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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 16, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897642

RESUMO

Earthworms are used as an alternative protein source in aquaculture. These organisms serve as an ideal and favorable site for bacterial growth and activity. Hence, in our present study, we isolated and screened potential probiotic bacteria from African nightcrawler (Eudrilus eugeniae). Among 45 bacterial isolates, four (ANSCI9, BFAR9, RM3, and RM10) were selected based on their hydrophobicity, hydrolytic enzyme production, pH and fish bile tolerance, aggregation, and antimicrobial properties. The selected isolates showed good hydrophobicity (≥ 30%) and enzyme production (≥ 10 mm clearing zones), tolerance to pH and fish bile, and inhibitory properties against pathogenic microorganisms. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. RM3 (MH919306), Bacillus sp. RM10 (MH919308), Bacillus sp. ANSCI9 (MH919310) and Bacillus sp. BFAR9 (MH919302). These isolates were individually incorporated in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings for 14 days to assess their biosafety. The results showed that the survival rates in all treated groups (98.75 ± 2.5 to 100.00 ± 0.0%) were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control group (commercial diet) (96.25 ± 2.5%), suggesting that isolates have no adverse effect on the host. This study revealed the presence of potential probiotic microorganisms in E. eugeniae that are beneficial to the aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bile/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Filogenia , Probióticos/farmacologia
2.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 43-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463601

RESUMO

To evaluate the changes in bacterial diversity at various time points under resveratrol supplementation, we aimed to investigate the diversification of gut microbiota and the changes in total genetic diversity. We performed 16S rDNA gene sequencing at different time points (15, 30, and 45 days) to analyze the gut microbiota of tilapia. Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes (15 days) or Cyanobacteria (30 and 45 days) were found to be the three most abundant phyla. Cyanobacteria (15 and 30 days), Proteobacteria (15 days), Firmicutes and Chlamydiae (30 and 45 days), Planctomycetes (30 days), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria (45 days) in the 0.05 g/kg RES group increased as compared to that in the controls. Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria significantly decreased and increased at 30 and 45 days, respectively, while the reverse pattern was observed at 15 days. The Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes and Proteobacteria:Cyanobacteria ratios were significantly increased (15 and 45 days, P < 0.05) and decreased (30 days, P < 0.05). RES supplementation did not affect the richness and diversity of the gut microbiota in tilapia. Our findings may contribute to the development of strategies for the management of diseases.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124616, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466003

RESUMO

The Alagados Reservoir (Southern Brazil) is used as water supply, and since 2002 there have been reports with a presence of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins. In order to assess the water quality and the ecological integrity of the reservoir, we evaluated biochemical, genotoxic and osmoregulatory biomarkers in the freshwater cichlid fish (Geophagus brasiliensis) that were exposed to PSTs. The fish were sampled in the Alagados Reservoir in February 2016 (Summer) and were divided in three groups: 1) Reservoir group (RES): fish were collected immediately after sampling; 2) Depuration group (DEP): fish were submitted to the depuration experiment for 90 days in the laboratory; and 3) Reproduction group (REP): fish were kept in the laboratory until the fertilization and the chemical analyses were performed on the offspring (F1 generation). In the RES and DEP the blood, brain, muscle, liver and gills were collected for biochemical, genotoxic and osmoregulatory biomarkers analysis. Our results showed that the fish from the Alagados Reservoir (RES) presented oxidative stress and DNA damage; and after 90 days (DEP), the antioxidant system and DNA damage were recovered. Although PSTs were considered a risk to the ecological integrity of this water body; PSTs concentrations were not found in the tissues of the F1 generation. In addition, the biomarkers used were useful tools to evaluate the effects of environment contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new technologies and monitoring programs in order to reduce cyanobaterial blooms, cyanotoxins and human activities that cause the contamination in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109890, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704321

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the adverse effects of the hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) at sub-lethal concentrations and the ameliorative potential of curcumin (CUR) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to Cr (VI) (4.57 mg/L) and CUR (0.02% in diet or 200 mg/kg diet), individually or in combination for 60-days. The growth rate during the period of experiment, condition factor, body composition, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hematological parameters, oxidative stress, apoptotic and DNA damage, branchial, hepato- and nephrotoxicity were estimated in this study. Moreover, the changes in mRNA expression of Cytochromes (CYP450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in kidney and liver tissues were assessed by qRT-PCR. Additionally, the concentration of metallothionine in the liver, histological investigation, and lesion scoring to the branchial, hepatic, renal and gill tissues were applied. The results revealed that Cr (VI) exposure caused a significant decline in most hematological variables and growth rate with down-regulation of CYP450 and GST expression. Histologically, Cr (VI) induced diverse forms of cell injury, vascular, and inflammatory alterations with upregulation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl2 expression in the examined tissues. Additionally, it elevated the levels of serum MDA and 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine than control. CUR-supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices, amelioration of histological alterations and up-regulation of CYP450 and GST expression. These results may conclude that dietary supplements with CUR could be useful for modulation of the growth with protective effects to the branchial, hepatic, and renal tissues in response to Cr (VI) exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for Nile tilapia in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aquicultura , Ciclídeos/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Rim/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124609, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524604

RESUMO

Human pharmaceuticals are pollutants of special concern due to their widespread consumption over the last decades, their high persistence in the environment, and the reported alterations produced on non-target organism. The antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) exerts its effect by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) reuptake at the presynaptic membrane, thus increasing brain serotonergic activity. In vertebrates, there is a clear inverse relationship between hypothalamic 5-HT levels and food intake, therefore we hypothesized that FLX would inhibit food intake, and in consequence alter energy metabolism in freshwater fish. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FLX on feeding behavior and energy storage of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Adult fish were intraperitoneally injected daily with 2 or 20 µg.g-1 FLX or saline for a 5-day period, during which the 20 µg.g-1 FLX-injected fish exhibited a marked reduction in food intake, consistent with a decrease in total body weight and total hepatocyte area observed at the end of the experiment. Although not statistically significant, a marked 50% decrease in glycogen and lipid content and an increase in protein levels in liver was observed for the 20 µg.g-1 FLX dose. This was evidenced histochemically by a weak PAS positive reaction and an intense Coomasie Blue stain. Taken together, these results suggest that the SSRI antidepressant FLX produces an anorectic effect in adults of C. dimerus, which could alter normal physiological function and, in consequence, have a negative impact on fish growth, reproduction, and population success.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122293, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677407

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to compare wastewater purification capacities between heterotrophs (BFT) and autotrophs (ABFT) and to evaluate the effects on the growth of fish (Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaculture systems. The wastewater treatment capacity of heterotrophs is far superior to that of autotrophs, but the BFT system requires more energy for aquaculture than does the ABFT system. Regardless, both systems effected positive influences on fish growth performance, showing excellent water-purification capacities compared with the control group (CON). No significant differences were found between CON and ABFT or between ABFT and BFT, but there were significant differences between CON and BFT. Both systems BFT and ABFT were revealed to be cost effective in relation to CON, having reduced water replacement by 82%. Therefore, the BFT and ABFT systems could be economical aquaculture systems if due advantage is taken of what both have to offer.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Aquicultura
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 315-324, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to utilize tilapia skin gelatin hydrolysate protein, which is normally discarded as industrial waste in the process of fish manufacture, we study the in vivo and in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the peptide Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP). The aim was to provide a pharmacological basis of the development of minimal side effects of ACE inhibitors by comparative analysis with captopril in molecular docking. RESULTS: This peptide from protein-rich wastes showed excellent ACE inhibitory activity (IC50  = 2.577 µmol L-1 ) and exhibited a mixed noncompetitive inhibitory pattern with Lineweaver-Burk plots. Furthermore, LSGYGP and captopril groups both showed significant decreases in blood pressure after 6 h and maintained good digestive stability over 4 h. Molecular bond interactions differentiate competitive captopril upon hydrogen bond interactions and Zn(II) interaction. The C-terminal Pro generates three interactions (hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic interactions and Van der Waals interactions) in the peptide and effectively interacts with the S1 and S2 pockets of ACE. CONCLUSION: LSGYGP, with an IC50 value of 2.577 µmol L-1 , has an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Through comparison with captopril, this study revealed that LSGYGP may be a potential food-derived ACE inhibitory peptide and could act as a functional food ingredient to prevent hypertension. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Captopril/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos , Digestão , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cinética , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 137(2): 125-130, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854330

RESUMO

Francisellosis is a disease caused by different species of the bacterial genus Francisella and has been diagnosed in a wide variety of animals, including fish. Francisellosis in fish is characterized by the development of non-specific clinical signs as well as the presence of numerous granulomas in several organs (mainly spleen and kidney). Ten neon jewel cichlids Hemichromis bimaculatus were submitted for diagnosis from a farm located in Morelos, Mexico. Gross examination, wet preparations, cytology, histopathology and PCR were performed. Affected fish showed lethargy, erratic swimming, imbalance and gasping. At the post mortem examination, multiple granulomas were observed in the kidney and spleen. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation was observed in several organs. Species-specific PCR assay using DNA from the affected tissues of H. bimaculatus as a template demonstrated the presence of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) by amplifying a hypothetical protein gene of the Fno species. The end diagnosis of francisellosis is important for Mexican ornamental aquaculture, since it is necessary to implement measures for treatment, prevention, control and diagnosis. This is the first report of francisellosis in the neon jewel cichlid.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Francisella , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , México
9.
Int. microbiol ; 22(4): 479-490, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185066

RESUMO

Bacterial diseases are the main cause of high economic loss in aquaculture, particularly gram-negative bacteria. This study was conducted for the isolation and identification of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas spp. from diseased fish. Twenty-two Aeromonas and sixteen Pseudomonas isolates were recovered from diseased Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) raised in eight earthen ponds in Elhox, Metoubes, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt. The recovered isolates were further identified using PCR as 22 Aeromonas hydrophila, 11 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 5 Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates. The 22 A. hydrophila isolates were screened for the presence of four virulence genes. Sixteen of the isolates (72.72%) were positive for the aerolysin gene (aer); 4 (18.18%) harbored the cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act); and 2 (9.09%) carried the hemolysin A gene (hylA) while the cytotonic heat-stable enterotoxin gene (ast) was absent from all the tested isolates. The pathogenicity test indicated the direct relationship between the mortality percentage and the genotype of the tested A. hydrophila isolates as the mortality rates were 63.3 and 73.3% for isolates with two virulence genes (aer+ & act+, and aer+ and hylA+, respectively), followed by 40, 53.3, and 56.6% for isolates with only one virulence gene (hylA, act, and aer, respectively) and 20% for isolates lacking virulence genes. Based on the sensitivity test, the multi-antibiotic resistance profiles were as follows: 90.9% of the A. hydrophila isolates were sensitive to florfenicol and doxycycline; then 68.18% were susceptible to oxytetracycline, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin; and 63.63% were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, while only 27.27 and 4.5% were sensitive to erythromycin and cephradine, respectively, and all the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Virulência/genética , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Aeromonas hydrophila/isolamento & purificação , Norfloxacino/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 200, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raising unrelated offspring is typically wasteful of parental resources and so individuals are expected to reduce or maintain low levels of parental effort when their parentage is low. This can involve facultative, flexible adjustments of parental care to cues of lost parentage in the current brood, stabilizing selection for a low level of paternal investment, or an evolutionary reduction in parental investment in response to chronically low parentage. RESULTS: We studied parental care in Variabilichromis moorii, a socially monogamous, biparental cichlid fish, whose mating system is characterized by frequent cuckoldry and whose primary form of parental care is offspring defense. We combine field observations with genetic parentage analyses to show that while both parents defend their nest against intruding con- and hetero-specifics, males and females may do so for different reasons. Males in the study group (30 breeding pairs) sired 0-100% (median 83%) of the fry in their nests. Males defended less against immediate threats to the offspring, and more against threats to their territories, which are essential for the males' future reproductive success. Males also showed no clear relationship between their share of defense and their paternity of the brood. Females, on the other hand, were related to nearly all the offspring under their care, and defended almost equally against all types of threats. CONCLUSION: Overall, males contributed less to defense than females and we suggest that this asymmetry is the result of an evolutionary response by males to chronically high paternity loss in this species. Although most males in the current study group achieved high parentage in their nests, the average paternity in V. moorii, sampled across multiple seasons, is only about 55%. We highlight the importance and complexity of studying nest defense as a form of parental care in systems where defense may serve not only to protect current offspring, but also to ensure future reproductive success by maintaining a territory.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Paterno , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721914

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the commercial probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), antibiotic (florfenicol), and its combination for Nile tilapia culture. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications, and five treatments diets: Control: water and diet without additives; YD: yeast in the diet (1 g Kg-1); AW: antibiotic in the water (0.002 g L-1); AWYD: antibiotic in the water, and yeast in the diet (0.002 g L-1 and 1 g Kg-1); and AD: antibiotic in the diet (0.01 g kg-1). The growth parameters as total and standard length, weight, weight gain, biomass, Fulton's condition factor, specific growth rate and plasma cortisol of tilapia did not show the difference between the treatments. The survival rates and food conversion rate of fish were greater in treatment with florfenicol included in the diet. The commercial probiotic did not improve growth or survival. The administration of the antibiotic florfenicol in the water needs more studies. The inclusion of the antibiotic in the diet promotes growth and survival in Nile tilapia juvenile.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Aquicultura , Tianfenicol/administração & dosagem
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109752, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605954

RESUMO

Tilapias are cultured globally and are rising in acceptance as the most important freshwater aquaculture species. Monitoring of serum biomarkers is a promising tool in aquaculture to screen the health status as they are virtuous indicators of extreme stress and organ dysfunction in fish. The present study examined the serum biomarkers of oxytetracycline (OTC)-dosed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 80 and 800 mg/kg biomass/day, i.e., 0X, 1X, and 10X the approved dose (X = 80 mg OTC/kg biomass/day) for 10 consecutive days. The fish biomass and levels of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined at scheduled intervals. A significant dose-dependent reduction in fish biomass during the OTC-dosing (5.84%) and post-OTC dosing (8.16%) periods was observed. All the serum biomarkers of Nile tilapia increased significantly on day 10 OTC-dosing. Though their levels reduced significantly, normalcy was not achieved even after 42 days of cessation of OTC-dosing, except CRP. The CRP reached the normal level on day 25 post-OTC dosing in the 1X group. The results, thus, demonstrated that the oral OTC-dosing influences the physiological state of apparently healthy Nile tilapia in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were, however, reversible upon discontinuation of OTC-dosing. The set of data observed on growth reduction and elevated serum biomarker levels even after 42 days of cessation of OTC-dosing, thus, raises questions on the utility of oral OTC-dosing.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Aquicultura/métodos , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Dieta , Oxitetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomassa , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Creatina/sangue , Humanos , Índia , Alimentos Marinhos , Tilápia
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1601-1608, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038644

RESUMO

Com o presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o tempo de fornecimento de náuplios de artêmia e o período de transição alimentar para pós-larvas de acará-severo (Heros severus). Foram utilizadas 450 pós-larvas de acará-severo, distribuídas em 45 aquários, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x5, com três repetições. Foram avaliados três períodos de fornecimento de náuplios de artêmia: zero, cinco e 10 dias. Além disso, foram testados cinco períodos de transição alimentar: um, dois, três, quatro e cinco dias, quando os animais receberam alimentação conjunta de náuplios de artêmia e dieta farelada. Ao final do experimento, os peixes foram contados, pesados e fotografados, para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e das variáveis morfométricas. Para todos os parâmetros avaliados, não foi constatada interação entre o tempo de fornecimento de artêmia e o período de transição alimentar. Os animais alimentados por 10 dias com náuplios de artêmia apresentaram os melhores resultados de desempenho e as maiores variáveis morfométricas. Os peixes que receberam alimentação conjunta por três dias apresentaram desenvolvimento satisfatório. Dessa forma, recomendam-se 10 dias de fornecimento de náuplios de artêmia e três dias de transição alimentar, antes de se iniciar o fornecimento exclusivo de dieta inerte para pós-larvas de acará-severo.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the supply time of artemia and the period of food transition to post-larvae of severum (Heros severus). A total of 450 post-larvae of severum were distributed in 45 aquaria, in a completely randomized design, in a 3x5 factorial scheme, with three replicates. Three feeding periods with artemia nauplii were evaluated: zero, five, and ten days. In addition, five feeding transitions were tested: one, two, three, four and five days, when the animals received joint feeding of artemia nauplii and dry diet. At the end of the experiment the fish were counted, weighed and photographed, to evaluate the productive performance and the morphometric variables. For all parameters evaluated, no interaction between the time of artemia supply and the feeding transition period was observed. Animals fed for 10 days with artemia nauplii showed the best performance results and the highest morphometric variables. The fish that received joint feeding for three days presented satisfactory development. Thus, 10 days of artemia nauplii supply and three days of feeding transition is recommended before starting the exclusive supply of diet inert to post-larvae of severum.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Artemia , Aquicultura/métodos , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1609-1615, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038678

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. em peixes e amostras de água na região semiárida de Pernambuco e avaliar a frequência de aerolissina (aerA), enterotoxina citotóxica (act), enterotoxina citotônica (alt) e serina protease (ahp) nesses isolados. Foram analisados 70 peixes vivos e oito mortos com sinais clínicos de aeromoniose e 16 amostras de água. Aeromonas spp. foram identificadas por análises microbiológicas (provas bioquímicas) e molecular, usando-se primers específicos para a região 16S rRNA, e a distribuição dos quatro fatores de virulência (aerA, alt, act e ahp) foi investigada por ensaio de PCR. Cento e cinquenta e cinco (84,7%) isolados foram confirmados como Aeromonas spp. na análise molecular. Os genes de virulência mais frequentes foram act (53,55%) e aerA (51,61%). De acordo com o tipo de amostra, observou-se maior frequência do gene aerA (87,5% P=0,0474) em isolados de peixes mortos e a menor frequência do gene act (47,73% P=0,0002) em peixes vivos. Este estudo demonstrou a presença de aeromoniose no cultivo de tilápias em tanques-rede, nos municípios de Jatobá e Petrolândia, na região semiárida de Pernambuco. A detecção de aerA, act e alt pode ser utilizada na tipagem de virulência de Aeromonas spp.(AU)


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. from fishes and tilapia net-cage farm water in semi-arid regions of Pernambuco and to evaluate the frequency of the aerolysin (aerA), cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), cytotonic enterotoxin (alt) and serine protease (ahp) genes in Aeromonas isolates. 70 live and eight dead fish with aeromoniosis clinical signs and 16 water samples were analyzed. Aeromonas spp. isolated were identified by microbiological (biochemical evidence) and molecular analysis using specific primers for 16SrRNA region, while the distribution of four virulence factors, including aerA, alt, act and ahp, was investigated by PCR assay. One hundred fifty-five (84.7%) isolates were confirmed as Aeromonas spp. by molecular analysis. The most frequent virulence genes in isolates were act (53.55%) and aerA (51,61%). According to the kind of sample, the higher frequency of aerA gene (87.5% P= 0.0474) was observed in isolates from dead fish and the lowest frequency of act gene (47.73% P= 0.0002) from live fish. This study found the presence of aeromoniosis on tilapia farming in net-cages on Jatobá and Petrolândia counties in the semiarid Pernambuco region. The detection of aerA, act and alt can be used for virulence typing of Aeromonas spp. isolates.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Tilápia/microbiologia , Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Pesqueiros , Virulência
15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 699, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful social behavior requires real-time integration of information about the environment, internal physiology, and past experience. The molecular substrates of this integration are poorly understood, but likely modulate neural plasticity and gene regulation. In the cichlid fish species Astatotilapia burtoni, male social status can shift rapidly depending on the environment, causing fast behavioral modifications and a cascade of changes in gene transcription, the brain, and the reproductive system. These changes can be permanent but are also reversible, implying the involvement of a robust but flexible mechanism that regulates plasticity based on internal and external conditions. One candidate mechanism is DNA methylation, which has been linked to social behavior in many species, including A. burtoni. But, the extent of its effects after A. burtoni social change were previously unknown. RESULTS: We performed the first genome-wide search for DNA methylation patterns associated with social status in the brains of male A. burtoni, identifying hundreds of Differentially Methylated genomic Regions (DMRs) in dominant versus non-dominant fish. Most DMRs were inside genes supporting neural development, synapse function, and other processes relevant to neural plasticity, and DMRs could affect gene expression in multiple ways. DMR genes were more likely to be transcription factors, have a duplicate elsewhere in the genome, have an anti-sense lncRNA, and have more splice variants than other genes. Dozens of genes had multiple DMRs that were often seemingly positioned to regulate specific splice variants. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed genome-wide effects of A. burtoni social status on DNA methylation in the brain and strongly suggest a role for methylation in modulating plasticity across multiple biological levels. They also suggest many novel hypotheses to address in mechanistic follow-up studies, and will be a rich resource for identifying the relationships between behavioral, neural, and transcriptional plasticity in the context of social status.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/genética , Metilação de DNA , Genômica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/citologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Meio Social
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553369

RESUMO

The genus Dermocystidium is very comprehensive in the host and site of infection, however this is the first report of the occurrence of Dermocystidium sp. in the gills of Nile tilapia. This study was carried out in a fish farming located in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. No mortalities were reported in the facility studied and the animals were clinically healthy. During the histopathological analysis of the gills, 8.33% of the fish presented spores of Dermocystidium sp. in the gill tissue. The spores reported herein had a mean length and width of 6.206 x 5.233 µm and a refractile body diameter of 1.965 µm and were studied by histopathology and Transmission Electron Microscopy. This study highlights the importance of a new branchial pathogen in farmed tilapia, as well as to its pathogenic potential, considering the outbreaks of mortalities associated with other fish species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Infecções por Mesomycetozoea/parasitologia , Mesomycetozoea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aquicultura , Brasil , Mesomycetozoea/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1234-1241, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539954

RESUMO

The water quality from rivers near to cities has decreased drastically over the decades due to the environmental pollution. The Ocoa River on its way through the Villavicencio city, Colombia, receives large volumes of domestic and industrial wastewater. In order to establish the effect of the contamination, biochemical and histopathology biomarkers were evaluated in the gills and the liver of two native fish species. Astyanax gr. bimaculatus and Aequidens metae were caught in three sites of the Ocoa River (S1, S2 and S3) and in a reference River during the rainy and dry season. A. metae showed to be more sensitive to water pollution. In general, the rainy season induced a greater negative impact in the fish monitored. At site S3 (after crossing the city where urban runoff and industrial effluents are discharge and close to a landfill), increased inhibition of the antioxidant response and lipid membranes damage were observed; in addition, in this site the histopathological alterations were greater in both fish species. The impact observed in this study on fish health provoked for the Ocoa River contamination demands the need to begin strategies to solve the problem of discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in aquatic environments in Colombia.


Assuntos
Characidae , Ciclídeos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Colômbia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 670-675, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471657

RESUMO

Here we evaluate the potential of heavy metal accumulation of Proteocephalus macrophallus parasitizing the Butterfly Peacock Bass (Cichla ocellaris). A total of 19 fish specimens were collected. From the hosts, samples of intestine, liver, muscle, and parasites were taken. Heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) were obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All analyzed elements was found in higher concentrations in the parasites comparing to its host tissues. The bioconcentration factors were higher in the intestine, varying between 5.91 (Ti) to 8.00 (Ba), followed by the muscle, 1.88 (Mg) to 6.39 (Zn), and liver, 1.67 (Al) to 2.02 (Ba). These results show that at the infection site heavy metal concentrations are reduced, since the elements are absorbed directly from the intestinal wall by the parasites. In general, P. macrophallus presents a reasonable capacity of metal accumulation comparing to its hosts.


Assuntos
Cestoides/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Intestinos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 215: 105289, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491707

RESUMO

Mifepristone (RU486), a clinical abortion agent and potential endocrine disruptor, binds to progestin and glucocorticoid receptors and has multiple functional importance in reproductive physiology. A long-term exposure of RU486 resulted in masculinization of female fish, however, the epigenetic landscape remains elusive. Recent studies demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) might play potential roles in epigenetic modulation of sex differentiation, ovarian cancer and germline stem cell survival. To further understand the influence of RU486 exposure on epigenetic regulation, we performed a comparative investigation on sex-biased gonadal lncRNAs profiles using control XX/XY and RU486-induced sex reversed XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by RNA-seq. In total, 962 sexually differentially expressed lncRNAs and their target genes were screened from the gonads of control and sex reversed fish. In comparison with the control XX group, sex reversal induced by RU486 treatment led to significant up-regulation of 757 lncRNAs and down-regulation of 221 lncRNAs. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that global lncRNA expression profiles in RU486-treated XX group clustered into the same branch with the control XY, whereas XX control group formed a separate branch. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the cis-target genes between RU486-XX and control-XX were concentrated in NOD - like receptor signaling pathway, Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and Biosynthesis of amino acids. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that lncRNAs showing intense fluctuation during RU486 treatment are also sexually dimorphic during early sex differentiation, which further proves the intimate relationship between lncRNAs and sex differentiation and sexual transdifferentiation. Taken together, our data strongly indicates that a long-term exposure of RU486 resulted in sex reversal of XX female fish and the altered expression of sexually dimorphic lncRNAs might partially account for the sex reversal via epigenetic modification.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Mifepristona/toxicidade , Progestinas/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Genoma , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 359-368, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473811

RESUMO

Successful territory defence is a prerequisite for reproduction across many taxa, and often highly sensitive to the actions of territorial neighbours. Nevertheless, to date, assessments of the significance of the behaviour of heterospecific neighbours have been infrequent and taxonomically restricted. In this field study, I examined the importance of both heterospecific and conspecific neighbours in a biparental fish, the convict cichlid, Amatitlania siquia. This was done by assessing the colonisation rates of vacant territories, the rates of aggression by the territory holders, and the overall rates of aggression towards intruders, in treatments that controlled the proximity of both neighbour types. Convict cichlid pairs colonised vacant nesting resources (territory locations) at similar rates independent of the proximity of heterospecific (moga, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis) or conspecific neighbours. However, a model of sympatric cichlid intruder was subjected to considerably higher overall levels of aggression when mogas were nearby. In contrast, the proximity of conspecifics did not have a significant effect on the overall aggression towards the intruder. These results suggest that previously demonstrated higher survival of convict cichlid broods in close proximity of mogas may be driven by aggression towards shared enemies. No conclusive evidence was found regarding whether mogas also influence convict cichlids' investment into anti-intruder aggression: the results show a marginally non-significant trend, and a moderately large effect size, to the direction of a lower investment in mogas', but not conspecifics', proximity. More generally, heterospecific neighbours may provide protective benefits in a wider range of ecological settings than commonly considered.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ciclídeos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Simpatria , Territorialidade
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