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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e58761, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967416

RESUMO

Background: Cycling is known to be beneficial for human health. Studies have suggested significant associations of physical activity with macroscale built environments and streetscapes. However, whether good streetscapes can amplify the benefits of a favorable built environment on physical activity remains unknown. Objective: This study examines whether streetscape perceptions can modify the associations between accessibility, land use mix, and bike-sharing use. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from 18,019,266 bike-sharing orders during weekends in Shanghai, China. A 500 × 500 m grid was selected as the analysis unit to allocate data. Bike-sharing use was defined as the number of bike-sharing origins. Street view images and a human-machine adversarial scoring framework were combined to evaluate lively, safety, and wealthy perceptions. Negative binomial regression was developed to examine the independent effects of the three perceptual factors in both the univariate model and fully adjusted model, controlling for population density, average building height, distance to nearest transit, number of bus stations, number of points of interest, distance to the nearest park, and distance to the central business district. The moderation effect was then investigated through the interaction term between streetscape perception and accessibility and land use mix, based on the fully adjusted model. We also tested whether the findings of streetscape moderation effects are robust when examinations are performed at different geographic scales, using a small-sample statistics approach and different operationalizations of land use mix and accessibility. Results: High levels of lively, safety, and wealthy perceptions were correlated with more bike-sharing activities. There were negative effects for the interactions between the land use Herfindahl-Hirschman index with the lively perception (ß=-0.63; P=.01) and safety perception (ß=-0.52; P=.001). The interaction between the lively perception and road intersection density was positively associated with the number of bike-sharing uses (ß=0.43; P=.08). Among these, the lively perception showed the greatest independent effect (ß=1.29; P<.001), followed by the safety perception (ß=1.22; P=.001) and wealthy perception (ß=0.72; P=.001). The findings were robust in the three sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: A safer and livelier streetscape can enhance the benefits of land use mix in promoting bike-sharing use, with a safer streetscape also intensifying the effect of accessibility. Interventions focused on streetscape perceptions can encourage cycling behavior and enhance the benefits of accessibility and land use mix. This study also contributes to the literature on potential moderators of built environment healthy behavior associations from the perspective of microscale environmental perceptions.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/psicologia , China , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto
2.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968201

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the loadsol in measuring pedal reaction force (PRF) during stationary cycling as well as lower limb symmetry. Ten healthy participants performed bouts of cycling at 1kg, 2kg, and 3kg workloads (conditions) on a cycle ergometer. The ergometer was fitted with instrumented pedals and participants wore loadsol plantar pressure insoles. A 3 x 2 (Condition x Sensor Type) ANOVA was used to examine the differences in measured peak PRF, impulse, and symmetry indices. Root mean square error, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Passing-Bablok regressions were used to further assess reliability and validity. The loadsol demonstrated poor (< 0.5) to excellent (> 0.9) agreement as measured by intraclass correlation coefficients for impulse and peak PRF. Passing-Bablok regression revealed a systematic bias only when assessing all workloads together for impulse with no bias present when looking at individual workloads. The loadsol provides a consistent ability to measure PRF and symmetry when compared to a gold standard of instrumented pedals but exhibits an absolute underestimation of peak PRF. This study provides support that the loadsol can identify and track symmetry differences in stationary cycling which means there is possible usage for clinical scenarios and interventions in populations with bilateral asymmetries such as individuals with knee replacements, limb length discrepancies, diabetes, or neurological conditions. Further investigation of bias should be conducted in longer cycling sessions to ensure that the loadsol system is able to maintain accuracy during extended use.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Humanos , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adulto Jovem , Pé/fisiologia
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e17448, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948229

RESUMO

Intro: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique for measuring brain activity that is widely used in neuroscience research. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the EEG make it possible to study sensory and cognitive processes in the brain. Previous reports have shown that aerobic exercise can have an impact on components of ERPs such as amplitude and latency. However, they focused on the measurement of ERPs after exercise. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the feasibility of measuring ERPs during cycling, and to assess the impact of cycling on ERPs during cycling. Methods: We followed the PRISMA guidelines for new systematic reviews. To be eligible, studies had to include healthy adults and measure ERPs during cycling. All articles were found using Google Scholar and by searching references. Data extracted from the studies included: objectives of ERP studies, ERP paradigm, EEG system, study population data, exercise characteristics (duration, intensity, pedaling cadence), and ERP and behavioral outcomes. The Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess study bias. Results: Twenty studies were selected. The effect of cycling on ERPs was mainly based on a comparison of P3 wave amplitude between cycling and resting states, using an attentional task. The ERP paradigm most often used was the auditory oddball task. Exercise characteristics and study methods varied considerably. Discussion: It is possible to measure ERPs during cycling under conditions that are likely to introduce more artifacts, including a 3-h athletic exercise session and cycling outdoors. Secondly, no assessment of the effect of cycling on ERPs was possible, because the methods differed too widely between studies. In addition, the theories proposed to explain the results sometimes seemed to contradict each other. Although most studies reported significant results, the direction of the effects was inconsistent. Finally, we suggest some areas for improvement for future studies on the subject.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia
5.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 317-325, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841630

RESUMO

People with overweight or obesity preferred high-intensity interval training (HIIT) due to the time-efficiency and pleasure. However, HIIT leads to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of omega-3 supplementation on DOMS, muscle damage, and acute inflammatory markers induced by cycling HIIT in untrained males with overweight or obesity. A randomized, double-blinded study was used in the present study. Twenty-four males with a sedentary lifestyle were randomly assigned to either receive omega-3 (O3) (4 g fish oil) or placebo (Con). Subjects consumed the capsules for 4 weeks and performed cycling HIIT at the 4th week. After 4 weeks-intervention, the omega-3 index of O3 group increased by 52.51% compared to the baseline. All subjects performed HIIT at 4th week. The plasma creatine kinase (CK) level of Con group increased throughout 48h after HIIT. While the CK level of O3 group increased only immediately and 24h after HIIT and decreased at 48h after HIIT. The white blood cell count (WBC) of Con group increased immediately after the HIIT, while O3 group did not show such increase. There was no change of CRP in both groups. O3 group had a higher reduction of calf pain score compared to Con group. O3 group also showed a recovery of leg strength faster than Con group. Omega-3 supplementation for 4 weeks lower increased CK level, reduced calf pain score, and recovery leg strength, DOMS markers after cycling HIIT.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Proteína C-Reativa , Creatina Quinase , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Mialgia , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Adulto Jovem , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Contagem de Leucócitos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comportamento Sedentário
6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 23(2): 358-365, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841631

RESUMO

Mixed-Team-Relay (MTR) triathlon is a novel Olympic discipline whose performance determinants and tactical behaviors have barely been studied. Additionally, a regulatory change has been made to the male and female relay order for the Paris 2024 Olympics. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the performance determinants and race dynamics as a function of competitive level on the new regulated MTR triathlon. Results from 129 national teams, (516 elite triathletes) across five MTR World Triathlon Series and two MTR European Championships in 2022 and 2023, were analyzed. Split times, average speeds, time behind the race leader (gap), partial and finishing positions, pack position as well as the rank positions of every segment, relay leg, and overall race were computed. Decision tree analyses were conducted as a predictive method for the overall results, and correspondence analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the different relay legs and segments and the finishing positions. The performance of the fourth leg was the most relevant for overall result (30%), as well as the fourth running leg (16%) and the female legs performance (7%). Medallist relay teams were characterized by displaying a differential speed lower than 0.5 and 0.83 km/h, respectively, from the best-ranking athletes in the Legs 1 and 4. Furthermore, staying in the front pack after the second swimming leg showed a great relationship with achieving a medal position. New MTR triathlon rules shift race dynamics, emphasizing individual efforts in cycling and swimming, while maintaining the crucial importance of running.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ciclismo , Comportamento Competitivo , Corrida , Natação , Humanos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Masculino , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Feminino , Corrida/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Esportes de Equipe
7.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 24(6): 777-787, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874956

RESUMO

Blood flow restriction (BFR) is increasingly being used to enhance aerobic performance in endurance athletes. This study examined physiological responses to BFR applied in recovery phases within a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session in trained cyclists. Eleven competitive road cyclists (mean ± SD, age: 28 ± 7 years, body mass: 69 ± 6 kg, peak oxygen uptake: 65 ± 9 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed two randomised crossover conditions: HIIT with (BFR) and without (CON) BFR applied during recovery phases. HIIT consisted of six 30-s cycling bouts at an intensity equivalent to 85% of maximal 30-s power (523 ± 93 W), interspersed with 4.5-min recovery. BFR (200 mmHg, 12 cm cuff width) was applied for 2-min in the early recovery phase between each interval. Pulmonary gas exchange (V̇O2, V̇CO2, and V̇E), tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI), heart rate (HR), and serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration (VEGF) were measured. Compared to CON, BFR increased V̇CO2 and V̇E during work bouts (both p < 0.05, dz < 0.5), but there was no effect on V̇O2, TSI, or HR (p > 0.05). In early recovery, BFR decreased TSI, V̇O2, V̇CO2, and V̇E (all p < 0.05, dz > 0.8) versus CON, with no change in HR (p > 0.05). In late recovery, when BFR was released, V̇O2, V̇CO2, V̇E, and HR increased, but TSI decreased versus CON (all p < 0.05, dz > 0.8). There was a greater increase in VEGF at 3-h post-exercise in BFR compared to CON (p < 0.05, dz > 0.8). Incorporating BFR into HIIT recovery phases altered physiological responses compared to exercise alone.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Humanos , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Saturação de Oxigênio/fisiologia
8.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 24(6): 721-731, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874966

RESUMO

It has been assumed that exercise intensity variation throughout a cycling time trial (TT) occurs in alignment of various metabolic changes to prevent premature task failure. However, this assumption is based on target metabolite responses, which limits our understanding of the complex interconnection of metabolic responses during exercise. The current study characterized the metabolomic profile, an untargeted metabolic analysis, after specific phases of a cycling 4-km TT. Eleven male cyclists performed three separated TTs in a crossover counterbalanced design, which were interrupted at the end of the fast-start (FS, 600 ± 205 m), even-pace (EP, 3600 ± 190 m), or end-spurt (ES, 4000 m) phases. Blood samples were taken before any exercise and 5 min after exercise cessation, and the metabolomic profile characterization was performed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance metabolomics. Power output (PO) was also continually recorded. There were higher PO values during the FS and ES compared to the EP (all p < 0.05), which were accompanied by distinct metabolomic profiles. FS showed high metabolite expression in TCA cycle and its related pathways (e.g., glutamate, citric acid, and valine metabolism); whereas, the EP elicited changes associated with antioxidant effects and oxygen delivery adjustment. Finally, ES was related to pathways involved in NAD turnover and serotonin metabolism. These findings suggest that the specific phases of a cycling TT are accompanied by distinct metabolomic profiles, providing novel insights regarding the relevance of specific metabolic pathways on the process of exercise intensity regulation.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Metaboloma , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Adulto , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Serotonina/sangue , NAD/sangue , NAD/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Valina/sangue , Ácido Cítrico/sangue
9.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(6): e14681, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular function is considered as a determinant factor of endurance performance during adulthood. However, whether endurance training triggers further neuromuscular adaptations exceeding those of growth and maturation alone over the rapid adolescent growth period is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the concurrent role of growth, maturation, and endurance training on neuromuscular function through a 9-month training period in adolescent triathletes. METHODS: Thirty-eight 13- to 15-year-old males (23 triathletes [~6 h/week endurance training] and 15 untrained [<2 h/week endurance activity]) were evaluated before and after a 9-month triathlon training season. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and power at V̇O2max were assessed during incremental cycling. Knee extensor maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVCISO) was measured and the voluntary activation level (VAL) was determined using the twitch interpolation technique. Knee extensor doublet peak torque (T100Hz) and normalized vastus lateralis (VL) electromyographic activity (EMG/M-wave) were also determined. VL and rectus femoris (RF) muscle architecture was assessed using ultrasonography. RESULTS: Absolute V̇O2max increased similarly in both groups but power at V̇O2max only significantly increased in triathletes (+13.8%). MVCISO (+14.4%), VL (+4.4%), and RF (+15.8%) muscle thicknesses and RF pennation angle (+22.1%) increased over the 9-month period in both groups similarly (p < 0.01), although no changes were observed in T100Hz, VAL, or VL EMG/M-wave. No changes were detected in any neuromuscular variables, except for coactivation. CONCLUSION: Endurance training did not induce detectible, additional neuromuscular adaptations. However, the training-specific cycling power improvement in triathletes may reflect continued skill enhancement over the training period.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Eletromiografia , Treino Aeróbico , Contração Isométrica , Consumo de Oxigênio , Torque , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Atletas , Natação/fisiologia
10.
J Rehabil Med ; 56: jrm17738, 2024 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of backward cycling for people with Parkinson's disease. Secondary objectives were to assess changes in gait and balance following a 6-week program. DESIGN: A single-group prospective pre-test, post-test study with 1-month follow-up. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: Twenty-six people with Parkinson's disease (mean age: 69 (7.74) years, gender: 83% males, time since diagnosis: 6 (4.44) years). METHODS: Participants pedaled backward on a stationary bicycle for 30 minutes at moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. Feasibility was assessed by acceptability, suitability, and burden. Data collected at pre- and post-intervention with 1-month follow-up included backward stepping response variables, forward/backward gait variables, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (MBT), and 6 Minute Walk Test. RESULTS: There was a high retention rate (95.8%) and adherence rate (100%) with one adverse event and minimal burden. Significant improvements were seen in step count and excursion distance during backward stepping responses, forward and backward gait velocity, forward step length, and the Mini-BESTest. CONCLUSION: Backward cycling was a feasible intervention for people with Parkinson's disease, demonstrating low burden with high retention and adherence rates, and it is a safe exercise with the potential for benefits in gait and balance variables.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Terapia por Exercício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Doença de Parkinson , Equilíbrio Postural , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marcha/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892701

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the independent or combined use of nutritional ergogenic aids belonging to Group A of the ABCD classification by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in the context of cycling (caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates, and glycerol). A comprehensive search was carried out using three databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. All the databases were searched for Randomized Controlled Trials or crossover design studies assessing the effects of supplementation on cycling performance in comparison with placebos in healthy adults. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Thirty-six articles involving 701 participants were included in this review, examining supplementation with caffeine (n = 5), creatine (n = 2), sodium bicarbonate (n = 6), beta-alanine (n = 3), and nitrates (n = 8). Additionally, supplemental combinations of caffeine and creatine (n = 3), caffeine and sodium bicarbonate (n = 3), caffeine and nitrates (n = 1), creatine and sodium bicarbonate (n = 1), and sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine (n = 4) were analyzed. A benefit for cyclists' athletic performnce was found when consuming a caffeine supplement, and a potential positive effect was noted after the consumption of sodium bicarbonate, as well as after the combination of caffeine and creatine. However, no statistically significant effects were identified for the remaining supplements, whether administered individually or in combination.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ciclismo , Cafeína , Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nitratos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho , Humanos , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , beta-Alanina/administração & dosagem , beta-Alanina/farmacologia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(11)2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38894244

RESUMO

Sprinting plays a significant role in determining the results of road cycling races worldwide. However, currently, there is a lack of systematic research into the kinematics of sprint cycling, especially in an outdoor, environmentally valid setting. This study aimed to describe selected joint kinematics during a cycling sprint outdoors. Three participants were recorded sprinting over 60 meters in both standing and seated sprinting positions on an outdoor course with a baseline condition of seated cycling at 20 km/h. The participants were recorded using array-based inertial measurement units to collect joint excursions of the upper and lower limbs including the trunk. A high-rate GPS unit was used to record velocity during each recorded condition. Kinematic data were analyzed in a similar fashion to running gait, where multiple pedal strokes were identified, delineated, and averaged to form a representative (average ± SD) waveform. Participants maintained stable kinematics in most joints studied during the baseline condition, but variations in ranges of movement were recorded during seated and standing sprinting. Discernable patterns started to emerge for several kinematic profiles during standing sprinting. Alternate sprinting strategies emerged between participants and bilateral asymmetries were also recorded in the individuals tested. This approach to studying road cycling holds substantial potential for researchers wishing to explore this sport.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Articulações/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Feminino
13.
S Afr J Surg ; 62(2): 70, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838127

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We present a previously healthy 13-year-old male, who sustained a handlebar injury after falling from his bicycle. The computerised tomography (CT) scan indicated a probable pancreatic neoplasm associated with a retroperitoneal haematoma which was, following resection, confirmed histologically to be a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. These are rare tumours of the pancreas, especially in young males. The rarity of this neoplasm and the mechanism that led to its presentation make this an interesting and unique case.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adolescente , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/etiologia , Hematoma/cirurgia , Ciclismo/lesões
14.
J Safety Res ; 89: 152-159, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic altered traffic patterns worldwide, potentially impacting pedestrian and bicyclists safety in urban areas. In Toronto, Canada, work from home policies, bicycle network expansion, and quiet streets were implemented to support walking and cycling. We examined pedestrian and bicyclist injury trends from 2012 to 2022, utilizing police-reported killed or severely injured (KSI), emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalization data. METHODS: We used an interrupted time series design, with injury counts aggregated quarterly. We fit a negative binomial regression using a Bayesian modeling approach to data prior to the pandemic that included a secular time trend, quarterly seasonal indicator variables, and autoregressive terms. The differences between observed and expected injury counts based on pre-pandemic trends with 95% credible intervals (CIs) were computed. RESULTS: There were 38% fewer pedestrian KSI (95%CI: 19%, 52%), 35% fewer ED visits (95%CI: 28%, 42%), and 19% fewer hospitalizations (95%CI: 2%, 32%) since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. A reduction of 35% (95%CI: 7%, 54%) in KSI bicyclist injuries was observed, but However, ED visits and hospitalizations from bicycle-motor vehicle collisions were compatible with pre-pandemic trends. In contrast, for bicycle injuries not involving motor vehicles, large increases were observed for both ED visits, 73% (95% CI: 49%, 103%) and for hospitalization 108% (95% CI: 38%, 208%). CONCLUSION: New road safety interventions during the pandemic may have improved road safety for vulnerable road users with respect to collisions with motor vehicles; however, further investigation into the risk factors for bicycle injuries not involving motor vehicles is required.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ciclismo , COVID-19 , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/lesões , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Idoso , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Caminhada/lesões , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Teorema de Bayes , Lactente
15.
J Safety Res ; 89: 331-342, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858058

RESUMO

PROBLEM: In many countries, a new road user group, e-scooter riders, share the existing cycling infrastructure. The study aimed to investigate if an individual's status as a cyclist or e-scooter rider affects their social identity and whether it results in ingroup favoritism or outgroup discrimination. METHOD: An online experiment involving 179 cyclists and 64 e-scooter riders was conducted, where they rated the behavior of ingroup or outgroup members in six traffic scenarios. RESULTS: Participants rated dispositional attributions as more causally relevant than situational ones across all traffic scenarios. Cyclists and e-scooter riders were inclined to judge ingroup members' rule violations more harshly than those of outgroup members in terms of dispositional attribution ratings and punishment severity. For situational attributions, few indications of ingroup favoritism were observed for the e-scooter rider group. SUMMARY: Findings suggest initial indications of considerate coexistence, from the perspective of social identity theory, between the two modes of transport, supporting current regulations on the use of cycling infrastructure by e-scooter riders. Indications of ingroup discrimination, however, suggest that safety campaigning may target to promote courtesy within the cyclist and e-scooter rider groups.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Identificação Social , Humanos , Ciclismo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Segurança
16.
J Safety Res ; 89: 41-55, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Development and implementation of autonomous vehicle (AV) related regulations are necessary to ensure safe AV deployment and wide acceptance among all roadway users. Assessment of vulnerable roadway users' perceptions on AV regulations could inform policymakers the development of appropriate AV regulations that facilitate the safety of diverse users in a multimodal transportation system. METHOD: This research evaluated pedestrians' and bicyclists' perceptions on six AV regulations (i.e., capping AV speed limit, operating AV in manual mode in the sensitive areas, having both pilot and co-pilot while operating AVs, and three data-sharing regulations). In addition, pedestrians' and bicyclists' perceptions of testing AVs in public streets were evaluated. Statistical testing and modeling techniques were applied to accomplish the research objectives. RESULTS: Compared to the other AV regulations assessed in this research, strong support for AV-related data sharing regulations was identified. Older respondents showed higher approval of AV testing on public roadways and less support for regulating AVs. AV technology familiarity and safe road sharing perceptions with AVs resulted in lower support for AV regulations. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and AV technology developers could develop effective educational tools/resources to inform pedestrians and bicyclists about AV technology reliability and soften their stance, especially on AV regulations, which could delay technology development. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings of this research could be used to develop informed AV regulations and develop policies that could improve pedestrians' and bicyclists' attitudes/perceptions on regulating AVs and promoting AV technology deployments.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Pedestres , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Ciclismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Caminhada , Percepção , Idoso , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência
17.
J Safety Res ; 89: 343-353, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858059

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The surge in popularity of electric kick scooters (e-scooters) poses new challenges for traffic planning, demanding a comprehensive understanding of route choice behavior to see how e-scooters are used, how they affect traffic flow, and where improvements can be made to the road infrastructure. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze route choices and preferences of e-scooter riders and cyclists in a quasi-experimental setup with both user groups having the same trip destinations. METHOD: Two groups of participants (n = 52) completed a ride with either a shared e-scooter or bicycle to reach four predefined destinations in Dresden, Germany. The riders were supposed to choose their routes and subsequently reported the difficulty of decision-making and the importance of several route choice factors related to the ride. RESULTS: E-scooter riders rated road surface and safety as significantly more important for route choice than cyclists and tended to perceive the decision-making as more difficult. Riding data revealed broad comparability between the groups, with e-scooter riders tendentially having longer routes for complex decisions (unknown destinations, scenic routes, more turns required). DISCUSSION: The study suggests that the route preferences of e-scooter riders may be influenced by a combination of road surface and safety considerations, highlighting the need for high-quality cycling infrastructure. Limitations exist regarding the naturally occurring differences in riding experience in e-scooter riding versus cycling. Practical implications indicate that planning for e-scooter riders can benefit from insights drawn from activities designed for cyclists. The provision of real-time road quality information is proposed, considering its potential impact on overall road safety. SUMMARY: This study contributes to a better understanding of how e-scooter riders navigate through cities and delivers a valuable foundation for transport planners and engineers considering the rise in cycling and micro-mobility use.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Tomada de Decisões , Segurança , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 21(1): 2363789, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine, widely recognized as an ergogenic aid, has undergone extensive research, demonstrating its effectiveness to enhance endurance performance. However, there remains a significant gap in systematically evaluating its effects on time trial (TT) performance in cyclists. PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of caffeine ingestion to increase cycling TT performance in cyclists and to evaluate the optimal dosage range for maximum effect. METHODS: A search of four databases was completed on 1 December 2023. The selected studies comprised crossover, placebo-controlled investigations into the effects of caffeine ingestion on cycling TT performance. Completion time (Time) and mean power output (MPO) were used as performance measures for TT. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model to assess the standardized mean differences (SMD) in individual studies. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analyses. Subgroup analysis showed that moderate doses of caffeine intake (4-6 mg/kg) significantly improved cycling performance (SMD Time = -0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.84 ~ -0.26, p < 0.01, I2 = 35%; SMD MPO = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.09 ~ 0.79, p < 0.05, I2 = 39%), while the effects of low doses (1-3 mg/kg) of caffeine were not significant (SMD Time = -0.34, 95% CI = -0.84 ~ 0.17, p = 0.19, I2 = 0%; SMD MPO = 0.31, 95% CI = -0.02 ~ 0.65, p = 0.07, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: A moderate dosage (4-6 mg/kg) of caffeine, identified as the optimal dose range, can significantly improve the time trial performance of cyclists, while a low dose (1-3 mg/kg) does not yield improvement. In addition, the improvements in completion time and mean power output resulting from a moderate dose of caffeine are essentially the same in cycling time trails.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ciclismo , Cafeína , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/farmacologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Humanos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1505, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active transport- for example walking and bicycling to travel from place to place- may improve physical fitness and health and mitigate climate change if it replaces motorised transport. The aim of this study is to analyse the active transport behaviour of adults living in Germany, to investigate differences among population groups and to determine whether climate protection is a frequent motive for this behaviour. METHODS: This study uses self-reported data of 4,971 adults who participated in a national health survey (German Health Update 2021), which was conducted as a telephone survey from July to December 2021. Associations between active transport behaviour and corresponding motives with sociodemographic and health-related variables were analysed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the adult population, 83% use active transport at least once a week. The frequency and duration of walking per week are significantly higher than those for bicycling (walking 214 min/week; bicycling 57 min/week). Those with a lower education level are less likely to practise active transport than those with a higher education level. Furthermore, women are less likely to use a bicycle for transport than men. Among those practising active transport, the most frequently mentioned motive is "is good for health" (84%) followed by "to be physically active" (74%) and "is good for the climate/environment" (68%). Women and frequent bicyclists (at least 4 days/week) mention climate protection as a motive more often than men and those bicycling occasionally. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of active transport, especially among people with lower education and women (for bicycling), may benefit from better insights into motives and barriers. Climate protection is an important motivator for practising active transport within the adult population living in Germany and should therefore have greater emphasis in behavioural change programmes.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Motivação , Meios de Transporte , Caminhada , Humanos , Alemanha , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Adolescente , Mudança Climática , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
20.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304136, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Single-leg cycling is a commonly used intervention in exercise physiology that has applications in exercise training and rehabilitation. The addition of a counterweight to the contralateral pedal helps single-leg cycling mimic cycling patterns of double-leg cycling. To date, no research has tested (a) the influence of a wide range of counterweight masses on a person's cycling biomechanics and (b) the optimal counterweight mass to emulate double-leg cycling. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of varying counterweights on the kinematics (joint angles) and kinetics (joint moments, work) of cycling using a 3D analysis. METHODS: Twelve participants cycled at 50W or 100W with different counterweight masses (0 to 30 lbs, 2.5 lbs increments), while we analyzed the pedal force data, joint angles, joint moments, and joint power of the lower limb using 3D motion capture and 3D instrumented pedals to create participant-specific musculoskeletal models. RESULTS: The results showed that no single-leg cycling condition truly emulated double-leg cycling with respect to all measured variables, namely pedal forces (p ≤ 0.05), joint angles (p ≤ 0.05), joint moments(p ≤ 0.05), and joint powers (p ≤ 0.05), but higher counterweights resulted in single-leg cycling that was statistically similar (p > 0.05), but descriptively, asymptotically approached the biomechanics of double-leg cycling. CONCLUSION: We suggest that a 20-lb counterweight is a conservative estimate of the counterweight required for using single-leg cycling in exercise physiology studies, but further modifications are needed to the cycle ergometer for the biomechanics of single-leg cycling to match those of double-leg cycling.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia
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