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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20200137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206805

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different crude glycerin levels in the diet of Nile tilapia fingerlings (mean initial weight 0.32 ± 0.06 g, n = 450) on growth performance parameters, whole-body composition, blood glucose and liver morphology. Crude glycerin was tested at six different levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20%) in diets containing 30% digestible protein and 3,000 kcal kg-1 digestible energy. After 37 days of feeding, the inclusion of crude glycerin resulted in positive effects on final weight, visceral fat, weight gain, feed conversion, specific growth rate and feed intake. The different treatments did not influence fillet yield, glycemia, survival and hepatosomatic index, but intermediate levels of inclusion decreased the area of hepatocytes. Regarding fish body composition, significant differences were found in moisture and ash contents, with no changes in crude protein and total lipid. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the Nile tilapia diet improves growth performance without negatively affecting survival rate and glycemia of fingerlings.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Glicerol
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 721-727, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033868

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50-96h), effective concentration (EC50-96h), risk assessment, and development of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus larvae submitted to florfenicol (FF) exposure. Fish (n = 147; 8.6 ± 0.6 mg; 7 fish/aquarium) were randomly distributed in 21 aquaria (1 L) and exposed to five concentrations of FF 58.73; 131.31; 198.96; 241.88 and 381.81 mg L-1 plus one control and a control with solvent, totalizing seven treatments and three replicates. The estimated median LC50-96h of FF for Nile tilapia larvae was 349.94 mg L-1. The EC50-96h of FF was 500 mg L-1 for weight reduction and was 1040 mg L-1 for length reduction. After the exposure period, final weight and length differed (p < 0.05) among treatments, showing the lowest biometric values ​​with the highest concentrations of FF. The pH and dissolved oxygen were altered (p < 0.05) during the experimental period. The FF high doses used to determine the LC 50 after 96 h negatively affected the development of the larvae. On the other hand, through risk assessment analysis this antibiotic can be classified as low toxicity to Nile tilapia larvae and show low environmental risk.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dose Letal Mediana , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Tianfenicol/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
3.
Zootaxa ; 4858(1): zootaxa.4858.1.9, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056247

RESUMO

Serranochromis robustus robustus from Lake Malawi and Serranochromis robustus jallae from Zambia were compared using morphological data. We re-elevated S. robustus jallae to species based on the following. Serranochromis robustus generally has a longer lower jaw (50.7-59.6% HL) than S. jallae (49.2-52.7% HL). Serranochromis robustus is not as deep-bodied as S. jallae as evidenced by the distance between the posterior insertion of the dorsal fin and the posterior insertion of the anal fin (13.4-15.1% SL in S. robustus vs. 14.9-18.4% SL in S. jallae). Additionally, S. robustus has a narrower least caudal peduncle depth (10.9-12.8% SL) than S. jallae (11.3-14.2% SL); the least caudal peduncle depth of all S. robustus was less than 12.8% SL while, except for the smallest specimen of S. jallae (88.1 mm SL), the least caudal peduncle depth was greater than 13.2% SL. Adults in breeding color of Serranochromis robustus are blue/green laterally, while adults in breeding color of S. jallae are yellow/green laterally. The marginal bands on the dorsal and caudal fins of S. jallae are bright orange in specimens from the Okavango River system and creamy yellow in Upper Zambezi specimens. In S. robustus, there is a yellow marginal band on the dorsal fin.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Ciclídeos , Animais , Rios
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105649, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035768

RESUMO

Morphological nuclear alterations are indicative of DNA damage and have been considered excellent markers of exposure to several pollutants in aquatic environments. Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for measuring cell phenotypes in large numbers of cells in a short period of time. This technique is suited to the study of cell populations and subset identification as a function of its high-throughput and multi-parameter characteristics. We used the quantification of erythrocyte nuclear alterations to compare the techniques of imaging flow cytometry and light microscopy. The comparison used blood samples of the fish Oreochromis niloticus assayed using cadmium as a nuclear alteration-inducing agent. The results showed that imaging flow cytometry has higher sensitivity than light microscopy for detecting and quantifying erythrocytic nuclear alterations. We conclude that imaging flow cytometry can produce fast and reliable results and could potentially be useful in studies involving fish erythrocytes under normal and impacted environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Histonas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 141: 1-14, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940246

RESUMO

This study investigated the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs) towards yeasts recovered from diseased fishes; and focused on the efficacy of one EO (carvacrol) on growth performance, non-specific immunity, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus against Cryptococcus uniguttulatus challenge. Thymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and cinnamon were first tested in vitro against 20 clinical yeast strains in comparison with antifungal drugs (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and clotrimazole) using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. For the in vivo challenge, fish (n = 150) were divided into 5 groups (carvacrol prophylaxis, carvacrol treatment, itraconazole treatment, unchallenged control, and positive control; 30 fish group-1) with 3 replicates. Phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species production, reactive nitrogen species production, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme activity, and total immunoglobulins were tested before and after challenge. Relative percent survival (RPS) and mortality percent were determined as indicators for functional immunity. EOs displayed divergent degrees of antifungal activity, and carvacrol was the most effective against the tested yeasts. The dietary additive of carvacrol significantly enhanced growth performance, all immunological parameters, and the RPS values (90%) compared to other treatments. This unique experimental model indicates that carvacrol seems promising not only for enhancing immunity and promoting fish growth, but also for controlling emerging fungal infections. Future studies should investigate different concentrations of carvacrol as well as its antifungal activity in different fish species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Criptococose/veterinária , Cryptococcus , Doenças dos Peixes , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Cimenos , Dieta , Óleos Voláteis
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105612, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911328

RESUMO

Lambda-cyhalothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid that mimics the structure and insecticidal properties of pyrethrin, a natural insecticide derived from chrysanthemums. In fish, it disrupts the nervous system, causing motor paralysis and several other alterations associated with varying levels of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate osmoregulatory responses and histological changes in the gills of Oreochromis niloticus chronically exposed to a sublethal dosage (0.86 µg/L) of lambda-cyhalothrin. The mean serum values for Na2+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, pH, lactate, H+, HCO3, and glucose along to degree of tissue change (DTC) at 24, 96, 168, and 240 h post-exposure (hpe) were evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin affected the neuronal motor function at 24 hpe, followed by the increase of the K+, Ca2+, H+, and glucose levels in the exposed group, compared to the control group. Lactate and H+ levels in the exposed group were higher than those in the control group at 168 and 240 hpe respectively. HCO3, and Cl- levels increased at 240 hpe, although there was no change in the pH values. DTC was higher in treated fish than in control fish, but there were no significant differences among time-exposure. The changes detected ranged from hyperemia of the branchial vasculature, eosinophilic granulocytic cell infiltration, mucous cell hyperplasia, and partial fusion of secondary lamellae at 24 hpe to vascular aneurysm formation, and necrosis of the lamellar epithelium at 240 hpe. Thus, a sublethal dosage of lambda-cyhalothrin in the long-term is toxic for Nile tilapia, characterized by hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, and respiratory alkalosis, followed by time-dependent histological changes.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Brânquias/patologia , Inseticidas
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 565-571, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918564

RESUMO

Fish consumption from contaminated water-bodies is a serious health issue. This study conducted to reveal the presence of heavy metals and bisphenols in Vembanad lake, an exploiting tourist spot in Kerala, receiving untreated agricultural, domestic, municipal, and industrial effluents. We evaluated aquatic contaminant impact on hepatic stress markers in Etroplus suratensis from fragile Vembanad lake. The significant difference in water physiochemical parameters, the concentration of heavy metals, and bisphenols (BPA and BPS) were studied. Hepatic tissue of E. suratensis inhabited in lake featured with high iron (11.29 ± 0.39 ppm) and BPA (0.02412 ± 0.0031 µg/mL) content along with an increased hepatic stress marker and distorted hepatic structure. The study highlights the presence of high iron and BPA in edible fish. The study recommends monitoring of physiochemical characters of freshwater lakes is essential for better survival of freshwater flora and fauna.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Ciclídeos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Índia , Lagos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 582-587, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948914

RESUMO

Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to 10.0 ppb of organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and avermectin insecticides abamectin (ABM) and emamectin benzoate (EB) for 48 and 96 h. RBC and Hb decreased in CPF- and ABM-exposed fish after 96-h. Plasma ALT, AST, cortisol, and glucose increased in 96-h CPF-, ABM- and EB-exposed fish, while plasma ions declined in 96-h CPF-exposed ones. Insecticides caused alterations in liver oxidative stress parameters. In fish exposed to CPF, CAT increased after 48-h whereas it decreased after 96-h. Also, CAT declined in 48- and 96-h ABM-exposed fish, whereas it elevated in 48-h EB-exposed ones. Insecticides caused decreases in SOD at 48- and 96-h and in GR after 96-h. GSH elevated in CPF-exposed fish after 48-h, while it decreased in all the tested insecticide exposures after 96-h. Malondialdehyde of fish exposed to insecticides for 96-h increased. Consequently, toxic effects of insecticides on O. niloticus were generally as CPF > ABM > EB.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Ciclídeos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Oxirredução , Distribuição Aleatória , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/veterinária
9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 95, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiations are characterized by extreme and/or iterative phenotypic divergence; however, such variation does not accumulate evenly across an organism. Instead, it is often partitioned into sub-units, or modules, which can differentially respond to selection. While it is recognized that changing the pattern of modularity or the strength of covariation (integration) can influence the range or rate of morphological evolution, the relationship between shape variation and covariation remains unclear. For example, it is possible that rapid phenotypic change requires concomitant changes to the underlying covariance structure. Alternatively, repeated shifts between phenotypic states may be facilitated by a conserved covariance structure. Distinguishing between these scenarios will contribute to a better understanding of the factors that shape biodiversity. Here, we explore these questions using a diverse Lake Malawi cichlid species complex, Tropheops, that appears to partition habitat by depth. RESULTS: We construct a phylogeny of Tropheops populations and use 3D geometric morphometrics to assess the shape of four bones involved in feeding (mandible, pharyngeal jaw, maxilla, pre-maxilla) in populations that inhabit deep versus shallow habitats. We next test numerous modularity hypotheses to understand whether fish at different depths are characterized by conserved or divergent patterns of modularity. We further examine rates of morphological evolution and disparity between habitats and among modules. Finally, we raise a single Tropheops species in environments mimicking deep or shallow habitats to discover whether plasticity can replicate the pattern of morphology, disparity, or modularity observed in natural populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that conserved patterns of modularity permit the evolution of divergent morphologies and may facilitate the repeated transitions between habitats. In addition, we find the lab-reared populations replicate many trends in the natural populations, which suggests that plasticity may be an important force in initiating depth transitions, priming the feeding apparatus for evolutionary change.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Lagos , Malaui , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Faringe/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Água
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813739

RESUMO

Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is the third most commonly farmed finfish species in the world, accounting for nearly 5% of global aquaculture production. In the past few decades much of the success of this species has been attributed to the development and distribution of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Despite the increasing availability of GIFT, the productivity of small-scale farming remains highly variable, particularly in developing nations. Commercial fish-feed pellets can increase fish farm productivity; however, many small-scale farmers rely on other means of feeding fish due to the high cost and limited availability of commercial fish feed pellets. Therefore, understanding how locally-sourced feeds affect the production of GIFT is an important step towards improving feeding practices, particularly for farmers with low financial capital. This study used stable isotope analysis (SIA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the effects of a locally-sourced vegetable-based diet and commercial pellet-based diets on the relative condition, nutrient assimilation patterns and gastrointestinal microbiota of GIFT. GIFT fed a locally-sourced diet were smaller, and in a significantly poorer condition than those fed with commercial fish feeds. SIA showed no differences in dietary carbon between the two diets; however, δ13C, poor fish condition and the abundance of specific bacterial taxa (of such as Fusobacteria) were correlated. SIA revealed that GIFT fed locally-sourced diets that predominantly consisted of vegetables were significantly enriched in δ15N despite a perceived lack of dietary protein. This enrichment suggests that GIFT fed a locally-sourced diet may be supplementing their diet via cannibalism, a behaviour representative of poor farming practice. Overall this study highlights the need to increase the availability of suitable GIFT feeds in developing nations. The development a low-cost feed alternative could improve the success of small-scale GIFT farmers in PNG, increasing both food and income security within the region.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Aquicultura/métodos , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/microbiologia , Aquicultura/economia , Aquicultura/organização & administração , Canibalismo , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/organização & administração , New South Wales , Nutrientes/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654587

RESUMO

The 17 alpha methyltestosterone (MT) hormone is fed to Oreochromis niloticus larvae in fish farms with the purpose of inducing sex reversal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and sub-lethality of MT (99.9% purity) and cMT (a commercial MT with 90% purity) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) adults, where the animals were exposed to concentrations of 0, 4, 23, 139, 833 and 5000 µg/L for 96 hours. Genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test (MN), nuclear abnormalities (NA) and comet assay. A low genotoxic potential of MT was showed, inducing micronucleus, nuclear abnormalities and DNA damage in Danio rerio, depending on the use of MT or cMT, gender and tested concentrations. In the sub-lethality trials, there was a basal difference in the activity of the enzymatic biochemical markers for males and females, while the Glutatione S transferase (GST) activity decreased in all analyzed tissues, and for males the enzymatic activity decreased only in the intestine. Results suggest that MT has a toxic potential to fish because it alters enzymatic metabolic pathways and may pose a risk to the ecosystems.


Assuntos
Androgênios/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Metiltestosterona/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecossistema , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Metiltestosterona/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of four woody forages (Moringa oleifera Lam (MOL), fermented MOL, Folium mori (FM) and fermented FM) on biodiversity and bioactivity of aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by a traditional culture-dependent method. A total of 133 aerobic culturable isolates were recovered and identified from the gut of tilapia, belonging to 35 species of 12 genera in three bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria). Among them, 6 bacterial isolates of Bacillus baekryungensis, Bacillus marisflavi, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus methylotrophicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas taiwanensis were isolated from all the five experimental groups. The Bray-Curtis analysis showed that the bacterial communities among the five groups displayed obvious differences. In addition, this result of bioactivity showed that approximate 43% of the aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia displayed a distinct anti-bacterial activity against at least one of four fish pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Streptomyces rutgersensis displayed strong activity against all four indicator bacteria. These results contribute to our understanding of the intestinal bacterial diversity of tilapia when fed with woody forages and how certain antimicrobial bacteria flourished under such diets. This can aid in the further exploitation of new diets and probiotic sources in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aerobiose , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18566-18573, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675244

RESUMO

Dominant individuals are often most influential in their social groups, affecting movement, opinion, and performance across species and contexts. Yet, behavioral traits like aggression, intimidation, and coercion, which are associated with and in many cases define dominance, can be socially aversive. The traits that make dominant individuals influential in one context may therefore reduce their influence in other contexts. Here, we examine this association between dominance and influence using the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, comparing the influence of dominant and subordinate males during normal social interactions and in a more complex group consensus association task. We find that phenotypically dominant males are aggressive, socially central, and that these males have a strong influence over normal group movement, whereas subordinate males are passive, socially peripheral, and have little influence over normal movement. However, subordinate males have the greatest influence in generating group consensus during the association task. Dominant males are spatially distant and have lower signal-to-noise ratios of informative behavior in the association task, potentially interfering with their ability to generate group consensus. In contrast, subordinate males are physically close to other group members, have a high signal-to-noise ratio of informative behavior, and equivalent visual connectedness to their group as dominant males. The behavioral traits that define effective social influence are thus highly context specific and can be dissociated with social dominance. Thus, processes of hierarchical ascension in which the most aggressive, competitive, or coercive individuals rise to positions of dominance may be counterproductive in contexts where group performance is prioritized.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Predomínio Social , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Consenso , Feminino , Masculino
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20190140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638863

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate growth, biochemical, hematological and intestinal enzymes responses and survival of Nile tilapia juveniles fed a diet containing the essential oil of lemongrass Cymbopogum flexuosus (EOCF) and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Five diets were evaluated (in quadruplicate) with increasing levels of EOCF (0.0 - control; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0 and 2.0 mL kg diet-1). On day 45, eight fish per treatment were sampled and blood, liver and intestine samples were taken. Others eight fish per treatment were infected with A. hydrophila followed by a 15-day period of observation. Citral is the main constituent of EOCF. The inclusion of 2.0 mL EOCF kg diet-1 increased specific growth rate and survival after A. hydrophila infection and decreased feed conversion ratio of Nile tilapia. In general, higher concentrations of EOCF in the diet reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides levels, and increased plasma amino acids, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic ALT levels, hematological parameters, and the activity of intestinal enzymes. It was concluded that the inclusion of 2.0 mL EOCF kg diet-1 improved growth performance, biochemical and physiological responses and decreased mortality of Nile tilapia after A. hydrophila infection.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Cymbopogon , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Aeromonas hydrophila , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Óleos Voláteis
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107956, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659234

RESUMO

The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5% (C. molnari), 18.4% (C. huwi), 22.9% (C. scophthalmi) and up to 27.5% genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. (Cryptosporidium felis). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences showed that C. bollandi n. sp. exhibited 12.9% (C. molnari) to 21.1% (C. canis) genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. Genetic data as well as previous histological analysis clearly supports the validity of C. bollandi n. sp. as a separate species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , Washington/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19321-19327, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719137

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes under different environmental conditions, is critical for the origins and maintenance of biodiversity; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying plasticity as well as how variation in those mechanisms can drive evolutionary change remain poorly understood. Here, we examine the cichlid feeding apparatus, an icon of both prodigious evolutionary divergence and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. We first provide a tissue-level mechanism for plasticity in craniofacial shape by measuring rates of bone deposition within functionally salient elements of the feeding apparatus in fishes forced to employ alternate foraging modes. We show that levels and patterns of phenotypic plasticity are distinct among closely related cichlid species, underscoring the evolutionary potential of this trait. Next, we demonstrate that hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which has been implicated in the evolutionary divergence of cichlid feeding architecture, is associated with environmentally induced rates of bone deposition. Finally, to demonstrate that Hh levels are the cause of the plastic response and not simply the consequence of producing more bone, we use transgenic zebrafish in which Hh levels could be experimentally manipulated under different foraging conditions. Notably, we find that the ability to modulate bone deposition rates in different environments is dampened when Hh levels are reduced, whereas the sensitivity of bone deposition to different mechanical demands increases with elevated Hh levels. These data advance a mechanistic understanding of phenotypic plasticity in the teleost feeding apparatus and in doing so contribute key insights into the origins of adaptive morphological radiations.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Crânio/metabolismo
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609239

RESUMO

This study describes Henneguya sacacaensis n. sp. in specimens of the Osteichthyes Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840), collected in the Rio Curiaú Environmental Protection Area in the city of Macapá, state of Amapá Brazil. Using optical microscopy and molecular analysis, these cyst-shaped parasites were analyzed. The gills of 57.14% of the analyzed S. jurupari contained hundreds of spores. The cysts found on the gill lamellae were oval-shaped and whitish. The Henneguya spores had an average length of 46.5 (41.3-56.92) µm. The fusiform body of the Henneguya measured 16.5 (13.16-20.01) µm long and 5.1 (3.91-6.12) µm in width, the two polar capsules had a taper of 3.83 (3.4-4.32) µm and a width of 1.68 (1.4-1.99) µm, and the tail measured 30 (22.47-41.67) µm in length, containing a polar filament coiled seven to nine times. Morphogical and phylogenetic analysis allowed the preposition of a new species, Henneguya sacacaensis n. sp, that belongs to the family Myxobolidae and the genus Henneguya.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Brasil , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): 1-7, 20200000.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1117757

RESUMO

Estudos sobre a alimentação de peixes são fundamentais para compreender as relações tróficas e estrutura de comunidades ícticas. A espécie em estudo Aequidens tetramerus pertence à família Cichlidae que detém mais de 450 espécies para os neotrópicos, sendo que destes, 287 habitam a América do Sul. Objetivou-se com este estudo compreender a dieta e padrão alimentar de A. tetramerus em lagos de várzea nos ambientes de macrófitas aquáticas da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá (RDSM), Estado do Amazonas. A análise da dieta foi feita a partir da averiguação do conteúdo estomacal de 59 indivíduos. Determinou-se o Grau de Repleção Estomacal (GRE), Frequência de Ocorrência (FO%), Frequência de Biomassa (FB%) e o Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi %). Segundo o (GRE), 28 espécimes (39,4%) apresentaram estômagos vazios. A dieta de A. tetramerus foi composta por 12 itens alimentares diferentes. Entretanto, poucos foram predominantes com destaque para insetos (12,6% e 42,7%), em FO% e FB%, respectivamente. Pode-se inferir que A. tetramerus possui hábito carnívoro com tendência a insetivoria, pois quando realizado a combinação dos métodos, por meio da determinação do (IAi %) para verificar a importância das 12 categorias que compuseram a dieta, o item inseto também obteve o maior valor (IAi = 0,71%). Este fato pode estar relacionado ao próprio ambiente de macrófitas aquáticas, pois este é um habitat ideal para a reprodução e desenvolvimento de insetos.(AU)


Studies on the feeding habits of fish are key to understanding the trophic relationships and the structure of ictic communities. The species under study, Aequidens tetramerus, belongs to the Cichlidae family which has over 450 species for the neotropics, of which 287 inhabit South America. The aim of this study was to understand the diet and dietary patterns of A. tetramerus in floodplain lakes in the aquatic macrophyte environments of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM) in the state of Amazonas. The diet was analyzed by investigating the stomach contents of 59 individuals. The degree of stomach repletion (DRS), frequency of occurrence (FO%), frequency of biomass (FB%), and dietary importance index (IAi%) were determined. According to DSR, 28 specimens (39.4%) had empty stomachs. The diet of A. tetramerus was composed of 12 different food items. However, only a few were predominant, with emphasis to insects (12.6% and 42.7% in FO% and FB%, respectively). It can be inferred that A. tetramerus has carnivorous habits with a tendency to be an insectivore, since when the combination of methods was performed, by determining the IAi% to verify the importance of the 12 categories that composed the diet, the insect category also presented the highest value (IAi = 0.71%). This fact may be related to the aquatic macrophyte environment itself, as this is an ideal habitat for the reproduction and development of insects.(AU)


Estudios sobre la alimentación de peces son fundamentales para comprender las relaciones tróficas y estructura de comunidades ícticas. La especie en estudio, Aequidens tetramerus, pertenece a la familia Cichlidae que posee más de 450 especies en neo trópicos, 287 de los cuales habitan en América del Sur. El objetivo de este estudio yace en la compresión de la dieta y el patrón alimentar del A. tetramerus en lagos de vega en los ambientes de macrófitas acuáticas de la Reserva de Desarrollo Sostenible de Mamirauá (RDSM), en el Estado de Amazonas. El análisis de la dieta se realizó investigando el contenido estomacal de 59 individuos. Se determinaron el Grado de Repleción Estomacal (GRE), Frecuencia de Ocurrencia (FO%), Frecuencia de Biomasa (FB%) y el Índice de Importancia Alimentar (IAi%). Según GRE, 28 muestras (39,4%) tenían estómagos vacíos. La dieta de A. tetramerus consistió en 12 alimentos diferentes. Sin embargo, pocos fueron predominantes, con énfasis en insectos (12.6% y 42.7%), en FO% y FB%, respectivamente. Se puede inferir que el A. tetramerus tiene un hábito carnívoro con tendencia insectívora, porque cuando se realiza la combinación de los métodos, determinando el (IAi%) para verificar la importancia de las 12 categorías que componían la dieta, el ítem insecto también obtuvo el valor más alto (IAi = 0.71%). Este hecho puede estar relacionado con el propio ambiente de macrófitas acuáticas, ya que este es un hábitat ideal para la reproducción y el desarrollo de insectos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Biologia , Ciclídeos , Meio Ambiente , Alimentos
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36857-36864, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577967

RESUMO

Human-made impacts on the acoustic environment from marine industries is becoming a more significant issue with increasing public concern of environmental consequences. Even though there are several reports with scientific evidences on harmful influences of anthropogenic underwater sounds on the aquatic ecosystem, most of the studies so far dealt with trigger effects of short term noise impacts on aquatic animals. In the present study, however, long-term experimentation was conducted with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in order to figure out how fish may respond to long-term exposure of underwater sounds and if the level of response may change (increase or decline) over time. A startle reflex as a sign of stress was seen immediately at the start of the playbacks of ship noise or urban sounds in this study. Peaks of elevated respiratory movements of ventilation (opercula beats and pectoral wing rates) retained high over the following 30 days of sound initiation and underwent a declining trend over the following 90 days of exposure. At the end of the 120-day study period, the lowered response of fish after long-term sound exposure is likely due to the increased tolerance of fish to human-generated underwater sounds of urban and shipping noises. Different than short-term noise impacts, information on long-term exposure of anthropogenic underwater sounds is important for environmental management and setting new regulations for the sustainable use of water resources in the world.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Navios , Acústica , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Som
20.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 167: 104600, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527444

RESUMO

The current work intended to inspect the hepato-nephrotoxicity of gibberellic acid (GA3) in juvenile of Oreochromis niloticus as well as the possibility of restoration after dietary addition of different concentrations of Spirulina platensis (SP). Fishes were evenly assorted into five groups: Group I assigned as control, Group II fed on basal diet and exposed to 150 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3). The 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups exposed to150 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3) and previously fed for two months on SP supplemented diets at levels of 5, 20, and 100 g/kg, respectively. Fish serum were utilized to check glucose, total protein, hepatic and renal functions, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants activities (superoxide dismautase; SOD, catalase; CAT, and total antioxidant capacity; TAC) as well as histopathological alterations in liver and kidney. The results showed that creatinine, uric acid, liver enzymes, glucose, total protein, SOD, and CAT were significantly elevated in GA3-treated group. Liver of GA3-treated fish manifested some histopathological changes (hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and apoptotic cells with pyknotic nuclei, necrosis, dilated blood sinusoids, and lymphocytic aggregation around the central veins). Kidney of GA3-exposed fish revealed edema of the epithelium lining of some renal tubules and some showed vacuolar degeneration and dissociation. Hypertrophy in the glomerulus was observed with dilated blood capillaries. SP supplementation restored these biochemical, antioxidants, and histological changes near to control levels. This improvement was higher with 100 g/kg SP showing concentration dependency. According to this study we can conclude that SP supplementation can improve the hepato- and nephrotoxicity caused by GA3 exposure indicating its role as potent antioxidant food additive.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Spirulina , Animais , Antioxidantes , Giberelinas , Fígado , Estresse Oxidativo
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