerance and heart rate in the mollusc U. pictorum, were found when both factors (elodea and cyanobacteria) were combined. The applied endpoints could be further developed for environmental monitoring, but the obtained results support the importance of the combined use of several biomarkers and species, especially in the case of multi-factor environmental stress.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anfípodes/metabolismo , Animais , Aphanizomenon/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Bivalves/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcystis/metabolismo , Federação Russa , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913356

RESUMO

The presence of airborne cyanobacteria and microalgae as well as their negative impacts on human health have been documented by many researchers worldwide. However, studies on cyanobacteria and microalgae are few compared with those on bacteria and viruses. Research is especially lacking on the presence and taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria and microalgae near economically important water bodies with much tourism, such as the Adriatic Sea region. Here, we present the first characterization of the airborne cyanobacteria and microalgae in this area. Sampling conducted between 11th and 15th June 2017 revealed a total of 15 taxa of airborne cyanobacteria and microalgae. Inhalation of many of the detected taxa, including Synechocystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Bracteacoccus sp., Chlorella sp., Chlorococcum sp., Stichococcus sp., and Amphora sp., poses potential threats to human health. Aside from two green algae, all identified organisms were capable of producing harmful metabolites, including toxins. Moreover, we documented the presence of the cyanobacterium Snowella sp. and the green alga Tetrastrum sp., taxa that had not been previously documented in the atmosphere by other researchers. Our study shows that the Adriatic Sea region seems to be a productive location for future research on airborne cyanobacteria and microalgae in the context of their impacts on human health, especially during the peak of tourism activity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Toxinas Bacterianas , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/metabolismo , Saúde Pública , Toxinas Biológicas
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19705-19712, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747579

RESUMO

Photosystem II (PS II) captures solar energy and directs charge separation (CS) across the thylakoid membrane during photosynthesis. The highly oxidizing, charge-separated state generated within its reaction center (RC) drives water oxidation. Spectroscopic studies on PS II RCs are difficult to interpret due to large spectral congestion, necessitating modeling to elucidate key spectral features. Herein, we present results from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations on the largest PS II RC model reported to date. This model explicitly includes six RC chromophores and both the chlorin phytol chains and the amino acid residues <6 Å from the pigments' porphyrin ring centers. Comparing our wild-type model results with calculations on mutant D1-His-198-Ala and D2-His-197-Ala RCs, our simulated absorption-difference spectra reproduce experimentally observed shifts in known chlorophyll absorption bands, demonstrating the predictive capabilities of this model. We find that inclusion of both nearby residues and phytol chains is necessary to reproduce this behavior. Our calculations provide a unique opportunity to observe the molecular orbitals that contribute to the excited states that are precursors to CS. Strikingly, we observe two high oscillator strength, low-lying states, in which molecular orbitals are delocalized over ChlD1 and PheD1 as well as one weaker oscillator strength state with molecular orbitals delocalized over the P chlorophylls. Both these configurations are a match for previously identified exciton-charge transfer states (ChlD1 +PheD1 -)* and (PD2 +PD1 -)*. Our results demonstrate the power of TDDFT as a tool, for studies of natural photosynthesis, or indeed future studies of artificial photosynthetic complexes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19731-19736, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759207

RESUMO

Cyanobacteriochromes are photoreceptors in cyanobacteria that exhibit a wide spectral coverage and unique photophysical properties from the photoinduced isomerization of a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, we integrate femtosecond-resolved fluorescence and transient-absorption methods and unambiguously showed the significant solvation dynamics occurring at the active site from a few to hundreds of picoseconds. These motions of local water molecules and polar side chains are continuously convoluted with the isomerization reaction, leading to a nonequilibrium processes with continuous active-site motions. By mutations of critical residues at the active site, the modified local structures become looser, resulting in faster solvation relaxations and isomerization reaction. The observation of solvation dynamics is significant and critical to the correct interpretation of often-observed multiphasic dynamic behaviors, and thus the previously invoked ground-state heterogeneity may not be relevant to the excited-state isomerization reaction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Isomerismo , Cinética , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/genética , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20926-20931, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747571

RESUMO

The circadian clock of cyanobacteria consists of only three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which generate a circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of KaiC is the source of the 24-h period and temperature compensation. Although numerous circadian mutants of KaiC have been identified, the tuning mechanism of the 24-h period remains unclear. Here, we show that the circadian period of in vitro phosphorylation rhythm of mutants at position 402 of KaiC changed dramatically, from 15 h (0.6 d) to 158 h (6.6 d). The ATPase activities of mutants at position 402 of KaiC, without KaiA and KaiB, correlated with the frequencies (1/period), indicating that KaiC structure was the source of extra period change. Despite the wide-range tunability, temperature compensation of both the circadian period and the KaiC ATPase activity of mutants at position 402 of KaiC were nearly intact. We also found that in vivo and in vitro circadian periods and the KaiC ATPase activity of mutants at position 402 of KaiC showed a correlation with the side-chain volume of the amino acid at position 402 of KaiC. Our results indicate that residue 402 is a key position of determining the circadian period of cyanobacteria, and it is possible to dramatically alter the period of KaiC while maintaining temperature compensation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232383, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701963

RESUMO

HetR and PatS/PatX-derived peptides are the activator and diffusible inhibitor for cell differentiation and patterning in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. HetR regulates target genes via HetR-recognition sites. However, some genes (such as patS/patX) upregulated at the early stage of heterocyst differentiation possess DIF1 (or DIF+) motif (TCCGGA) promoters rather than HetR-recognition sites; hetR possesses both predicted regulatory elements. How HetR controls heterocyst-specific expression from DIF1 motif promoters remains to be answered. This study presents evidence that the expression from DIF1 motif promoters of hetR, patS and patX is more directly dependent on hetZ, a gene regulated by HetR via a HetR-recognition site. The HetR-binding site upstream of hetR is not required for the autoregulation of hetR. PatU3 (3' portion of PatU) that interacts with HetZ may modulate the expression of hetR, hetZ and patS. These findings contribute to understanding of the mutual regulation of hetR, hetZ-patU and patS/patX in a large group of multicellular cyanobacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Cianobactérias/citologia , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Cianobactérias/genética , Regulação para Cima
11.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127356, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650176

RESUMO

Growth of the most important nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum is reported to be badly affected by the application of insecticides. To overcome their damaging effects, several strategies are being used. Out of these, some works on kinetin (KN, a synthetic cytokinin) has been recognized that it can overcome toxicity of insecticides in cyanobacteria. Besides this, it is now known that every hormone needs certain second messengers such as nitric oxide (NO) for its action. But implication of NO in KN-mediated regulation of insecticide toxicity is yet to be investigated. Hence in the current study, we have investigated the possible involvement of NO in KN-mediated regulation of cypermethrin toxicity in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Cypermethrin decreased growth of Nostoc muscorum which was accompanied by decreased pigment contents and altered photosystem II (PS II) photochemistry that resulted in inhibition of photosynthetic process but KN significantly ameliorated cypermethrin toxicity. Cypermethrin induced production of free radicals (in-vivo and in-vitro) and weakened defensive mechanism (enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system) which was restored by KN. Further, the results revealed that NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) worsened the effect of cypermethrin toxicity even in the presence of KN while 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO, a scavenger of NO) reversed KN-mediated amelioration even in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor), suggesting that endogenous NO is required for mitigation of cypermethrin toxicity. Overall, our results first time show that endogenous NO is essential for KN-mediated mitigation of cypermethrin toxicity in the Nostoc muscorum.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Nostoc muscorum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Nostoc muscorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Nostoc muscorum/metabolismo , Fotoquímica , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 337-344, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676683

RESUMO

This study explored nitrogen (N)-dependent interaction between Microcystis and chloramphenicol (CAP) along 20 day-test. Results showed that 5 mg/L N largely alleviated inhibitory effects of CAP on Microcystis growth, while 50 and 0.5 mg/L N exacerbated growth-inhibition by CAP especially in early (before day 8) and mid-late stage, respectively. At each N level, CAP-induced antioxidant defense and cell damage extents were negatively correlated to growth state in each stage, and CAP-biodegradation coincided with Microcystis growth and glutathione synthesis dynamics, implying that antioxidant defense, cell damage and CAP-removal closely linked to N-dependent Microcystis growth under CAP-stress. Microcystin (MC)-production and -release under CAP-stress were also N-dependent. Although Microcystis growth was greatly-inhibited by prolonged CAP-stress at 0.5 mg/L N, delayed CAP-loss and high MC-release at 0.5 mg/L N should be emphasized during Microcystis-dominated cyanobacterial blooms (MCBs) and CAP co-occurrence. This study had great implication in risk assessment for MCBs-CAP co-occurrence in different waters.


Assuntos
Cloranfenicol/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcystis , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15573-15580, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571944

RESUMO

Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are small, bistable linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-binding light sensors which are typically found as modular components in multidomain cyanobacterial signaling proteins. The CBCR family has been categorized into many lineages that roughly correlate with their spectral diversity, but CBCRs possessing a conserved DXCF motif are found in multiple lineages. DXCF CBCRs typically possess two conserved Cys residues: a first Cys that remains ligated to the bilin chromophore and a second Cys found in the DXCF motif. The second Cys often forms a second thioether linkage, providing a mechanism to sense blue and violet light. DXCF CBCRs have been described with blue/green, blue/orange, blue/teal, and green/teal photocycles, and the molecular basis for some of this spectral diversity has been well established. We here characterize AM1_1499g1, an atypical DXCF CBCR that lacks the second cysteine residue and exhibits an orange/green photocycle. Based on prior studies of CBCR spectral tuning, we have successfully engineered seven AM1_1499g1 variants that exhibit robust yellow/teal, green/teal, blue/teal, orange/yellow, yellow/green, green/green, and blue/green photocycles. The remarkable spectral diversity generated by modification of a single CBCR provides a good template for multiplexing synthetic photobiology systems within the same cellular context, thereby bypassing the time-consuming empirical optimization process needed for multiple probes with different protein scaffolds.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Luz , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Cor , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/efeitos da radiação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Nostoc/genética , Nostoc/metabolismo , Nostoc/efeitos da radiação , Fotobiologia/métodos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/efeitos da radiação , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Tetrapirróis/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530916

RESUMO

Sediments from stratified marine environments often show an enhanced preservation of organic matter (OM) which is attributed to the limitation, or absence, of oxygen in the bottom waters and surface sediments. Yet there is still a limited knowledge about the changes that the associated biomarker signals undergo in the different parts of a stratified environment, and as to which extent the situation in the productive upper parts of the water column is eventually reflected in the sedimentary record. To better understand these processes we studied particulate matter samples from the stratified, partly anoxic Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea) during a strong cyanobacterial bloom in August 2016. Endmember samples representing the main biomass producers within the phytoplankton (cyanobacteria) and mesozooplankton (copepods) were obtained from different levels of the water column. Major extractable lipids (fatty acids, n-alcohols, sterols, and selected hydrocarbons) were analysed from the same materials and compared to samples cored from the underlying surface sediments (0-12 cm). Given the annually recurring phenomenon of cyanobacterial blooms we anticipated to find a considerable lipid footprint of the major primary producers in the sedimentary record of the EGB. Unexpectedly, however, lipids in the surface sediments largely derived from the storage lipids (mainly wax esters) of the copepod Pseudocalanus spp. which thrived in deeper, more saline and oxygen-depleted waters. Carbon number and unsaturation patterns suggest that the component n-alcohols of these wax esters are transformed into the corresponding n-fatty acids prior to further degradation in the sediment. In the EGB deposits, most of the plankton-derived lipids studied appear to be degraded on a time scale of decades. In terms of relative abundances, long-chain n-alkyl lipids and C29 sterols from terrestrial plant sources instead become predominant in the deeper sediment layers. Likewise, higher stanol/sterol ratios of C27-sterols vs. C29-sterols indicate a more intense biodegradation of planktonic OM as compared to terrestrial OM. Our observations indicate that primary produced particulate OM is heavily modified by mesozooplankton grazing. This overprint adds on the influence of heterotrophic microorganisms and, in the sediment, preferential preservation of terrestrial biomarkers. Taken together, these factors result in a major decoupling of the biomarker signals between the productive upper mixed layer and the oxygen-depleted bottom waters and sediments of the EGB.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Zooplâncton/metabolismo , Animais , Países Bálticos , Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Copépodes/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Esteróis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10681-10687, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366642

RESUMO

Microorganisms, in the most hyperarid deserts around the world, inhabit the inside of rocks as a survival strategy. Water is essential for life, and the ability of a rock substrate to retain water is essential for its habitability. Here we report the mechanism by which gypsum rocks from the Atacama Desert, Chile, provide water for its colonizing microorganisms. We show that the microorganisms can extract water of crystallization (i.e., structurally ordered) from the rock, inducing a phase transformation from gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) to anhydrite (CaSO4). To investigate and validate the water extraction and phase transformation mechanisms found in the natural geological environment, we cultivated a cyanobacterium isolate on gypsum rock samples under controlled conditions. We found that the cyanobacteria attached onto high surface energy crystal planes ({011}) of gypsum samples generate a thin biofilm that induced mineral dissolution accompanied by water extraction. This process led to a phase transformation to an anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrite, which was formed via reprecipitation and subsequent attachment and alignment of nanocrystals. Results in this work not only shed light on how microorganisms can obtain water under severe xeric conditions but also provide insights into potential life in even more extreme environments, such as Mars, as well as offering strategies for advanced water storage methods.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Anidridos/metabolismo , Sulfato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Ambientes Extremos , Água/metabolismo
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1861(8): 148214, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360310

RESUMO

The structural features enabling carotenoid translocation between molecular entities in nature is poorly understood. Here, we present the three-dimensional X-ray structure of an expanded oligomeric state of the C-terminal domain homolog (CTDH) of the orange carotenoid protein, a key water-soluble protein in cyanobacterial photosynthetic photo-protection, at 2.9 Å resolution. This protein binds a canthaxanthin carotenoid ligand and undergoes structural reorganization at the dimeric level, which facilitates cargo uptake and delivery. The structure displays heterogeneity revealing the dynamic nature of its C-terminal tail (CTT). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the CTDH structures identified specific residues that govern the dimeric transition mechanism. Mutagenesis based on the crystal structure and these MD simulations then confirmed that these specific residues within the CTT are critical for carotenoid uptake, encapsulation and delivery processes. We present a mechanism that can be applied to other systems that require cargo uptake.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Apoproteínas/química , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína
17.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127157, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470740

RESUMO

Microcystins released by cyanobacteria affect crop growth and productivity, and even food safety. Plant hormones play a vital role in regulating growth, development and stress response in plants. Therefore, we studied the response of hormones including abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin (ZT) and gibberellin (GA3) as well as hormone balances (IAA/ABA, ZT/ABA and GA/ABA) to cyanobacterial extract containing microcystins (1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/L) during stress and recovery periods. Low concentration microcystins (1 µg/L) promoted growth of rice seedlings by increasing levels of IAA, ZT and GA3 and maintaining hormone balances. In addition, the up-regulation of OsYUCCA1 increased IAA level in rice roots by promoting IAA biosynthesis. High concentrations microcystins (10, 100 or1000 µg/L) inhibited growth of rice seedlings by reducing levels of IAA, ZT and GA3 and ratios of IAA/ABA, ZT/ABA and GA/ABA due to increased ABA level. The increase in ABA in rice seedlings induced by high concentrations MCs was resulted from up-regulation of OsNCED1, OsNCED3, OsNCED4 and OsZEP to enhance ABA biosynthesis, and was controlled by up-regulating expression levels of OsABAox1-3 for enhancing ABA catabolism as negative feedback. The highest concentration of MCs (1000 µg/L) caused irreversible damage to metabolisms of IAA and ABA, partly resulting in unrecoverable inhibition on rice growth. All results demonstrate that "low-concentration promotion and high-concentration inhibition" of microcystins was associated with changes in hormone levels and balances by affecting their metabolisms, and could be helpful for guiding agricultural irrigation with microcystin contaminated water.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Oryza/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Zeatina/metabolismo
18.
Science ; 368(6492)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409447

RESUMO

Nitrogen fixation, the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia, is critical for biological productivity but is difficult to study in the vast expanse of the global ocean. Decades of field studies and the infusion of molecular biological, genomic, isotopic, and geochemical modeling approaches have led to new paradigms and questions. The discovery of previously unknown N2-fixing (diazotrophic) microorganisms and unusual physiological adaptations, combined with diagnostic distributions of nutrients and their isotopes as well as measured and modeled biogeographic patterns, have revolutionized our understanding of marine N2 fixation and its role in the global nitrogen cycle. Anthropogenic upper-ocean warming, increased dissolved carbon dioxide, and acidification will affect the distribution and relative importance of specific subgroups of N2 fixers in the sea; these changes have implications for foodwebs and biogeochemical cycles.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/microbiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Amônia/síntese química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Água do Mar/química , Simbiose
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1805-1812, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241460

RESUMO

Besides on the reproductive performance, the light also has an important effect on the growth in birds. In the present study, we for the first time investigated effects of colored light-emitting diodes (LED) on both growth performance and fecal microbiota in meat geese. We randomly selected a total of 120 geese at birth (0-day), divided them into 3 groups evenly (i.e., 40 geese each group), and then reared them under 3 colored light-emitting diodes (i.e., blue, red, and white) with the same photoperiod for 9 wk, respectively. We collected fecal samples at the experimental day 35 and 63, respectively. We observed that geese in blue light had higher body weight than those in red and white lights at the early stage of the experiment but showed lower body weight at the late stage, particularly at day 63 (P < 0.05). Interestingly, we found that the relative abundances of 3 dominant bacteria phyla, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria, were comparable among 3 groups at day 35, while at day 63, the blue light group had the significantly (P < 0.05) lowest and highest abundance for Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, respectively. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that the fecal microbiota in the red light group was mainly involved in metabolism at day 35, whereas at day 63, the fecal microbiota were engaged into membrane transportation and transcription. In contrast, the blue light group had more enriched pathways relevant with membrane transportation at day 63 than day 35 and had several pathways involved in metabolism at day 63 as well. Collectively, our results revealed that the light with different colors affects the growth performance of geese via the gut microbiota, which in turn influences the digestion and absorption of geese.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gansos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gansos/microbiologia , Iluminação , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Animais , Cor , Fezes/microbiologia , Luz , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331227

RESUMO

Blooms of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii are common in shallow, eutrophic freshwaters. P. agardhii may produce hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) and many other bioactive secondary metabolites belonging mostly to non-ribosomal oligopeptides. The aim of this work was to study the effects of two extracts (Pa-A and Pa-B) of P. agardhii-predominated bloom samples with different oligopeptide profiles and high concentration of biogenic compounds on another natural P. agardhii population. We hypothesised that the P. agardhii biomass and content of oligopeptides in P. agardhii is shaped in a different manner by diverse mixtures of metabolites of different P. agardhii-dominated cyanobacterial assemblages. For this purpose, the biomass, chlorophyll a and oligopeptides content in the treated P. agardhii were measured. Seven-day microcosm experiments with four concentrations of the extracts Pa-A and Pa-B were carried out. Generally, aeruginosins (AERs), cyanopeptolins (CPs) and anabaenopeptins (APs) were the most numerous peptides; however, only 16% of them were common for both extracts. The addition of the extracts resulted in similar effects on P. agardhii: an increase in biomass, Chl-a and MC content in the exposed P. agardhii as well as changes in its oligopeptide profile were observed. MCs present in the extracts did not inhibit accumulation of P. agardhii biomass, and did not have any negative effect on MC and Chl-a content. No evidence for bioaccumulation of dissolved peptides in the P. agardhii exposed was found. As the two tested extracts differed considerably in oligopeptide composition, but contained similar high concentrations of nutrients, it seems that biogenic compounds, not oligopeptides themselves, positively influenced the mixed natural P. agardhii population.


Assuntos
Clorofila A , Cianobactérias , Eutrofização , Microcistinas , Oligopeptídeos , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais
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