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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575324

RESUMO

Previous research has shown enhanced performance and altered pacing behaviour in the presence of a virtual opponent during middle-distance cycling time trials with a duration of 2 min and longer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects are also present in cycling time trials of shorter duration. Twelve physically active men completed three 1-km time trials. After a familiarisation trial (FAM), participants performed two experimental conditions: one without opponent (NO) and one with a virtual opponent (OP). Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess differences in pacing and performance using power output and duration (p<0.05). No differences in mean finishing times (FAM: 91.5 ± 7.7 s; NO: 91.6 ± 6.4 s; OP: 90.9 ± 4.9 s; p=0.907) or power output (FAM: 382 ± 111 W; NO: 363 ± 80 W; OP: 367 ± 67; p=0.564) were found between experimental conditions. Furthermore, no differences in pacing profiles between experimental conditions were found (p=0.199). Similarly, rate of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental conditions at any moment (p=0.831). In conclusion, unlike events of a more prolonged duration (>2 min), the presence of an opponent did not affect participants' pacing behaviour in short duration 1-km time trials.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590093

RESUMO

This formative study investigates the utility of the social norms approach (SNA) and self-determination theory (SDT) in framing safe bicycling messages with the goal of increasing intention to use bicycle lanes on a university campus. In Study 1, observational data showed that the majority of campus bicyclists did not use designated bike lanes while cycling; thus, intention to use bicycle lanes was chosen as the dependent variable for Study 2. Survey data (n = 168) collected from college students measured SNA and SDT constructs related to intention to use bicycle lanes, including descriptive norms, injunctive norms, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Results indicate that different aspects of both the SNA and SDT are viable approaches for developing bicycle safety campaign messages, as competence, relatedness, and injunctive norms were significant predictors of intention to use bicycle lanes. Implications for the development of campaign messages are discussed, and information is presented to assist other groups so they can use the same process to develop relevant campaign messages.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Normas Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
N Z Med J ; 132(1502): 25-39, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563925

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the attitudes of mountain bikers to the use of protective equipment and quantify the use of such equipment. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study using an online questionnaire, offered to bikers participating in a series of Enduro races. The attitudes towards various factors that might contribute to a rider's choice to use protective equipment were quantified based on their responses to the questions. The actual reported use of various types of protective equipment was the outcome measure. The correlations between the factors and actual use were analysed for statistical significance, to assess their relative importance. RESULTS: Equipment use was similar in racing and non-racing settings and could be increased. 55% had experienced an injury requiring a week or more off work. Perceptions of the benefits, costs, cues, comfort and potential injury severity proved to be well correlated with the choice to use equipment, while harm, danger and exposure to media influences did not.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Ciclismo , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Montanhismo , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Ciclismo/psicologia , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/normas , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Montanhismo/psicologia , Montanhismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
4.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2691-2701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526108

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of total sleep deprivation on self-paced endurance performance, and heart rate (HR) indices of athletes' "readiness to perform". Endurance athletes (n = 13) completed a crossover experiment comprising a normal sleep (NS) and sleep deprivation (SD) condition. Each required completion of an endurance time-trial (TT) on consecutive days (D1, D2) separated by normal sleep or total sleep deprivation. Finishing time, perceived exertion (RPE), mood, psychomotor vigilance (PVT), and HR responses were assessed. Time on D2 of SD was 10% slower than D2 of NS (64 ± 7 vs 59 ± 4 min, P < 0.01), and 11% slower than D1 of SD (58 ± 5 min, P < 0.01). Subjective to objective (RPE:mean HR) intensity ratio was higher on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD (P < 0.01). Mood disturbance and PVT mean response time increased on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD. Anaerobic threshold and change in TT time were correlated (R = -0.73, P < 0.01). Sleep helps to optimise endurance performance. Subjective to objective intensity ratios appear sensitive to effects of sleep on athletes' readiness. Research examining more subtle sleep manipulation is required.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540094

RESUMO

The emergence of dockless bike sharing in recent years has reduced the usage of private cars, especially usage for short-distance trips (within 2 km). In this paper, a modified technology acceptance model (TAM) is proposed to investigate from the psychological perspective drivers' willingness to shift to dockless bike sharing. The modified TAM includes the perceived usefulness of dockless bike sharing, perceived ease-of-use of dockless bike sharing, perceived health of dockless bike sharing, attitudes toward dockless bike sharing, and willingness to shift to dockless bike sharing. Data are obtained through offline communications with car drivers. The results show that two-thirds of car drivers are willing to use dockless bike sharing in short-distance trips. Perceived health, perceived ease-of-use, and perceived usefulness have significant positive effects on people's attitudes toward dockless bike sharing. As expected, people's attitudes toward dockless bike sharing are positively correlated with their willingness to shift. Policy implications are discussed to prompt the modal shift from private cars to dockless bike sharing according to the results.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Ciclismo/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 350-356, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to encourage bicycling to school have increased in the United States. However, little is known about how parent-child communication affects bicycle safety. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child agreement on biking instructions and their correlation with the early adolescents' real-world riding behavior. METHODS: Parent-child dyads were asked open-ended questions about instructions they had given/received about bicycling. Answers were then coded into nine categories (e.g., crossing the road, bicycle control/handling). Distributions of parent-child agreement on parent-given bicycle safety instructions were examined in relation to the adolescent's real-world riding behaviors. RESULTS: 36 parent-child dyads were included. Average age was 11.9 (Range: 10-15) for adolescents and 43.3 (Range: 30-59) for parents. Common parental instructions included: wear helmet, ride on sidewalk, and trip routing specifications. High 'ride on sidewalk' instruction (38.9% both parent and adolescent, 22.2% parent only, 16.7% adolescent only) was concerning due to potential driveway conflicts. Agreement between parents and adolescents on reported instructions was low, overall. Mean safety-relevant event rates in real-world cycling did not differ significantly between bicycle safety instruction agreement groups (both parent & adolescent reported, parent only, adolescent only, neither). The proportion of time an adolescent rode on different infrastructure types (sidewalk, street, etc.) did not vary between dyads reporting parents had given instructions to ride on the sidewalk and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight lack of agreement between parents and adolescents on cycling instructions the adolescent receives from the parent. Parent instructions to adolescents regarding bicycling safety were not associated with actual riding behaviors. Results suggest parent messaging to adolescents may be ineffective. Given parents are in a position of influence, results indicate a need for parental training on effective safety-related communication strategies to assist them in capitalizing on their parental role to increase their child's safety.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Ciclismo/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 609-618, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433732

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the pacing behavior and performance of novice youth exercisers in a controlled laboratory setting. Method: Ten healthy participants (seven male, three female, 15.8 ± 1.0 years) completed four, 2-km trials on a Velotron cycling ergometer. Visit 1 was a familiarization trial. Visits 2 to 4 involved the following conditions, in randomized order: no opponent (NO), a virtual opponent (starting slow and finishing fast) (OP-SLOWFAST), and a virtual opponent (starting fast and finishing slow) (OP-FASTSLOW). Repeated measurement ANOVAs (p < .05) were used to examine differences in both pacing behavior and also performance related to power output, finishing- and split times, and RPE between the four successive visits and the three conditions. Expected performance outcome was measured using a questionnaire. Results: Power output increased (F3,27 = 5.651, p = .004, η2p = .386) and finishing time decreased (F3,27 = 9.972, p < .001, η2p = .526) between visit 1 and visits 2, 3 and 4. In comparison of the first and second visit, the difference between expected finish time and actual finishing time decreased by 66.2%, regardless of condition. The only significant difference observed in RPE score was reported at the 500 m point, where RPE was higher during visit 1 compared to visits 3 and 4, and during visit 2 compared to visit 4 (p < .05). No differences in pacing behavior, performance, or RPE were found between conditions (p > .05). Conclusion: Performance was improved by an increase in experience after one visit, parallel with the ability to anticipate future workload.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426293

RESUMO

The present case study analyzed the pacing in a self-paced world record attempt during a 24 h track cycling event by the current world record holder. The cyclist completed 3767 laps on a 250 m long cycling track and covered a total distance of 941.873 km, breaking the existing world record by 37.99 km. The average cycling speed was 39.2 ± 1.9 km/h (range 35.5-42.8 km/h) and the power output measured was 214.5 ± 23.7 W (range 190.0-266.0 W) during the 24 h of cycling. We found a positive pacing result with negative correlations between cycling speed (r = -0.73, p < 0.001), power output (r = -0.66, p < 0.001), and laps per hour (r = -0.73, p < 0.001) and the covered distance. During the 24 h, we could identify four different phases: the first phase lasting from the start till the fourth hour with a relatively stable speed; the second phase from the fourth till the ninth hour, characterized by the largest decrease in cycling speed; the third phase from the ninth hour till the 22nd hour, showing relatively small changes in cycling speed; and the last phase from the 22nd hour till the end, presenting a final end spurt. The performance in the 24 h track cycling was 45.577 km better than in the 24 h road cycling, where the same athlete cycled slower but with higher power output. In summary, the current world-best ultracyclist covered more kilometers with less power output during the world record 24 h track cycling than during his world record 24 h road cycling. This was most probably due to the more favorable environmental conditions in the velodrome, which has no wind and stable temperatures.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Registros , Vento
9.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate whether providing parents with children in kindergarten with access to different bicycle types could influence (i) travel behavior and cycling amount, and (ii) intrinsic motivation for cycling and psychological constructs related to car use. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Southern Norway from September 2017 to June 2018. In total 36 parents were recruited and randomly drawn into an intervention (n = 18) or control group (n = 18). The intervention group was in random order equipped with an e-bike with trailer (n = 6), a cargo (longtail) bike (n = 6) and a traditional bike with trailer (n = 6). RESULTS: At follow-up, more participants from the intervention group (vs. the control group) were classified as cyclists to the workplace (n = 7 (38.9%) vs. n = 1 (5.9%), p = 0.04), but not to the kindergarten (n = 6 (33.3%) vs. n = 2 (11.8%), p = 0.23) or to the grocery store (n = 2 (11.1%) vs. n = 0 (0%), p = 0.49). A significant (p = ≤0.05) increase in cycling frequency (0.1 to 2.0 days/week) from baseline to follow-up was found in the intervention group for all destinations and seasons, except to the grocery store during winter (p = 0.16). A decrease in frequency of car driving (-0.2 to -1.7 days/week) was found to be apparent in terms of travelling to the workplace and the kindergarten for all seasons, yet not to the grocery store for any season (p = 0.15-0.49). The intervention group (vs. the control group) reported significantly higher "intrinsic regulation" for cycling (p = 0.01) at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Access to different bike types for parents with children attending kindergarten resulted in overall increased cycling, decreased car use and higher intrinsic motivation for cycling. E-bikes obtained the greatest cycling amount in total, with the smallest sample variability. Hence, providing parents with children in kindergarten with access to e-bikes might result in increased and sustained cycling, also during the winter season.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Automóveis , Ciclismo/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 161-167, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280800

RESUMO

Active computer workstations may help reduce workplace sedentarism. However, their impact on the upper limb musculoskeletal system is unknown. Subjects participated in two 60-min computer laptop-based Bike-and-Type sessions at different cycling intensities (LOW, HIGH). Upper trapezius and wrist extensor muscle blood flow, sensitivity and pain thresholds, and typing performance were measured intermittently. Neck/shoulder discomfort increased over time (p < 0.001), and was higher in the HIGH intensity (p = 0.036). Blood flow to the trapezius (p = 0.041) and wrist (p = 0.021) muscles were higher during HIGH, and wrist blood flow increased over time (p = 0.01). Trapezius sensitivity threshold significantly decreased over time (p = 0.003). There were no effects on pressure pain thresholds (interaction p = 0.091). Average typing speed was greater during HIGH (p = 0.046) and increased over time (p < 0.001). Time spent biking while typing effectively improved performance, which may facilitate muscle regeneration, although effects depend on biking intensity.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Computadores , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 33-44, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233994

RESUMO

Active transport, including cycling, is promoted as an effective way of increasing children's physical activity and health. Parents can support children's riding by riding with them and it is important to address relevant safety issues. Little is known about parents' experience of safety-relevant aspects of riding with children. Participants in the Safer Cycling Study in New South Wales, Australia, who reported that they had ridden with children in the last 12 months were questioned about how they ride with children, and their experience of safety issues and crashes. Among the 187 respondents who had ridden with children on their bicycle, the most common form of carrier was a rear-mounted seat (48%) followed by a trailer (29%). Many respondents (79%) identified risks specific to riding carrying children, including those linked with specific carrier types and with use of footpaths. Most (92%) indicated that they change their behaviour when carrying a child on their bicycle; for example, riding more slowly, more carefully, and away from roads. Among crashes with a child on the bicycle, most were falls. Among the 345 participants who had ridden to accompany a child on a bicycle, approximately three quarters identified risks specific to accompanying children, such as managing the child's limited skill, awareness and predictability. Ninety-seven percent reported behavioural changes including positioning themselves as a barrier for their child and caution crossing roads. Findings suggest strategies to support parents in riding safely with children.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ambiente Construído , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
12.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigates the effect of a mentally demanding response inhibitory task on time trial performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. METHODS: Ten under 23 road cyclists completed two separate testing sessions during which they performed two different cognitive tasks before completing a 30-min time trial on the cycle ergometer. In the experimental condition, 30 min of a standard cognitive task (Stroop task) was used to elicit mental fatigue; in the control condition, a non-demanding activity was carried out. Subjective workload and mood were measured before and after the treatments, and motivation was recorded before the time-trial. During the time trial, power, cadence, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion were assessed. Blood lactate concentrations and heart rate variability (using the root mean square of the successive differences) were measured before and after the time trial. RESULTS: The Stroop task was rated more mentally (P < 0.001) and temporally (P < 0.001) demanding, effortful (P < 0.001), and frustrating (P = 0.001) than the control task; fatigue (P = 0.002) and vigor (P = 0.018) after the cognitive tasks were respectively higher and lower than in the control task. Mean power output (P = 0.007) and cadence (P = 0.043) were negatively affected by the Stroop task, while heart rate (P = 0.349), rating of perceived exertion (P = 0.710), blood lactate concentration (P = 0.850), and root mean square of the successive differences (P = 0.355) did not differ between the two conditions. CONCLUSION: A mentally demanding activity reduced the subsequent physical performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. Thus, avoiding cognitive efforts before training and races could improve performance of high-level athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Atletas , Ciclismo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop
13.
J Sports Sci ; 37(18): 2122-2130, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135272

RESUMO

Self-talk enhances physical performance. Nothing is known however about the way that a subtle grammatical difference in self-talk, using first or second person pronouns, may effect performance. As second person self-talk supports self-regulation in non-exercise populations, we hypothesized that 10 km cycling time-trial performance would be superior following second versus first person self-talk. Using a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, sixteen physically active males (Mage = 21.99, SD = 3.04 years) completed a familiarization visit followed by a 10 km time-trial during two separate experimental visits using first and second person self-talk. A paired t-test revealed that second person self-talk generated significantly faster time-trial performance than first person self-talk (p = .014). This was reflected in a significantly greater power output throughout the time-trial when using second person self-talk (p = .03), despite RPE remaining similar between conditions (p = .75). This is the first evidence that strategically using grammatical pronouns when implementing self-talk can influence physical performance providing practitioners with a new aspect to consider when developing interventions. We discussed findings in the context of a self-distancing phenomenon induced by the use second person pronouns.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Comunicação , Resistência Física , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Motivação , Psicolinguística , Adulto Jovem
14.
Appl Ergon ; 79: 76-85, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109464

RESUMO

Alternate work positions are being considered as a way to address sedentary behaviour for office workers. This study evaluated the effect of two hours of just-sitting versus sitting while under-desk cycling on musculoskeletal discomfort and cognitive function (sustained attention and creative problem solving). To consider mechanisms, muscle fatigue, kinematics and mental state were also measured. Discomfort increased significantly across all body areas with knee and ankle discomfort greater (in a clinically meaningful manner) in under-desk cycling. Sustained attention reaction time was the only cognitive measure to show a difference between conditions (slower for under-desk cycling [ß-34.82 CI (-62.12 to -7.53)]). There was no evidence of muscle fatigue, while kinematic differences between conditions were identified. Mental state deteriorated over time in both conditions. This study found no clear benefit of under-desk cycling compared to just-sitting for musculoskeletal health and cognitive function measures.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Cognição , Fadiga Muscular , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Tempo de Reação , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Fatores de Tempo , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 102-112, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183272

RESUMO

In recent years, municipal policies have proliferated aimed at promoting the shared use of bicycles in different locations in Spain. The objectives of this article are, firstly, to determine if the impact of climate, temperature and average rainfall on the use of shared bicycles; and, secondly, to analyse if the use of these bicycles is affected by the day of the week, month or season of the year. For this purpose, a descriptive and cross - sectional study has been carried out over 3 ye ars regarding the use of shared bicycles in a Spanish municipality. We found no significant differences in use with respect to day of the week. With respect to month, the data reveal a progressive increase in use from April to July, reaching a peak of 15.8 % in the month of September. Data on meteorological variables was also obtained, revealing that mild temperatures and scarce rainfall were associated with greater use of the system


En los últimos años, las políticas municipales han proliferado con el objetivo de promover el uso compartido de bicicletas en diferentes localidades del territorio español. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo, en primer lugar, conocer el impacto del clima, temperaturas y precipitaciones medias en el uso de bicicletas compartidas; y, por otra parte, analizar si el uso de dichas bicicletas se ve afectado en función de los días de la semana, meses y estaciones del año. Para ello, se ha realiz ado un estudio descriptivo y transversal a lo largo de 3 años registrando los usos de bicicletas compartidas ofertadas en un municipio español. No encontramos diferencias significativas en el uso con respecto a los días de la semana. Con relación a los meses, los datos evidenciaron un ascenso progresivo de uso desde el mes de abril hasta julio, logrando un pico del 15,6% y 15,8% en los meses de agosto y septiembre respectivamente. También se obtuvieron resultados vinculados a las variables meteoro lógicas, concluyéndose que las temperaturas suaves y escasas precipitaciones se asocian con un mayor número de usos del sistema


Nos últimos anos, proliferaram políticas municipais socioesportivas destinadas a promover o uso partilhado de bicicletas em diferentes localidades da Espanha. O objetivo deste artigo é, por um lado, saber se o impacto do clima, temperaturas e precipitações médias influenci a o uso de bicicletas partilhadas. E, por outro lado, analisar se o uso dessas bicicletas é afetado, dependendo dos dias da semana, meses e estações do ano. Para este propósito, um estudo descritivo e transversal foi realizado ao longo de 3 anos, registran do os usos de bicicletas partilhadas oferecidas em um município espanhol. Os resultados indicam que não foram encontradas grandes diferenças no uso em relação aos 7 dias da semana. Com relação aos meses, os dados evidenciaram um aumento progressivo no uso do mês de abril para julho, atingindo um pico de 15,6% e 15,8% nos meses de agosto e setembro, respectivamente. Também foram obtidos resultados ligados a variáveis meteorológicas, concluindo que temperaturas amenas e chuvas escassas estão associadas a um maior número de usos do sistema


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Ciclismo/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos do Clima , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Proteção , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 46-52, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974316

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research regarding aggressive behaviours of on-road cyclists and the consequences that aggression may have on their safety. To address this, we examined self-reported anger-based aggression in a sample of "active" cyclists (N = 623: males = 69%) defined as those who regularly ride a bicycle on-road (all rode at least once a week, 64% rode between 4-7 days per week). Using the Cyclist Anger Expression Inventory (CAX) three broad types of anger-based aggression were identified: 1) constructive ways of dealing with anger, 2) verbal aggression and 3) personal physical aggression. Cyclists reported that most to almost all of the time they deal with anger in adaptive constructive ways. When they were aggressive, they were most likely to express this through verbal types of aggression such as shouting or swearing aloud. Personal physical types of aggression were infrequent and these were the only type of behaviour found to be related to crashes. Regression analyses showed that factors associated with personal physical aggression included anger propensities, distance travelled, being male and younger. Interestingly, personal physical aggression was also more frequently expressed by cyclists classified as "strong and fearless" (Geller, 2009), that is avid cyclists who feel comfortable in all riding environments. Therefore, although the expressions of extreme aggression are rare, they are expressed in a group of riders who regularly ride on the road, making them particularly vulnerable. Effective strategies need to be developed to lessen cyclist aggression and mitigate the potential risks associated with these behaviours, for both cyclists and other vulnerable road users.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adulto , Ira , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
17.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(7): 1451-1459, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768551

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exercise is well known to enhance a variety of mood states, but few studies have been specifically designed to investigate whether acute aerobic exercise alters feelings of anger. The goal of this study was to determine the magnitude of the effects of acute exercise on both angry mood and angry emotions. METHODS: Angry mood and angry emotions were assessed in 16 men with elevated trait anger who viewed a variety of emotionally evocative scenic pictures before and after 30 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise. Angry mood, captured by self-reports of state anger, angry emotions, as indexed by event-related brain activity (e.g., early posterior negativity and late positive potential), and self-reports of anger intensity were measured. RESULTS: The results indicate that acute exercise both 1) reduces angry mood and 2) mitigates angry mood induction but does not change the intensity of angry emotions or the associated event-related potential responses to anger-inducing pictures in college-age men who have elevated trait anger. CONCLUSION: Future studies should explore the mechanisms underlying the effect of exercise on preventing angry mood induction, consider alternative anger induction methods that might induce higher levels of angry emotions, and test the effects of chronic exercise training on anger and its expression.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736407

RESUMO

While studies of bicyclist's perceptions of crime and crash safety exist, it is also important to ask lower-income predominantly-minority residents what bicycle-route surface or context they perceive as safest from crime and crashes. With their insights, their chosen bike environments could be in engineering guidelines and built in their neighborhoods to improve residents' health and lessen their risk of exposure to crime or crashing. This study involved two populations in Boston: (a) community-sense participants (eight groups-church/YMCA n = 116); and (b) street-sense participants (five groups-halfway house/homeless shelter/gang members n = 96). Participants ranked and described what they saw in 32 photographs of six types of bicycle environments. Quantitative data (Likert Scale 0⁻6 with 0 being low risk of crime/crash) involved regression analysis to test differences. Qualitative comments were categorized into 55 themes for surface or context and if high or low in association with crime or crashes. For crime, two-way cycle tracks had a significantly lower score (safest) than all others (2.35; p < 0.01) and share-use paths had a significantly higher score (least safe) (3.39; p < 0.01). For crashes, participants rated shared-use paths as safest (1.17) followed by two-way cycle tracks (1.68), one-way cycle tracks (2.95), bike lanes (4.06), sharrows (4.17), and roads (4.58), with a significant difference for any two groups (p < 0.01) except between bike lane and sharrow (p = 0.9). Street-sense participants ranked all, except shared-use paths, higher for crime and crash. For surface, wide two-way cycle tracks with freshly painted lines, stencils, and arrows were low risk for crime and a cycle track's median, red color, stencils, and arrows low risk for crash. For context, clean signs, balconies, cafes, street lights, no cuts between buildings, and flowers were low risk for crime and witnesses, little traffic, and bike signals low risk for crash. As bicycle design guidelines and general Crime Perception Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles do not include these details, perhaps new guidelines could be written.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/psicologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento Ambiental , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Pobreza/psicologia , Segurança , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682066

RESUMO

The worldwide rise of shared bicycle use has changed the way people travel. Here we analyze shared bicycle use from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior, and propose a model to investigate factors influencing shared bicycle usage in China. A total of 211 shared bicycle users selected from 28 provinces throughout China completed a self-reported survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to delineate the pathway from shared bicycle usage. The SEM model demonstrated that: (1) shared bicycle use intention was significantly associated with four variables, namely travel attitude(ß = 0.491, t = 24.569), social norms(ß = 0.149, t = 6.771), travel habits(ß = 0.146, t = 7.226) and perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.190, t = 11.110); (2) shared bicycle use behavior was significantly affected by shared bicycle use intention(ß = 0.406, t = 15.936), and also by travel habits(ß = 0.320, t = 11.921); (3) shared bicycle use behavior was also affected by demographic variables (gender, age) and situational factors (distance). The conclusions of this study provide useful data for operators of bicycle services and government policy makers.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Viagem/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atitude , China , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682136

RESUMO

Although cycling has been associated with overuse/fatigue and acute injuries, there is lack of information regarding associated risk factors and prevention factors. The objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with injury, and perceptions of discomfort and pain in cyclists. A total of 739 cyclists completed an online questionnaire between February and October 2016. The questionnaire acquired information on participant demographics, characteristics related to cycling profile and fitness training, bike components and cycling posture, self-reported perceptions of comfort and pain, and injuries sustained in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) that examined factors associated with reporting overuse/fatigue injury, acute injury, body discomfort, saddle discomfort, and pain while cycling. Odds of reporting an overuse/fatigue injury increased when the cyclists complemented training with running (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.03-2.91) or swimming (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.19-3.88), and with reported pain while cycling (OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-3.69) and not cycling (OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.07-2.90). Odds of reporting an acute injury increased when biking to work (OR = 1.79; 95%CI = 1.07-2.86), and decreased with increased average cycling speed (1-km/h decrease OR = 0.93; 95%CI = 0.88-0.97), and compared to low-end bike, with the use of mid-range (OR = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.09-0.72) and high-end bike (OR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.13-0.96). Although body discomfort was only associated with saddle discomfort and the presence of pain during cycling, saddle discomfort was also associated with biking to work (OR = 0.46; 95%CI = 0.22-0.88). Finally, pain perception was associated with a number of factors such as ride to work, core training, cycling experience, saddle discomfort, pain while not cycling. Numerous factors are associated with injury, and perceptions of discomfort and pain in cyclists. Such factors should be considered when developing training routines, bicycle maintenance best practices, and injury prevention programs.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/lesões , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Ciclismo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Percepção da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , América do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
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