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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201963

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a devastating disease with a 5-year overall survival of 9% for all stages. Gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer is highly toxic. We conducted an in vitro study to determine whether poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition radiosensitized gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines, MIA PaCa-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were treated with gemcitabine (10 nM) and/or olaparib (1 µM). Low-LET gamma single dose of 2, 5 and 10 Gy radiations were carried out. Clonogenic assay, PAR immunoblotting, cell cycle distribution, γH2Ax, necrotic and autophagic cell death quantifications were performed. Treatment with olaparib alone was not cytotoxic, but highly radiosensitized cell lines, particularly at high dose per fraction A non-cytotoxic concentration of gemcitabine radiosensitized cells, but less than olaparib. Interestingly, olaparib significantly enhanced gemcitabine-based radiosensitization in PDAC cell lines with synergistic effect in BxPC-3 cell line. All cell lines were radiosensitized by the combination of gemcitabine and olaparib, through an increase of unrepaired double-strand, a G2 phase block and cell death. Radiosensitization was increased with high dose of radiation. The combination of olaparib with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy could lead to an enhancement of local control in vivo and an improvement in disease-free survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiorradioterapia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment resistance of glioblastoma multiforme to chemo- and radiotherapy remains a challenge yet to overcome. In particular, the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter unmethylated patients have only little benefit from chemotherapy treatment using temozolomide since MGMT counteracts its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, new treatment options in radiotherapy need to be developed to inhibit MGMT and increase radiotherapy response. METHODS: Lomeguatrib, a highly specific MGMT inhibitor, was used to inactivate MGMT protein in vitro. Radiosensitivity of established human glioblastoma multiforme cell lines in combination with lomeguatrib was investigated using the clonogenic survival assay. Inhibition of MGMT was analyzed using Western Blot. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were investigated to determine the effects of lomeguatrib alone as well as in combination with ionizing radiation. RESULTS: Lomeguatrib significantly decreased MGMT protein and reduced radiation-induced G2/M arrest. A radiosensitizing effect of lomeguatrib was observed when administered at 1 µM and increased radioresistance at 20 µM. CONCLUSION: Low concentrations of lomeguatrib elicit radiosensitization, while high concentrations mediate a radioprotective effect.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Purinas/farmacologia , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202684

RESUMO

The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and tissue-stimulating effects of cold argon atmospheric plasma (CAAP) accelerate its use in various fields of medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of CAAP at different radiation doses on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human osteosarcoma (MNNG/HOS) cells. We observed an increase in the growth rate of MSCs at sufficiently low irradiation doses (10-15 min) of CAAP, while the growth of MNNG/HOS cells was slowed down to 41% at the same irradiation doses. Using flow cytometry, we found that these effects are associated with cell cycle arrest and extended death of cancer cells by necrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in both types of cells after 15 min of CAAP treatment. Evaluation of the genes' transcriptional activity showed that exposure to low doses of CAAP activates the expression of genes responsible for proliferation, DNA replication, and transition between phases of the cell cycle in MSCs. There was a decrease in the transcriptional activity of most of the studied genes in MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma cancer cells. However, increased transcription of osteogenic differentiation genes was observed in normal and cancer cells. The selective effects of low and high doses of CAAP treatment on cancer and normal cells that we found can be considered in terms of hormesis. The low dose of cold argon plasma irradiation stimulated the vital processes in stem cells due to the slight generation of reactive oxygen species. In cancer cells, the same doses evidently lead to the formation of oxidative stress, which was accompanied by a proliferation inhibition and cell death. The differences in the cancer and normal cells' responses are probably due to different sensitivity to exogenous oxidative stress. Such a selective effect of CAAP action can be used in the combined therapy of oncological diseases such as skin neoplasms, or for the removal of remaining cancer cells after surgical removal of a tumor.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204834

RESUMO

In head and neck cancers, the effectiveness of cisplatin (CisPt) treatment is limited by its toxicity, especially when higher doses are necessary, and the possible occurrence of cisplatin resistance. This study evaluated the effects of resveratrol (RSV) on the expression of different genes involved in the response of human tumor cells (FaDu, PE/CA-PJ49) to cisplatin therapy. Our results revealed that RSV induced apoptosis amplification in both FaDu and PE/CA-PJ49 cells and modulated the expression of specific genes differently than in normal HaCaT cells. In FaDu cells, combined CisPt + RSV treatment induced an increase in apoptosis, which was associated with an increase in c-MYC and TP53 and a decrease in BCL-2 expression. While CisPt + RSV treatment induced apoptosis in PE/CA-PJ49 cells by inhibition of BCL-2 associated with high levels of MDM-2 and subsequently led to inhibition of TP53 gene expression. Decreased c-MYC expression in PE/CA-PJ49 treated with CisPt + RSV was accompanied by cell cycle blockage in G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, RSV influences tumor cell response to CisPt by inducing apoptosis and modulating gene expression. In addition, in normal HaCaT cells, RSV was able to reduce the harmful effects of CisPt.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205043

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most deadly primary malignant brain tumor. Current therapies are not effective, the average survival of GBM patients after diagnosis being limited to few months. Therefore, the discovery of new treatments for this highly aggressive brain cancer is urgently needed. Chalcones are synthetic and naturally occurring compounds that have been widely investigated as anticancer agents. In this work, three chalcone derivatives were tested regarding their inhibitory activity and selectivity towards GBM cell lines (human and mouse) and a non-cancerous mouse brain cell line. The chalcone 1 showed the most potent and selective cytotoxic effects in the GBM cell lines, being further investigated regarding its ability to reduce critical hallmark features of GBM and to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. This derivative showed to successfully reduce the invasion and proliferation capacity of tumor cells, both key targets for cancer treatment. Moreover, to overcome potential systemic side effects and its poor water solubility, this compound was encapsulated into liposomes. Therapeutic concentrations were incorporated retaining the potent in vitro growth inhibitory effect of the selected compound. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that this new formulation can be a promising starting point for the discovery of new and more effective drug treatments for GBM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208226

RESUMO

We investigated the role of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) under hyperosmotic conditions in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Hyperosmotic stress decreased the viability of human lens epithelial B-3 cells and significantly increased NFAT5 expression. Hyperosmotic stress-induced cell death occurred to a greater extent in NFAT5-knockout (KO) cells than in NFAT5 wild-type (NFAT5 WT) cells. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression was down-regulated in NFAT5 WT cells and NFAT5 KO cells under hyperosmotic stress. Pre-treatment with a necroptosis inhibitor (necrostatin-1) significantly blocked hyperosmotic stress-induced death of NFAT5 KO cells, but not of NFAT5 WT cells. The phosphorylation levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3, which indicate the occurrence of necroptosis, were up-regulated in NFAT5 KO cells, suggesting that death of these cells is predominantly related to the necroptosis pathway. This finding is the first to report that necroptosis occurs when lens epithelial cells are exposed to hyperosmolar conditions, and that NFAT5 is involved in this process.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Cristalino/patologia , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Soluções Hipertônicas/toxicidade , Inflamação/patologia , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4515-4526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239302

RESUMO

Introduction: Neuroregeneration is a major challenge in neuroscience for treating degenerative diseases and for repairing injured nerves. Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical stimulation for neuronal growth and development, and here we report an approach for the physical guidance of neuron orientation and neurite growth using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and magnetic fields (MFs). Methods: SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized by classic chemical co-precipitation methods and then characterized by transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The cytotoxicity of the prepared SPIO nanoparticles and MF was determined using CCK-8 assay and LIVE/DEAD assay. The immunofluorescence images were captured by a laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell migration was evaluated using the wound healing assay. Results: The prepared SPIO nanoparticles showed a narrow size distribution, low cytotoxicity, and superparamagnetism. SPIO nanoparticles coated with poly-L-lysine could be internalized by spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations less than 300 µg/mL. The neurite extension of SGNs was promoted after internalizing SPIO nanoparticles with or without an external MF, and this might be due to the promotion of growth cone development. It was also confirmed that SPIO can regulate cell migration and can direct neurite outgrowth in SGNs preferentially along the direction imposed by an external MF. Conclusion: Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the regulation of cell behaviors under physical cues and suggest alternative treatments for sensorineural hearing loss caused by the degeneration of SGNs.


Assuntos
Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuritos/metabolismo , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/citologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207315

RESUMO

Pevonedistat is a neddylation inhibitor that blocks proteasomal degradation of cullin-RING ligase (CRL) proteins involved in the degradation of short-lived regulatory proteins, including those involved with cell-cycle regulation. We determined the sensitivity and mechanism of action of pevonedistat cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma. Pevonedistat cytotoxicity was assessed using cell viability assays and apoptosis. We examined mechanisms of action using flow cytometry, bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) and immunoblots. Orthotopic mouse xenografts of human neuroblastoma were generated to assess in vivo anti-tumor activity. Neuroblastoma cell lines were very sensitive to pevonedistat (IC50 136-400 nM). The mechanism of pevonedistat cytotoxicity depended on p53 status. Neuroblastoma cells with mutant (p53MUT) or reduced levels of wild-type p53 (p53si-p53) underwent G2-M cell-cycle arrest with rereplication, whereas p53 wild-type (p53WT) cell lines underwent G0-G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. In orthotopic neuroblastoma models, pevonedistat decreased tumor weight independent of p53 status. Control mice had an average tumor weight of 1.6 mg + 0.8 mg versus 0.5 mg + 0.4 mg (p < 0.05) in mice treated with pevonedistat. The mechanism of action of pevonedistat in neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro appears p53 dependent. However, in vivo studies using mouse neuroblastoma orthotopic models showed a significant decrease in tumor weight following pevonedistat treatment independent of the p53 status. Novel chemotherapy agents, such as the NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor pevonedistat, deserve further study in the treatment of neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína NEDD8/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína NEDD8/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
9.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3389-3400, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a biliary cancer, is a health problem worldwide. The major problem in CCA treatment presents limited options. To date, targeting cancer metabolism is a promising anti-cancer strategy. To elucidate the functional importance of lipid metabolism in CCA, de novo lipogenesis was inhibited using 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-proliferative effects of TOFA were determined both in vitro and in vivo. Its inhibitory effect on cell-cycle and apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry and western blot analysis of relevant markers. RESULTS: TOFA inhibited CCA cell growth, induced cell-cycle progression accompanied by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of p21, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 cleavages, while down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 were observed in TOFA-treated cells. The therapeutic potential was demonstrated in vivo. CONCLUSION: De novo lipogensis is essential for CCA cell growth and is an alternative target for CCA treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/farmacologia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070594

RESUMO

It is important to understand the nanomaterials intracellular trafficking and distribution and investigate their targeting into the nuclear area in the living cells. In our previous study, we firstly observed penetration of nonmodified positively charged carbon dots decorated with quaternary ammonium groups (QCDs) into the nucleus of mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Thus, in this work, we focused on deeper study of QCDs distribution inside two healthy mouse NIH/3T3 and L929 cell lines by fluorescence microspectroscopy and performed a comprehensive cytotoxic and DNA damage measurements. Real-time penetration of QCDs across the plasma cell membrane was recorded, concentration dependent uptake was determined and endocytic pathways were characterized. We found out that the QCDs concentration of 200 µg/mL is close to saturation and subsequently, NIH/3T3 had a different cell cycle profile, however, no significant changes in viability (not even in the case with QCDs in the nuclei) and DNA damage. In the case of L929, the presence of QCDs in the nucleus evoked a cellular death. Intranuclear environment of NIH/3T3 cells affected fluorescent properties of QCDs and evoked fluorescence blue shifts. Studying the intracellular interactions with CDs is essential for development of future applications such as DNA sensing, because CDs as DNA probes have not yet been developed.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Células NIH 3T3 , Pontos Quânticos/química , Pontos Quânticos/uso terapêutico
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073232

RESUMO

Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is still one of the most difficult cancers to treat despite recent advances in targeted and immune therapies. About 50% of advanced melanoma do not benefit of such therapies, and novel treatments are requested. Curcumin and its analogs have shown good anticancer properties and are being considered for use in combination with or sequence to recent therapies to improve patient outcomes. Our group previously published the synthesis and anticancer activity characterization of a novel curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells (D6). Here, two hydroxylated biphenyl compounds-namely, compounds 11 and 12-were selected among a small collection of previously screened C2-symmetric hydroxylated biphenyls structurally related to D6 and curcumin, showing the best antitumor potentiality against melanoma cells (IC50 values of 1.7 ± 0.5 µM for 11 and 2.0 ± 0.7 µM for 12) and no toxicity of normal fibroblasts up to 32 µM. Their antiproliferative activity was deeply characterized on five melanoma cell lines by performing dose-response and clonal growth inhibition assays, which revealed long-lasting and irreversible effects for both compounds. Apoptosis induction was ascertained by the annexin V and TUNEL assays, whereas Western blotting showed caspase activation and PARP cleavage. A cell cycle analysis, following cell treatments with either compound 11 or 12, highlighted an arrest in the G2/M transition. Taking all this evidence together, 11 and 12 were shown to be good candidates as lead compounds to develop new anticancer drugs against malignant melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/síntese química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072471

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides constitute the majority of the total environmental pollutants, and a wide range of compounds have been found to be carcinogenic to humans. Among all, growing interest has been focused on ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), virtually the most hazardous and, at the same time, the most poorly investigated member of the hexachlorocyclohexane family. Considering the multifaceted biochemical activities of ß-HCH, already established in our previous studies, the aim of this work is to assess whether ß-HCH could also trigger cellular malignant transformation toward cancer development. For this purpose, experiments were performed on the human normal bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS-2B exposed to 10 µM ß-HCH. The obtained results strongly support the carcinogenic potential of ß-HCH, which is achieved through both non-genotoxic (activation of oncogenic signaling pathways and proliferative activity) and indirect genotoxic (ROS production and DNA damage) mechanisms that significantly affect cellular macroscopic characteristics and functions such as cell morphology, cell cycle profile, and apoptosis. Taking all these elements into account, the presented study provides important elements to further characterize ß-HCH, which appears to be a full-fledged carcinogenic agent.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/induzido quimicamente , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Hexaclorocicloexano/farmacologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Hexaclorocicloexano/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071136

RESUMO

In this paper, we compared the effects of bortezomib on L1210 (S) cells with its effects on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-positive variant S cells, which expressed P-gp either after selection with vincristine (R cells) or after transfection with a human gene encoding P-gp (T cells). Bortezomib induced the death-related effects in the S, R, and T cells at concentrations not exceeding 10 nM. Bortezomib-induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase was more pronounced in the S cells than in the R or T cells and was related to the expression levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and their inhibitors. We also observed an increase in the level of polyubiquitinated proteins (via K48-linkage) and a decrease in the gene expression of some deubiquitinases after treatment with bortezomib. Resistant cells expressed higher levels of genes encoding 26S proteasome components and the chaperone HSP90, which is involved in 26S proteasome assembly. After 4 h of preincubation, bortezomib induced a more pronounced depression of proteasome activity in S cells than in R or T cells. However, none of these changes alone or in combination sufficiently suppressed the sensitivity of R or T cells to bortezomib, which remained at a level similar to that of S cells.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Linfoide/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes , Fluoresceínas/metabolismo , Genes cdc/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leucemia Linfoide/genética , Leucemia Linfoide/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/metabolismo , Vincristina/farmacologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071360

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer lacking targeted therapy. Here, we evaluated the anti-cancer activity of APR-246, a P53 activator, and CX-5461, a RNA polymerase I inhibitor, in the treatment of TNBC cells. We tested the efficacy of individual and combination therapy of CX-5461 and APR-246 in vitro, using a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Using publicly available breast cancer datasets, we found that components of RNA Pol I are predominately upregulated in basal-like breast cancer, compared to other subtypes, and this upregulation is associated with poor overall and relapse-free survival. Notably, we found that the treatment of breast cancer cells lines with CX-5461 significantly hampered cell proliferation and synergistically enhanced the efficacy of APR-246. The combination treatment significantly induced apoptosis that is associated with cleaved PARP and Caspase 3 along with Annexin V positivity. Likewise, we also found that combination treatment significantly induced DNA damage and replication stress in these cells. Our data provide a novel combination strategy by utilizing APR-246 in combination CX-5461 in killing TNBC cells that can be further developed into more effective therapy in TNBC therapeutic armamentarium.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , RNA Polimerase I/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 2885-2894, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated the radiosensitizing effect of the combination treatment of trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, and temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, on non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of combining trametinib and temsirolimus with radiation in NSCLC cell lines were evaluated using clonogenic survival and apoptosis assays. DNA double-strand breaks and cell cycle distribution were analyzed using flow cytometry. Tumor volume was measured to determine the radiosensitivity in lung cancer xenograft models. RESULTS: Exposure of lung cancer cells to a combination of trametinib and temsirolimus reduced clonogenic survival and promoted radiation-induced apoptosis. Combined inhibition of MEK and mTOR induced prolonged expression of γH2AX after irradiation and resulted in prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest after irradiation in A549 cells. In vivo studies revealed that co-administration of the drugs sensitizes lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: The combination of trametinib and temsirolimus can enhance lung cancer radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069900

RESUMO

Rhododendron molle G. Don is one example of traditional Chinese medicine with important medicinal value. In this study, the effects of methanol extract of R. molle leaves (RLE) on colorectal cancer HT-29 cells and its potential molecular mechanism were investigated. MTT analysis showed that RLE could significantly inhibit the cell viability and migration of HT-29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell cycle analyses via flow cytometer suggested that RLE induced DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, and arrest at the S phase in HT-29 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that RLE could upregulate the mRNA expression of p53 and p21 in HT-29 cells, which would result in HT-29 cells being blocked in S phase. Meanwhile, RLE could upregulate the expression of Bax, and downregulate the expression of Bcl-2, which would induce cell apoptosis. Further western blot analysis showed that the protein expression changes of Bax and P53 were basically consistent with the results of qRT-PCR. In addition, GC-MS analysis detected 17 potential anticancer components in R. molle. These results indicate that R. molle has significant anticancer activity, which provides some useful information for further study and clinical application for R. molle.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhododendron/química , Apoptose/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Flores/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Folhas de Planta/química , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070150

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis would develop into cirrhosis or cancer without treating. Hence, it is necessary to study the mechanism and prevention methods for hepatic fibrosis. Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a traditional medicinal material with a high medicinal and health value. In this study, nineteen compounds obtained from G. pentaphyllum were qualitative and quantitative by HPLC-FT-ICR MS and HPLC-UV, respectively. Among them, the total content of 19 gypenosides accurately quantified reaches 72.21 mg/g and their anti-proliferation against t-HSC/Cl-6 cells indicated compound 19 performed better activity (IC50: 28.1 ± 2.0 µM) than the other compounds. Further network pharmacology study demonstrated that compound 19 mainly plays an anti-fibrosis role by regulating the EGFR signaling pathway, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Overall, the verification result indicated that compound 19 appeared to be nontoxic to LO2, was able to modulate the PI3K/Akt signal, led to subG1 cells cycle arrest and the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells for anti-hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Gynostemma/química , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064380

RESUMO

The interest in the introduction of the oxime group in molecules aiming to improve their biological effects is increasing. This work aimed to develop new steroidal oximes of the estrane series with potential antitumor interest. For this, several oximes were synthesized by reaction of hydroxylamine with the 17-ketone of estrone derivatives. Then, their cytotoxicity was evaluated in six cell lines. An estrogenicity assay, a cell cycle distribution analysis and a fluorescence microscopy study with Hoechst 3358 staining were performed with the most promising compound. In addition, molecular docking studies against estrogen receptor α, steroid sulfatase, 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and ß-tubulin were also accomplished. The 2-nitroestrone oxime showed higher cytotoxicity than the parent compound on MCF-7 cancer cells. Furthermore, the oximes bearing halogen groups in A-ring evidenced selectivity for HepaRG cells. Remarkably, the Δ9,11-estrone oxime was the most cytotoxic and arrested LNCaP cells in the G2/M phase. Fluorescence microscopy studies showed the presence of condensed DNA typical of prophase and condensed and fragmented nuclei characteristic of apoptosis. However, this oxime promoted the proliferation of T47-D cells. Interestingly, molecular docking studies estimated a strong interaction between Δ9,11-estrone oxime and estrogen receptor α and ß-tubulin, which may account for the described effects.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oximas/síntese química , Oximas/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrona/síntese química , Estrona/química , Estrona/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Oximas/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068164

RESUMO

Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the major bio-active ingredients of huang qi which is the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus (a traditional Chinese medicinal plant). The pharmacological effects of AS-IV, including anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects have been actively studied, however, the effects of AS-IV on liver regeneration have not yet been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of AS-IV on regenerating liver after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) in rats. Differentially expressed mRNAs, proliferative marker and growth factors were analyzed. AS-IV (10 mg/kg) was administrated orally 2 h before surgery. We found 20 core genes showed effects of AS-IV, many of which were involved with functions related to DNA replication during cell division. AS-IV down-regulates MAPK signaling, PI3/Akt signaling, and cell cycle pathway. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cyclin D1 expression were also decreased by AS-IV administration. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1, growth regulation signal) was slightly increased. In short, AS-IV down-regulated proliferative signals and genes related to DNA replication. In conclusion, AS-IV showed anti-proliferative activity in regenerating liver tissue after 70% PHx.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Replicação do DNA , Regulação para Baixo , Hepatectomia , Regeneração Hepática/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/cirurgia , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química
20.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068314

RESUMO

The Myrteacae family is known as a rich source of phloroglucinols, a group of secondary metabolites with notable biological activities. Leaves of Psidium cattleianum were extracted with chloroform: methanol 8:2 to target the isolation of phloroglucinol derivatives. Isolated compounds were characterized using different spectroscopic methods: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultra-violet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS). Two new phloroglucinols were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of six human cancer cell lines, namely colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29 and HCT-116); hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2); laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2); breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB231), in addition to normal human melanocytes HFB-4. Additionally, cell cycle analysis and annexin-V/FITC-staining were used to gain insights into the mechanism of action of the isolated compounds. The new phloroglucinol meroterpenoids, designated cattleianal and cattleianone, showed selective antiproliferative action against HT-29 cells with IC50's of 35.2 and 32.1 µM, respectively. Results obtained using cell cycle analysis and annexin-V/FITC-staining implicated both necrosis and apoptosis pathways in the selective cytotoxicity of cattleianal and cattleianone. Our findings suggest that both compounds are selective antiproliferative agents and support further mechanistic studies for phloroglucinol meroterpenoids as scaffolds for developing new selective chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Psidium/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Necrose , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
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