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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5297-5310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) may possess putative antitumoral properties; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We evaluated the antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of enoxaparin (a LMWH) in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and assessed the possible mechanism involved, and the effect on doxorubicin's efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proliferation and migration were evaluated using BrdU and transwell assays, respectively. Immunoblotting was used to measure PAR-1, PAR-2, MMP-2, ERK1/2 and Akt proteins. Apoptosis and cell cycle studies examined the combined effect of enoxaparin and doxorubicin. RESULTS: Enoxaparin inhibited A549 cell proliferation and migration. Following PAR-1 gene knock down, enoxaparin's effect on A549 cell proliferation was diminished compared to scrambled siRNA. Our experiments verified that enoxaparin-mediated down-regulation of MAPK and PI3K, reduced MMP-2 expression and inhibited A549 cell migration. Additionally, enoxaparin increased doxorubicin's efficacy by enhancing apoptosis, while no effect on cell-cycle progression was observed. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the anticancer activity of enoxaparin in A549 cells was mediated by the interference of two major PAR-1 downstream signaling pathways, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt, which in turn inhibit proliferation and migration. Therefore, enoxaparin may be promising as an adjunct to traditional chemotherapy for lung cancer and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Enoxaparina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4757-4766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Azacitidine (AZA) is a hypomethylating agent used in myeloid neoplasms, however, approximately half of patients show treatment failure or relapse. This in vitro study investigated the effect of the combination of AZA with the natural compound curcumin (CUR) in increasing its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the effects of AZA plus CUR on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines (U-937, HL-60, K-562, and OCI-AML3) and bone marrow samples of patients. RESULTS: The results showed a synergy between AZA and CUR in all leukemic lines and in most leukemic samples, with a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis compared to the activity of each drug separately. In addition, AZA plus CUR showed low cytotoxicity in healthy samples. CONCLUSION: A remarkable antioncogenic effect of the combination of AZA plus CUR was shown, providing a basis for future studies analyzing the clinical efficacy of these drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4795-4803, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine the mechanism of vitamin D3-induced modulation of antioxidant-related factors in endometrial cancer, we investigated their role in apoptosis of human endometrial cancer cells exposed to vitamin D3 Materials and Methods: The survival rate of human endometrial cancer cells was estimated after treatment with activated vitamin D3 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using flow cytometry. The levels of VDR, Trx, TXNIP and apoptosis-related proteins were investigated using western blotting and immunocytochemistry in human tissues. RESULTS: Treatment with D3 induced apoptotic cell death and cell-cycle arrest by increasing ROS concentration. Vitamin D3 inhibited proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells. It regulated intracellular ROS concentration in endometrial cancer cells via increased TXNIP expression. CONCLUSION: Antioxidant regulation via TXNIP is an important cell death mechanism in human endometrial cancer, and occurs via induction by vitamin D3.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4805-4810, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ro 90-7501 has been reported as an inhibitor of the amyloid ß42 fibril assembly that is associated with Alzheimer's disease. The present study aimed to elucidate the radiosensitizing effects of Ro 90-7501 and focused on ATM signaling after irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenic survival, apoptosis, and cell-cycle assays as well as western blotting were performed in HeLa cells treated with irradiation and Ro 90-7501. Tumor growth delay assay was also performed using BALB/c-nu mice. RESULTS: The combination of irradiation with Ro 90-7501 showed significant radiosensitizing effects in clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay assays. Ro 90-7501 significantly increased apoptosis and impaired cell cycle after irradiation. Western blotting showed that Ro 90-7501 suppressed the phosphorylation of ATM and its downstream proteins, such as H2AX, Chk1, and Chk2, after irradiation. CONCLUSION: Ro 90-7501 inhibits DNA damage response by inhibiting ATM and has significant radiosensitizing effects on cervical cancer cells.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4829-4835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) still remains an incurable disease as the cells evade apoptosis, which is an obstacle for current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, our aim was to identify an ideal target of leukemic cell growth for developing inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse lymphocytic leukemia cell line L1210, human Toledo cells and a DBA/2 mouse graft model were used to analyze the activity of dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor AZD2014s. Western blotting and flow cytometry were performed to determine the mechanism. RESULTS: AZD2014 inhibited L1210 and human Toledo cell proliferation. Treatment with AZD2014 reduced the phosphorylation levels of S6K1 and 4EBP1 and the protein levels of Rictor, a component of the mTORC2 pathway. AZD2014 induced cell cycle arrest at the G0-G1 phase by reducing the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Oral administration of AZD2014 significantly inhibited the growth of L1210 cell grafts in DBA/2 mice. CONCLUSION: The mTORC1/2 inhibitor may be a better therapeutic agent compared to PI3K/mTORC1 inhibitors for treating patients with CLL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfoide/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfoide/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfoide/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfolinas/farmacologia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4837-4843, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The antiparasitic drug, ivermectin (IVM), exerts anticancer activities in diverse cancer types. However, its anticancer activity against cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), especially the drug-resistant phenotype, has not yet been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IVM was tested for its anticancer activity against gemcitabine-sensitive (KKU214) and gemcitabine-resistant (KKU214GemR) CCA cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B and clonogenic assays as well as cell-cycle analysis. RESULTS: IVM treatment inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of both KKU214 and KKU214GemR in a dose- and time-dependent manner. KKU214GemR cells were more sensitive than KKU214 to IVM treatment. IVM treatment caused S-phase cell-cycle arrest and also cell death as indicated by an increase of sub-G0/G1 population in KKU214GemR cells treated with IVM for 48 h. CONCLUSION: IVM exerts anti-CCA activities and gemcitabine-resistant KKU214GemR cells are more sensitive to IVM treatment. Thus, IVM might be useful as an alternative treatment for CCA, especially in patients who do not respond to gemcitabine.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4031-4041, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Eribulin is currently used to treat advanced and metastatic breast cancer in the clinical setting; however, its efficacy is inhibited by resistance acquisition in many cases. Thus, the present study established two eribulin-resistant breast-cancer cell lines, and used these to investigate the mechanisms that underly eribulin-resistance acquisition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eribulin-resistant breast-cancer cell lines were generated by culturing MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells with increasing concentrations of eribulin. RESULTS: The eribulin-resistant cells acquired resistance to eribulin, as well as several other anticancer drugs. After eribulin treatment, the eribulin-resistant cell lines showed no morphological change, no increased expression of epithelial-cadherin, nor any significant alteration in cell-cycle distribution. In contrast, the expression levels of programmed death-ligand 1 were increased in the MCF-7/eribulin-resistant compared to MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: The herein developed eribulin-resistant cell lines acquired cross-resistance to various anticancer agents, and displayed resistance to eribulin-induced effects on microtubule function and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Cetonas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Cetonas/efeitos adversos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2457-2468, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous study identified a Wilms tumor-suppressing peptide (WTSP) that was upregulated in healthy children, but downregulated in children with Wilms tumor (WT). This study aimed to investigate the effect of WTSP on WT growth in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: WTSP was synthesized by solid-phase synthesis of FOMC-protected amino acids. Cell growth curve, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis of WTSP-treated human WT cell line (SK-NEP-1) were determined by cell count, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and flow cytometry. The expression of key proteins of four WT-associated signaling pathways was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The WT xenograft mouse model was established by the armpit injection of SK-NEP-1 cells. The TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptosis in mouse tumor cells. RESULTS: WTSP inhibited the proliferation of SK-NEP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it arrested SK-NEP-1 cells in G2/M phase. WTSP-treated cells exhibited a low expression of PCNA and Bcl-2 and high expression of Bax. The expression of ß-catenin was markedly changed after WTSP treatment. WTSP-treated mice had significantly smaller tumors than untreated mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated an anti-tumor effect of WTSP, which is correlated with Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. This newly identified peptide may exert a therapeutic effect of WT in the future.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Transdução de Sinais , Tumor de Wilms/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315360

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the mechanism of chemotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma under hypoxic conditions through the perspective of protein SUMOylation modification. Methods: Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) was used to establish the hypoxic model of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cells. Then, the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry, and the expression level of small ubiquitin-related modifier(SUMO) and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) proteins were detected by western blotting. MTT assay was used to determine the median lethal dose (IC(50)) of cancer cells against cisplatin, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. Results: The cell cycle of CNE1 induced by hypoxia was arrested in G0/G1 phase.The results of Western blot showed that the protein expression level of CDK6 in CNE1 cells was lower than that in the control group (0.83±0.25 vs. 0.43±0.21, t=14.67, P=0.003). The protein level of conjugated SUMO1 was significantly lower than that in the control group (2.69±0.48 vs. 1.38±0.31, t=17.22, P=0.001), while the level of free SUMO1 protein was significantly higher than that in the control group (2.01±0.43 vs. 2.60±0.59, t=15.45, P=0.002).The LC50 of CNE1 cells in the control group was significantly lower than that in the hypoxic group (29.44 µg/ml vs. 97.72 µg/ml, t=12.79, P=0.001). After CNE1 cells received 50 µg/ml cisplatin for 48 h, the LDH content in the supernatant of the control group was significantly higher than that in the hypoxic group ((541.49±64.59) ng/ml vs. (234.67±41.03) ng/ml, t=11.94, P=0.007)). The apoptosis rate of CNE1 cells in the control group was significantly higher than that in the hypoxic group ((76.64±5.37)% vs. (32.84±4.77) ng/ml, t=8.49, P=0.003)). Conclusion: Hypoxia can dissociate the covalent modification of CDK6 and SUMO1, inhibit cell cycle and increase the chemotherapy resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Sumoilação/fisiologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/fisiopatologia , Proteína SUMO-1/metabolismo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3697-3709, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cervical cancer is considered poorly chemo-sensitive in women and its treatment remains unsatisfactory. Cyperus rotundus is used in Chinese medicine as a therapeutic agent for women's disease. The effects and molecular mechanisms of the ethanol extraction of C. rotundus (CRE) on cervical cancer remain unclear. We aimed to explore the mechanisms and genetic influence of CRE on cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HeLa, human cervical cancer cells were treated with various doses of CRE and changes in cell morphology and cell viability were assessed using microscopy and flow cytometry. Finally, we performed a microarray analysis to scan related genes. RESULTS: The treatment of CRE on HeLa cells caused morphological changes and induced chromatin condensation. DNA microarray analysis showed that CRE led to up-regulation of 449 genes and down-regulation of 484 genes, which were classified in several interaction pathways. CONCLUSION: CRE changed HeLa cell morphology and induced gene expression which associated with apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. These results provide important information at the transcription level for targeting treatments of human cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyperus , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Apoptose/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Solventes/química , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3795-3801, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Butyric acid, a short chain fatty acid, plays an important role in the prevention of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect of butyric acid derivatives in colorectal cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells, were treated with the IC50 concentration of sodium butyrate, indole-3-butyric acid, tributyrin and 2-amino-n-butyric acid. Comet assay, caspase-3 assay and cell-cycle analysis were used to analyze apoptosis. RESULTS: Tributyrin and indole-3-butyric acid showed the least IC50 values at 24 h incubation. Butyric acid derivatives significantly activated caspase-3 activity compared with the control. Additionally, indole-3-butyric acid and tributyrin caused G0/G1 and G2/M phase arrest. CONCLUSION: Butyric acid derivatives effectively induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Células HCT116 , Humanos
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4573-4587, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296987

RESUMO

Introduction: Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are one of the most widely used types of nanomaterials. Recently, ENPs have been shown to cause cellular damage by inducing ROS (reactive oxygen species) both directly and indirectly, leading to the changes in DNA methylation levels, which is an important epigenetic mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect of ENP-induced ROS on DNA methylation. Materials and methods: Human embryonic kidney and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells were exposed to three different types of ENPs: gold nanoparticles, silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), and chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). We then evaluated the cytotoxicity of the ENPs by measuring cell viability, morphology, cell apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels. Global DNA methylation levels was measured using 5-methylcytosine immunocytochemical staining and HPLC analysis. DNA methylation levels of the transposable elements, long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu, were also measured using combined bisulfite restriction analysis technique. DNA methylation levels of the TEs LINE-1 and Alu were also measured using combined bisulfite restriction analysis technique. Results: We found that HaCaT cells that were exposed to SiNPs exhibited increased ROS levels, whereas HaCaT cells that were exposed to SiNPs and CSNPs experienced global and Alu hypomethylation, with no change in LINE-1 being observed in either cell line. The demethylation of Alu in HaCaT cells following exposure to SiNPs and CSNPs was prevented when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation that is observed in cells exposed to ENPs is associated with methylation of the Alu elements. However, the change in DNA methylation levels following ENP exposure is specific to particular ENP and cell types and independent of ROS, being induced indirectly through disruption of the oxidative defense process.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Elementos Alu/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Ouro/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/efeitos dos fármacos , Coroa de Proteína , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Silício/química
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107727, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan parasite that is non-virulent to the mammalian host and is morphologically and genomically related to Trypanosoma cruzi, whose proliferation within the mammalian host is controversially discussed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the T. rangeli cell cycle in vitro and in vivo by characterizing the timespan of the parasite life cycle and by proposing a molecular marker to assess cytokinesis. METHODOLOGY: The morphological events and their timing during the cell cycle of T. rangeli epimastigotes were assessed using DNA staining, flagellum labelling and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Messenger RNA levels of four genes previously associated with the cell cycle of trypanosomatids (AUK1, PLK, MOB1 and TRACK) were evaluated in the different T. rangeli forms. FINDINGS: T. rangeli epimastigotes completed the cell cycle in vitro in 20.8 h. PLK emerged as a potential molecular marker for cell division, as its mRNA levels were significantly increased in exponentially growing epimastigotes compared with growth-arrested parasites or in vitro-differentiated trypomastigotes. PLK expression in T. rangeli can be detected near the flagellum protrusion site, reinforcing its role in the cell cycle. Interestingly, T. rangeli bloodstream trypomastigotes exhibited very low mRNA levels of PLK and were almost entirely composed of parasites in G1 phase. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our work is the first to describe the T. rangeli cell cycle in vitro and proposes that PLK mRNA levels could be a useful tool to investigate the T. rangeli ability to proliferate within the mammalian host bloodstream.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Citocinese/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Trypanosoma rangeli/citologia , Animais , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinese/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/farmacologia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Trypanosoma rangeli/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma rangeli/enzimologia , Trypanosoma rangeli/genética , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
14.
Life Sci ; 232: 116633, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278947

RESUMO

AIMS: The compound 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a prenylflavonoid that can be isolated from hops and beer and has anti-cancer properties against breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of 8-PN against human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. MAIN METHODS: Colon cancer HCT-116 cells were treated with 8-PN and subjected to MTT and acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining to investigate the cytotoxicity of 8-PN. Arrest of the cells at different phases of cell cycle was monitored in the presence of 8-PN. Moreover, the apoptotic effects of 8-PN was assessed via annexin V and caspase activity assays and compared to the untreated cells. KEY FINDINGS: The findings showed that 8-PN revealed strong inhibitory effect against HCT-116 cells with an IC50 value of 23.83 ±â€¯2.9 µg/ml after 48 h. However, at similar concentrations and experimental time-points, the compound did not show cytotoxic effect to non-cancerous colon cells (CCD-41). Annexin-V assay indicates that 38.5% and 14.4% of HCT-116 cells had entered early and late stages of apoptosis, respectively after exposure of the cells to 8-PN for 48 h. Caspase activity assay illustrates that apoptosis is activated through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, flow cytometry cell cycle results indicate that treatment with 8-PN significantly arrested the HCT-116 cells at G0/G1 phase. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal that 8-PN has anti-proliferative activity against HCT-116 colon cancer cells via induction of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis. Further investigations should be carried out to unravel the mechanistic pathways underlying these activities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células HCT116/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 490, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297613

RESUMO

Eukaryotes employ various mechanisms to survive environmental stress conditions. Multicellular organisms eliminate permanently damaged cells by apoptosis, while unicellular eukaryotes like yeast react by decelerating cell aging. In the present study, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches were employed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of delayed apoptosis. Our findings suggest that Candida tropicalis 3Aer has a set of tightly controlled genes that are activated under Cd+2 exposition. Acute exposure to Cd+2 halts the cell cycle at the G2/M phase checkpoint and activates multiple cytoplasmic proteins that overcome effects of Cd+2-induced reactive oxygen species. Prolonged Cd+2 stress damages DNA and initiates GAPDH amyloid formation. This is the first report that Cd+2 challenge initiates dynamic redistribution of GAPDH and MDH and alters various metabolic pathways including the pentose phosphate pathway. In conclusion, the intracellular redistribution of GAPDH and MDH induced by prolonged cadmium stress modulates various cellular reactions, which facilitate delayed aging in the yeast cell.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/metabolismo , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4801-4816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308659

RESUMO

Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inhibit the proliferation of various fungi; however, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. To better understand the inhibitory mechanisms, we focused on the early events elicited by 5 nm AgNPs in pathogenic Candida albicans and non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods: The effect of 5 nm and 100 nm AgNPs on fungus cell proliferation was analyzed by growth kinetics monitoring and spot assay. We examined cell cycle progression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell death using flow cytometry. Glucose uptake was assessed using tritium-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Results: The growth of both C. albicans and S. cerevisiae was suppressed by treatment with 5 nm AgNPs but not with 100 nm AgNPs. In addition, 5 nm AgNPs induced cell cycle arrest and a reduction in glucose uptake in both fungi after 30 minutes of culture in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). However, in C. albicans only, an increase in ROS production was detected after exposure to 5 nm AgNPs. Concordantly, an ROS scavenger blocked the effect of 5 nm AgNPs on the cell cycle and glucose uptake in C. albicans only. Furthermore, the growth-inhibition effect of 5 nm AgNPs was not greater in S. cerevisiae mutant strains deficient in oxidative stress response genes than it was in wild type. Finally, 5 nm AgNPs together with a glycolysis inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate, synergistically enhanced cell death in C. albicans (P<0.05) but not in S. cerevisiae. Conclusion: AgNPs exhibit antifungal activity in a manner that may or may not be ROS dependent, according to the fungal species. The combination of AgNPs with 3-bromopyruvate may be more useful against infection with C. albicans.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/citologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Prata/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Fúngicos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1140-1151, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159606

RESUMO

Increasing knowledge of the relationship between cancer and dysregulated polyamine catabolism suggests interfering with aberrant polyamine metabolism for anticancer therapy that will have considerable clinical promise. SMO (spermine oxidase) plays an essential role in regulating the polyamines homeostasis. Therefore, development of SMO inhibitors has increasingly attracted much attention. Previously, we successfully purified and characterised SMO. Here, we presented an in silico drug discovery pipeline by combining pharmacophore modelling and molecular docking for the virtual screening of SMO inhibitors. In vitro evaluation showed that N-(3-{[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]amino}propyl)-8-quinolinecarboxamide (SI-4650) inhibited SMO enzyme activity, increased substrate spermine content and reduced product spermidine content, indicating that SI-4650 can interfere with polyamine metabolism. Furthermore, SI-4650 treatment suppressed cell proliferation and migration. Mechanistically, SI-4650 caused cell cycle arrest, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted autophagy. These results demonstrated the properties of interfering with polyamine metabolism of SI-4650 as a SMO inhibitor and the potential for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 130, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF), produced by Müller cells, and internal limiting membrane (ILM) have fundamental roles in the development of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, the potential crosstalk between NGF and ILM in FTMH is unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanism and effects of NGF on the proliferation of Müller cells co-cultured with ILM. METHODS: Primary Müller cells and ILM from New Zealand rabbits were extracted and authenticated with specific staining. Müller cells co-cultured with or without ILM were exposed to NGF and then analysed. Müller cell viability was estimated using cell counting kit-8. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The levels of cell cycle-related gene were detected using qRT-PCR. The TrK-A/Akt signal axis and downstream signaling cascades such as p21, CyclinE, CDK2, CyclinD1, and CDK4 were investigated by western blotting. RESULTS: ILM treatment alone induced the proliferation of Müller cells following the promotion of phosphorylated Akt, while growth of Müller cells was enhanced by activation of the Trk-A/Akt pathway under the stimulation of NGF or NGF + ILM. Additionally, the ratio of S-phase cells was increased, while G2-phase cells decreased upon the treatment with either ILM or NGF alone, or with NGF + ILM co-treatment. Cell cycle-related genes such as CyclinD1, CyclinE, CDK2, and CDK4 were all upregulated, but p21 expression was downregulated in the presence of NGF, ILM, or NGF + ILM. There was an additive effect on cell proliferation and cell cycle in the group of Müller cells exposed to NGF co-cultured with ILM compared with either NGF or ILM treatment alone. However, both K252ɑ (inhibitors of Trk-A) and LY294002 (inhibitor for Akt) counteracted the effect of NGF or NGF + ILM on the protein levels of Trk-A, Akt, CyclinD1, CyclinE, CDK2, and p21. CONCLUSIONS: Müller cells co-cultured with ILM or NGF promoted cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle-correlated proteins via the PI3K/Akt pathway. ILM + NGF further amplified the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by binding to Trk-A, leading to more cell growth. This study provides new insight into the potential mechanism of NGF-mediated proliferation of Müller cells co-cultured with or without ILM, which may have considerable impact on therapies for FTMH.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Basal/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Ependimogliais/citologia , Coelhos
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2400, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160565

RESUMO

BET-bromodomain inhibition (BETi) has shown pre-clinical promise for MYC-amplified medulloblastoma. However, the mechanisms for its action, and ultimately for resistance, have not been fully defined. Here, using a combination of expression profiling, genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss of function and ORF/cDNA driven rescue screens, and cell-based models of spontaneous resistance, we identify bHLH/homeobox transcription factors and cell-cycle regulators as key genes mediating BETi's response and resistance. Cells that acquire drug tolerance exhibit a more neuronally differentiated cell-state and expression of lineage-specific bHLH/homeobox transcription factors. However, they do not terminally differentiate, maintain expression of CCND2, and continue to cycle through S-phase. Moreover, CDK4/CDK6 inhibition delays acquisition of resistance. Therefore, our data provide insights about the mechanisms underlying BETi effects and the appearance of resistance and support the therapeutic use of combined cell-cycle inhibitors with BETi in MYC-amplified medulloblastoma.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cerebelares/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Ciclina D2/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D2/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/genética , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Fase S/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Int J Oncol ; 55(1): 223-242, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180528

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 5­fluorouracil (5­FU), anti­epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody and aspirin (ASA) on the characteristics of two CRC cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, maintained in a spherical culture system. We observed that the morphology of both the HCT116 and HT29 cell­derived spheres was significantly impaired and the size of the colonospheres was markedly reduced following treatment with the aforementioned three drugs. In contrast to adherent cultures, the spherical cultures were more resistant to the tested drugs, as was reflected by their capacity to re­create the colonospheres when sustained in serum­free medium. Flow cytometric analysis of the drug­treated HCT116 cell­derived spheres revealed changes in the fraction of cells expressing markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), whereas the CSC phenotype of HT29 cell­derived colonospheres was affected to a lesser extent. All reagents enhanced the percentage of non­viable cells in the colonospheres despite the diminished fraction of active caspase­3­positive cells following treatment of the HT29 cell­derived spheres with anti­EGFR antibody. Increased autophagy, assessed by acridine orange staining, was noted following the incubation of the HT29­colonospheres with ASA and 5­FU in comparison to the control. Notably, the percentage of cyclooxygenase (COX)­2­positive cells was not affected by ASA, although its activity was markedly elevated in the colonospheres incubated with anti­EGFR antibody. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that all the tested drugs were involved in different cellular processes, which suggests that they should be considered for the combined therapeutic treatment of CRC, particularly for targeting the population of CSC­like cells. Thus, cancer cell­derived spheres may be used as a preferable model for in vitro anticancer drug testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/biossíntese , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Esferoides Celulares , Receptor fas/biossíntese
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