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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064723

RESUMO

To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Comportamento Perigoso , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915796

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vibration (Vib versus noVib) during a maximal graded cycling exercise on hormonal response, precisely on cortisol (C) and testosterone (T). Twelve active males (25 ± 5yrs; 181 ± 5cm; 80.7 ± 11.1kg) randomly performed two maximal incremental cycling tests on two separate days and at the same time of the day (09:00). The protocol consisted of incremental steps of 3 min duration performed on a PowerBIKETM that induces vibration cycling. The study was a repeated measures design and participants performed the test with and without vibration. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were continuously assessed and blood lactate (Bla) was recorded at the end of each incremental stage. Saliva samples were collected before and immediately after the test, and analysed for (C) and (T). The results show that C and T increased in both cycling conditions; however, the C's magnitude of change was significantly higher by 83% after Vib cycling in comparison to the no Vib (p = 0.014), whereas the T's magnitude of change were not statistically different between trials (p = 0.715). Vibration induced a decrease of the T/C ratio (p = 0.046) but no significant changes were observed following noVib (p = 0.476). As a conclusion, the investigation suggests that adding mechanical vibration to cycling may potentiate a catabolic exercise-induced state, which could have potential clinical implications in rehabilitation and injury treatment. Sport experts should take this message home to carefully plan the recovery process and time during training and competitions.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Vibração , Adolescente , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 65, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907587

RESUMO

Stress cardiac imaging is the current first line investigation for coronary artery disease diagnosis and decision making and an adjunctive tool in a range of non-ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. Exercise cardiovascular magnetic resonance (Ex-CMR) has developed over the past 25 years to combine the superior image qualities of CMR with the preferred method of exercise stress. Presently, numerous exercise methods exist, from performing stress on an adjacent CMR compatible treadmill to in-scanner exercise, most commonly on a supine cycle ergometer. Cardiac conditions studied by Ex-CMR are broad, commonly investigating ischaemic heart disease and congenital heart disease but extending to pulmonary hypertension and diabetic heart disease. This review presents an in-depth assessment of the various Ex-CMR stress methods and the varied pulse sequence approaches, including those specially designed for Ex-CMR. Current and future developments in image acquisition are highlighted, and will likely lead to a much greater clinical use of Ex-CMR across a range of cardiovascular conditions.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclismo , Feminino , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sports Biomech ; 19(6): 723-737, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942954

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand if and how surface-induced vibrations and road bike damping affect short-term neuromuscular performance in cycling. Thirty cyclists (mass 75.9 ± 8.9 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.05 m, Vo2max 63.0 ± 6.8 ml/min/kg) performed steady-state and maximum effort tests with and without vibration exposure (front dropout: 44 Hz, 4.1 mm; rear dropout: 38 Hz, 3.5 mm) on a damped and a nondamped bike. Transmitted accelerations to the musculoskeletal system, activation of lower extremity muscles (gast. med., soleus, vast. med., rec. fem.) and upper body muscles (erec. spinae, deltoideus, tric. brachii), oxygen uptake, heart rate and crank power output were measured. The main findings indicate a transmission of vibration to the whole body, but since no major propulsive muscles increase their activation with vibration, the systemic energy demand increases only marginally with vibration. Damping reduces vibrations at the upper body, which indicates an increase in comfort, but has no effect on the vibration transfer to the lower extremities. Therefore, road bike damping does not affect neuromuscular response of the propulsive muscle groups and energy demand. Consequently, short-term power output does not increase with damping.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Vibração , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cycling for transport could integrate physical activity (PA) into daily routines and potentially increase total PA levels. However, for parents with young children, most factors affecting transport mode choice tend to facilitate car use. Greater insight is necessary into reasons for (not) using sustainable transport modes in parents with young children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the experiences, including motives, perceptions, attitudes, and norms, of parents of young children by using an e-bike, a longtail bike, and a traditional bike for everyday travel to the workplace, kindergarten, and the grocery store during the autumn, winter, and spring, in nine months. METHODS: Semistructured focus group interviews were conducted with 18 parents of young children residing in southern Norway. Parents were recruited through Facebook announcements and direct contact with kindergartens, selected organisations, and companies in the Kristiansand municipality. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation by using NVivo V.11. RESULTS: Participants' experiences were summarised by three main themes: 'cycling is cumbersome', 'cycling reflects the desirable me', and 'breaking the cycling code'. Time use, planning, logistics, wet and cold weather, long distances, and no cycling habit were frequently mentioned barriers, and the most notable facilitator was the children's attitude towards cycling. In general, children loved to cycle and preferred cycling to driving. Additionally, the freedom and independence of cycling were emphasised and valued. CONCLUSION: In challenging weather conditions, parents of young children may experience cycling as cumbersome but desirable, and bike access could increase the feasibility of daily cycling.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Transportes/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966338

RESUMO

Prolonged exercise is known to cause changes in common biomarkers. Occasionally, competition athletes need medical assistance and hospitalisation during prolonged exercise events. To aid clinicians treating patients and medical teams in such events we have studied common biomarkers after at The Norseman Xtreme Triathlon (Norseman), an Ironman distance triathlon with an accumulated climb of 5200 m, and an Olympic triathlon for comparison. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and the day following the Norseman Xtreme Triatlon (n = 98) and Oslo Olympic Triathlon (n = 15). Increased levels of clinical significance were seen at the finish line of the Norseman in white blood cells count (WBC) (14.2 [13.5-14.9] 109/L, p < 0.001), creatinine kinase (CK) (2450 [1620-3950] U/L, p < 0.001) and NT-proBNP (576 [331-856] ng/L, p < 0.001). The following day there were clinically significant changes in CRP (39 [27-56] mg/L, p < 0.001) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) (142 [99-191] U/L, p < 0.001). In comparison, after the Olympic triathlon distance, there were statistically significant, but less clinically important, changes in WBC (7.8 [6.7-9.6] 109/L, p < 0.001), CK (303 [182-393] U/L, p < 0.001) and NT-proBNP (77 [49-88] ng/L, p < 0.01) immediately after the race, and in CRP (2 [1-3] mg/L, p < 0.001) and AST (31 [26-41] U/L, p < 0.01) the following day. Subclinical changes were also observed in Hemoglobin, Thrombocytes, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Creatinine, Alanine Aminotransferase and Thyroxine after the Norseman. In conclusion, there were significant changes in biomarkers used in a clinical setting after the Norseman. Of largest clinical importance were clinically significant increased WBC, CRP, AST, CK and NT-proBNP after the Norseman. This is important to be aware of when athletes engaging in prolonged exercise events receive medical assistance or are hospitalised.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110990, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778281

RESUMO

This article reviews the scientific literature on trail erosion and the magnitude of the erosive processes that occur on mountain trails due to recreational activities, mainly due to hiking. This work is necessary as a result of the increase in hiking and biking in forest, scrubland and grasslands, and the soil and vegetation degradation induced by these activities. We analysed results that have been compiled in the scientific literature, as well as other issues such as the geographical and temporal distribution of the research, the methods applied, the journals where the research was published, the types and quantity of uses of the pathways and the measures undertaken for damage mitigation. This paper highlights that there is a need for harmonization of methods. The results show that soil erosion rates are highly variable, high, and non-sustainable. Trail erosion research is growing at a rate of 3 papers per year and is published in a small group of scientific journals. Six journals published 47% of the papers on trail erosion, which show a high concentration in environmental journals. There are few papers published in the soil science and geomorphology disciplines, although the research topic and the science background are in these two disciplines. Reported world soil losses from trails ranged from 6.1 Mg ha-1 y-1 to 2090 Mg ha-1 y-1, all of which are not sustainable. Trail erosion has mainly been investigated in the USA and is a new topic in other regions of the world. There is a need to implement mitigation measures to avoid land degradation, and this should be researched in the near future as right now most of the research describes and quantifies the problem but does not provide solutions: mitigation, rehabilitation or restoration. From a pure scientific approach, we claim that there is a need to research the connectivity of flows and the role of the trails on runoff generation and then sediment yield at pedon, slope and watershed scales. There is a need to research the mechanisms of the soil erosion process in trails: trampling effect, wheel impact, factors and seasonal and temporal changes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo , Ciclismo , Florestas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236592, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790792

RESUMO

Caffeine improves cycling time trial performance through enhanced motor output and muscle recruitment. However, it is unknown if caffeine further increases power output entropy. To investigate the effects of caffeine effects on cycling time trial performance and motor output entropy (MOEn), nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 55 ± 6.1 mL.kg.-1min-1) performed a 4 km cycling time trial (TT4km) after caffeine and placebo ingestion in a counterbalanced order. Power output data were sampled at a 2 Hz frequency, thereafter entropy was estimated on a sliding-window fashion to generate a power output time series. A number of mixed models compared performance and motor output entropy between caffeine and placebo every 25% of the total TT4km distance. Caffeine ingestion improved power output by 8% (p = 0.003) and increased MOEn by 7% (p = 0.018). Cyclists adopted a U-shaped pacing strategy after caffeine ingestion. MOEn mirrored power output responses as an inverted U-shape MOEn during the time trial. Accordingly, a strong inverse correlation was observed between MOEn and power output responses over the last 25% of the TT4km (p < 0.001), regardless of the ingestion, likely reflecting the end spurt during this period (p = 0.016). Caffeine ingestion improved TT4km performance and motor output responses likely due to a greater power output entropy.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Ciclismo , Entropia , Humanos , Masculino , Efeito Placebo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824263

RESUMO

There are no systematic reviews that have identified the existing studies assessing active commuting physical activity (PA) to and from (to/from) school using objective measures, as well as the contribution of both walking and cycling to/from school to PA levels. To fill this gap in the literature, this systematic review will aim (a) to identify existing studies that assess active commuting PA to/from school with objective measures in young people and to examine the contribution of walking and cycling to/from school to PA levels, and (b) to propose an appropriate methodology and practical considerations to assess active commuting PA to/from school based on the studies identified. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020162004). We will conduct a systematic search up to 2020 in five databases: PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTdiscuss, Cochrane Library, and National Transportation Library. Both the risk of bias and the quality of the identified studies will be evaluated through different instruments according to the design of each study. This systematic review will help to choose the most appropriate objective measures to assess active commuting PA to/from school and to promote walking and cycling to/from school to increase PA levels.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Transportes , Caminhada , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748826

RESUMO

Endurance physical exercise is accompanied by subjective perceptions of exertion (reported perceived exertion, RPE), emotional valence, and arousal. These constructs have been hypothesized to serve as the basis for the exerciser to make decisions regarding when to stop, how to regulate pace, and whether or not to exercise again. In dual physical-cognitive tasks, the mental (executive) workload generated by the cognitive task has been shown to influence these perceptions, in ways that could also influence exercise-related decisions. In the present work, we intend to replicate and extend previous findings that manipulating the amount of executive load imposed by a mental task, performed concomitantly with a submaximal cycling session, influenced emotional states but not perceived exertion. Participants (experienced triathletes) were asked to perform a submaximal cycling task in two conditions with different executive demands (a two-back version of the n-back task vs. oddball) but equated in external physical load. Results showed that the higher executive load condition elicited more arousal and less positive valence than the lower load condition. However, both conditions did not differ in RPE. This experimental dissociation suggests that perceived exertion and its emotional correlates are not interchangeable, which opens the possibility that they could play different roles in exercise-related decision-making.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764818

RESUMO

Active workstations are associated with improved health outcomes, but differences in cognitive and typing outcomes between the types of active workstations are unclear. We addressed two main questions: (1) Are there differences in cognitive and typing performance between seated and active workstations? (2) Are there differences in cognitive and typing performance between cycling and treadmill workstations, specifically? Participants included 137 healthy young adults (74 female, mean age = 20.8 years) who completed two sessions. At session one (baseline), all participants completed cognitive and typing tests including the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a typing test, and a flanker task while sitting at rest. At session two, participants were randomized to an active workstation group (treadmill or cycling desk) during which they performed the tests listed above in a randomized fashion, using alternate versions when available. Participants showed significantly better attention and cognitive control scores during the active session as compared to the seated session, but worse verbal memory scores during the active session. Participants were faster and more accurate at typing during the active session relative to the seated session. There were no significant differences between cycling or treadmill workstations on any cognitive or typing outcomes. Improvements during active sessions may be influenced by practice effects, although alternate forms were used when possible. We conclude that active workstations do not seem to largely impact cognitive abilities, with the exception of a slight decrease in verbal memory performance. Findings suggest active workstations, whether walking or cycling, are useful to improve physical activity, particularly when completing tasks that do not require verbal memory recall.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exercício Físico , Descanso , Adulto , Atenção , Ciclismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Postura Sentada , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237768, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813742

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In cycling, the utilization of the drops position (i.e. the lowest handlebar position relative to the ground) allows for reduced frontal area, likely improved aerodynamics and thus performance compared to the tops (i.e. the position producing the most upright trunk). The reduced trunk angle during seated submaximal cycling has been shown to influence cardiorespiratory factors but the effects on pedalling forces and joint specific power are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of changing handgrip position on joint specific power and cycling kinematics at different external work rates in recreational and professional cyclists. METHOD: Nine professional and nine recreational cyclists performed cycling bouts using three different handgrip positions and three external work rates (i.e. 100W, 200W and external work rate corresponding to the lactate threshold (WRlt)). Joint specific power was calculated from kinematic measurements and pedal forces using 2D inverse dynamics. RESULTS: We found increased hip joint power, decreased knee joint power and increased peak crank torque for the professional cyclist compared to the recreational cyclists, but only at WRlt where the professional cyclists were working at a higher external work rate. There was no main effect of changing handgrip position on any joint, but there was a small interaction effect of external work rate and handgrip position on hip joint power contribution (Generalized eta squared (ηg2) = 0.012). At 100W, changing handgrip position from the tops to the drops decreased the hip joint contribution (-2.0 ± 3.9 percentage points (pct)) and at the WRlt, changing handgrip position increased the hip joint power (1.6 ± 3.1 pct). There was a small effect of handgrip position with the drops leading to increased peak crank torque (ηg2 = 0.02), increased mean dorsiflexion (ηg2 = 0.05) and increased hip flexion (ηg2 = 0.31) compared to the tops. DISCUSSION: The present study demonstrates that there is no main effect of changing handgrip position on joint power. Although there seems to be a small effect on hip joint power when comparing across large ranges in external work rate, any potential negative performance effect would be outweighed by the aerodynamic benefit of the drops position.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Mãos/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Torque , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009638, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to international guidelines and literature, all patients with intermittent claudication should receive an initial treatment of cardiovascular risk modification, lifestyle coaching, and supervised exercise therapy. In the literature, supervised exercise therapy often consists of treadmill or track walking. However, alternative modes of exercise therapy have been described and yielded similar results to walking. This raises the following question: which exercise mode produces the most favourable results? This is the first update of the original review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alternative modes of supervised exercise therapy compared to traditional walking exercise in patients with intermittent claudication. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 4 March 2019. We also undertook reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. No language restriction was applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials comparing alternative modes of exercise training or combinations of exercise modes with a control group of supervised walking exercise in patients with clinically determined intermittent claudication. The supervised walking programme needed to be supervised at least twice a week for a consecutive six weeks of training. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias for each study. As we included studies with different treadmill test protocols and different measuring units (metres, minutes, or seconds), the standardised mean difference (SMD) approach was used for summary statistics of mean walking distance (MWD) and pain-free walking distance (PFWD). Summary estimates were obtained for all outcome measures using a random-effects model. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: For this update, five additional studies were included, making a total of 10 studies that randomised a total of 527 participants with intermittent claudication (IC). The alternative modes of exercise therapy included cycling, lower-extremity resistance training, upper-arm ergometry, Nordic walking, and combinations of exercise modes. Besides randomised controlled trials, two quasi-randomised trials were included. Overall risk of bias in included studies varied from high to low. According to GRADE criteria, the certainty of the evidence was downgraded to low, due to the relatively small sample sizes, clinical inconsistency, and inclusion of three studies with risk of bias concerns. Overall, comparing alternative exercise modes versus walking showed no clear differences for MWD at 12 weeks (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.29 to 0.27; P = 0.95; 6 studies; 274 participants; low-certainty evidence); or at the end of training (SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.11; P = 0.32; 9 studies; 412 participants; low-certainty evidence). Similarly, no clear differences were detected in PFWD at 12 weeks (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.25; P = 0.97; 5 studies; 249 participants; low-certainty evidence); or at the end of training (SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.17; P = 0.59; 8 studies, 382 participants; low-certainty evidence). Four studies reported on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and three studies reported on functional impairment. As the studies used different measurements, meta-analysis was only possible for the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) distance score, which demonstrated little or no difference between groups (MD -5.52, 95% CI -17.41 to 6.36; P = 0.36; 2 studies; 96 participants; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found no clear difference between alternative exercise modes and supervised walking exercise in improving the maximum and pain-free walking distance in patients with intermittent claudication. The certainty of this evidence was judged to be low, due to clinical inconsistency, small sample size and risk of bias concerns. The findings of this review indicate that alternative exercise modes may be useful when supervised walking exercise is not an option. More RCTs with adequate methodological quality and sufficient power are needed to provide solid evidence for comparisons between each alternative exercise mode and the current standard of supervised treadmill walking. Future RCTs should investigate outcome measures on walking behaviour, physical activity, cardiovascular risk, and HR-QoL, using standardised testing methods and reporting of outcomes to allow meaningful comparison across studies.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Caminhada , Adulto , Viés , Ciclismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Treinamento de Resistência , Esqui , Teste de Caminhada
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752224

RESUMO

To achieve a healthy lifestyle, adolescents must be physically active and meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One of the most natural ways of increasing the amount of PA is active commuting (AC) to school. Recent reviews suggest that peer norms have the potential to shape PA during adolescence in particular. Thus, our primary aim was to investigate whether Czech adolescents misperceive their peers' AC behaviors and attitudes towards AC. Our dataset comprised cross-sectional data on 1586 adolescents aged 11-15 years. Basic descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and correlation analyses were used to analyze the data. Regarding traveling to school, 68% of the Czech adolescents in this study are daily active commuters (walking, cycling, or riding a scooter or skateboard). Less than half of the respondents believed that most of their classmates were commuting to school actively almost daily. The students who believed that most of their classmates commuted to school actively had significantly higher chances of being regular active commuters themselves. The results showed that most of the Czech adolescents misperceived the AC norms of their peers. Thus, there could be potential in using a social norms approach aimed at increasing the level of AC in Czech adolescents through targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Transportes , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Caminhada
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105035, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stiff-knee gait, which is a gait abnormality observed after stroke, is characterized by decreased knee flexion angles during the swing phase, and it contributes to a decline in gait ability. This study aimed to identify the immediate effects of pedaling exercises on stiff-knee gait from a kinesiophysiological perspective. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis and stiff-knee gait were randomly assigned to a pedaling group and a walking group. An ergometer was set at a load of 5 Nm and rotation speed of 40 rpm, and gait was performed at a comfortable speed; both the groups performed the intervention for 10 min. Kinematic and electromyographical data while walking on flat surfaces were immediately measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the pedaling group, activity of the rectus femoris significantly decreased from the pre-swing phase to the early swing phase during gait after the intervention. Flexion angles and flexion angular velocities of the knee and hip joints significantly increased during the same period. The pedaling group showed increased step length on the paralyzed side and gait velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Pedaling increases knee flexion during the swing phase in hemiparetic patients with stiff-knee gait and improves gait ability.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Ciclismo , Terapia por Exercício , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Marcha , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(6-7): 360-362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667221

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has put the entire world in a pandemic situation. In response, strict screening, quarantine protocols, and contact tracing have been conducted in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of social distancing on the Public Bicycle Sharing System (PBSS) during the COVID-19 outbreak. We used the PBSS public dataset of Seoul, South Korea. Difference-in-differences (DID) analysis was used. In the DID approach, the 2 groups are distinguished based on designated year. Cases of PBSS use were observed in 2 time periods: pre- and post-strict social distancing in Seoul, Korea. Average PBSS usage per day doubled during 2019-2020 (30 697 vs 77 996, P < .001). Commuters and weekend users increased during the social distancing period in 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. DID analysis showed statistically significant positive effects of high levels of social distancing on PBSS usage, commuters, weekend users, and new subscribers. In conclusion, social distancing during the COVID-19 outbreak increased outdoor physical activity. Meaningful outdoor physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic can be safe from infection and psychologically stabilized as long as keeping meticulous physical distancing, such as hand hygiene, wearing facial masks, and surface cleaning of public resources.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Seul/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(7): 470, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601826

RESUMO

Cyclists' exposure to air pollutants near roadways has been associated with numerous health effects. While the adverse health effects concerning aerosols have traditionally been assessed with data of particle mass concentrations, it appears that the number concentration is also another important indicator of toxicity. Thus, to holistically evaluate one's exposure to aerosol particles, assessments should be based on mass concentrations and number concentrations. In order to assess individual cyclists' exposure as they move through space and time, spatiotemporal high-resolution approaches are needed. Therefore, a mobile, fast-response monitoring platform was developed that uses a cargo bicycle as a base. Data of particle mass concentrations (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) and particle number concentrations (PN10) were collected along two different routes, one characterized by high-intensity vehicle traffic and one by low-intensity vehicle traffic. While high spatiotemporal heterogeneity was observed for all measured quantities, the PN10 concentrations fluctuated the most. High concentrations of PN10 could be clearly associated with vehicle traffic. For PM2.5, this relation was less pronounced. Mean particle concentrations of all measures were significantly higher along the high-traffic route. Comparing route exposures, the inhalation of PM2.5 was similar between both routes, whereas along the high-traffic route, cyclists were exposed to twice the particle number. We conclude that the cargo bike, featuring high-frequency mobile measurements, was useful to characterize the spatial distribution of mass concentrations and number concentrations across an urban environment. Overall, our results suggest that the choice of route is a key factor in reducing cyclists' exposure to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ciclismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617644

RESUMO

Mobility is a prerequisite for satisfying essential human needs. Work, education, social participation: all these activities generate regular journeys. Particularly in cities, however, the "side effects" of mobility such as traffic jams, traffic accidents, air pollution, noise and the resulting health effects are also evident.The planning of settlement structures, the necessary infrastructures, and the design of urban spaces are tasks of urban planning. Urban planning can have a decisive influence on the means of transport people choose, the distances they travel, and the environmental and health effects associated with these choices.This article examines how urban planning can promote alternatives to motorized individual travel. It focuses in particular on active mobility, such as cycling and walking. The paper begins by presenting the fundamental effects of everyday mobility and the resulting traffic on health. It then gives an overview of the potential for promoting active mobility in Germany and how urban planning and the factors it regulates, such as settlement density or mix of uses, influence mobility decisions. An overview of current initiatives and an in-depth presentation of planning strategies in the cities of Barcelona and Bogotá will be used to show which instruments and measures are being used.The article emphasizes that urban planning and the built environment it creates can promote walking and cycling. The examples show, however, that promising initiatives are not realised through spatial planning and the creation of infrastructure alone. Rather, they are cross-sectoral measures aimed at changing the mobility culture in cities.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ciclismo , Planejamento de Cidades , Caminhada , Cidades , Alemanha , Humanos
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Active commuting to school could help increasing physical activity levels among adolescents. However, there is limited understanding on how the relationship between the environment in school surroundings, as well the distance to school, could affect this behavior. AIM: To analyze the characteristics of the environment and distance between house and school with objective measures and their association with active commuting between adolescents of Curitiba, Brazil. METHODS: 493 adolescents were interviewed and 124 schools evaluated. The study variables included the schools' surroundings accessibility characteristics obtained through systematic observation, and the distance between home to school was determined through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data. RESULTS: The presence of "safety signs" was inversely associated with active commuting (PR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.67-0.91; p = 0.003), as well distance 1,501-3,000 m (PR = 0.53; 95%CI 0.40 - 0.71; p < 0.001) and ≥ 3,501 m (PR 0.29; 95%CI 0.18 - 0.45; p < 0.001). Overall, schools' surroundings showed walking friendly characteristics. CONCLUSION: Traffic safety and distance to school were associated with active commuting to school among the study participants. Policies aiming at integrating access to school and traffic safety could help to promoting active commuting among adolescents.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transportes/métodos , Caminhada , Adolescente , Ciclismo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628697

RESUMO

In the absence of a ⩒o2-work-rate plateau, debate continues regarding the best way to verify that the peak ⩒o2 achieved during incremental exercise (⩒o2peak) is the "true ⩒o2max." Oft-used "secondary criteria" have been questioned in conjunction with the contention that a severe-intensity constant-work-rate "verification bout" should be considered the "gold standard." The purpose of this study was to compare the ⩒o2peak during ramp incremental cycling (RAMP-INC) by a heterogeneous (with respect to body composition and sex) cohort of sedentary individuals with the ⩒o2peak during severe-intensity constant-work-rate cycling (CWR) performed after RAMP-INC at the highest work rate achieved. A secondary purpose was to determine the degree to which traditional and newly-proposed age-dependent secondary criteria (RER, HR) identified RAMP-INC which CWR confirmed were characterized by a submaximal ⩒o2peak. Thirty-five healthy male (n = 19: 33.4 ± 6.3 yrs) and female (26.8 ± 3.6 yrs) sedentary participants performed RAMP-INC followed by CWR. The ⩒o2peak values from the two tests were correlated (r = 0.96; p < 0.01; mean CV = 24%); however, ⩒o2peak for CWR was significantly greater (29.6 ± 7.2 v. 28.6 ± 6.8 mL∙min-1∙kg-1; p < 0.01) with a mean bias of 0.98 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 (z = -2.9, p < 0.01). Both traditional and newly-proposed criterion values for RER were achieved during RAMP-INC by 33 of 35 participants (including 21 of 23 who registered a higher ⩒o2peak on CWR). The traditional HR criterion value was achieved on only seven tests (three of which were confirmed to be characterized by a submaximal ⩒o2peak) while use of less stringent newly-proposed criteria resulted in acceptance of an additional seven tests of which five were confirmed to be submaximal. Severe-intensity CWR to limit of tolerance indicates that RAMP-INC underestimates ⩒o2max in sedentary individuals and both traditional and newly-proposed secondary criteria are ineffective for identifying such tests.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Comportamento Sedentário , Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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