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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5517-5527, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Drug resistance is a significant cause of high mortality in ovarian cancer (OC) patients. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine (AZT) has been utilized as a treatment for tumors, but its role in OC treatment has not been revealed. The aim of the present in vitro study was to examine the influence of AZT on the growth of human OC cells and the involved proteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proliferation, cell cycle distribution, extent of apoptosis, mitotic index, and terminal restriction fragment length were examined in three OC cell lines, CaOV3, TOV112D, and TOV21G, treated with AZT. RESULTS: AZT inhibited growth of the TOV21G and CaOV3 cell lines by regulating cell cycle distribution. Specifically, AZT caused G2/M phase arrest on TOV21G cells and S phase arrest on CaOV3 cells. In addition, AZT treatment induced up-regulation of p21 and p16 in the TOV21G and CaOV3 cell line, respectively. CONCLUSION: AZT inhibited cell proliferation in serous and clear cell OC via the regulation of cell cycle distribution.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Zidovudina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5049-5057, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Studies with acridine compounds have reported anticancer effects. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity and antitumor effect of the (E)-1'-((4-chlorobenzylidene)amino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-06), a promising anticancer spiro-acridine compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The toxicity of AMTAC-06 was evaluated on zebrafish and mice. Antitumor activity was assessed in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. Effects on angiogenesis, cytokine levels and cell cycle were also investigated. RESULTS: AMTAC-06 did not induce toxicity on zebrafish and mice (LD50 approximately 5000 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). No genotoxicity was observed on micronucleus assay. AMTAC-06 significantly reduced the total viable Ehrlich tumor cells and increased sub-G1 peak, suggesting apoptosis was triggered. Moreover, the compound significantly decreased the density of peritumoral microvessels, indicating an anti-angiogenic action, possibly dependent on the cytokine modulation (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IFN-γ). No significant toxicological effects were recorded for AMTAC-06 on tumor transplanted animals. CONCLUSION: AMTAC-06 has low toxicity and a significant antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Acridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Acridinas/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Espiro/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Peixe-Zebra
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5059-5069, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally, of which hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 85-90% of total primary liver cancer. A drug shortage for HCC therapy triggered us to screen the small-molecule database with a high-throughput cellular screening system. Herein, we examined whether cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) inhibits cellular mobility and invasiveness of Mahlavu HCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of CTAB on cell viability were assessed using WST-1 assay, cell-cycle distribution using flow cytometric analysis, migration/invasion using woundhealing and transwell assays, and associated protein levels using western blotting. RESULTS: Treatment of Mahlavu cells with CTAB transformed its mesenchymal spindle-like morphology. In addition, CTAB exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells dose-dependently. CTAB also reduced the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, RAC family small GTPase 1, SNAIL family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1), SNAI2, TWIST family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1), vimentin, N-cadherin, phospho-fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor, phospho-phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospho-v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 but increased the protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1/2 and E-cadherin. Rescue experiments proved that CTAB induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in Mahlavu cells and this was significantly dose-dependently mitigated by basic FGF. CONCLUSION: CTAB suppressed the migration and invasion of Mahlavu cells through inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway. CTAB seems to be a potential agent for preventing metastasis of hepatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cetrimônio/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4885-4894, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878776

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor potential of guaiazulene-3-carboxylate derivatives against oral malignant cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve guaiazulene-3-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized by introduction of either with alkyl group [1-5], alkoxy group [6, 7], hydroxyl group [8, 9] or primary amine [10-12] at the end of sidechains. Tumor-specificity (TS) was calculated by the ratio of mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) against 3 human oral mesenchymal cell lines to that against 4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Potency-selectivity expression (PSE) was calculated by dividing TS value by CC50value against OSCC cell lines. Cell cycle analysis was performed by cell sorter. RESULTS: [6, 7] showed the highest TS and PSE values, and induced the accumulation of both subG1 and G2/M cell populations in HSC-2 OSCC cells. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis demonstrated that their tumor-specificity was correlated with chemical descriptors that explain the 3D shape, electric state and ionization potential. CONCLUSION: Alkoxyl guaiazulene-3-carboxylates [6, 7] can be potential candidates of lead compound for developing novel anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azulenos/química , Azulenos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Azulenos/síntese química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/síntese química
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4947-4960, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and potential mechanisms of sclareol in a human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Cell cycle, apoptosis and caspase activity were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell cycle and DNA damage related protein expression was determined by western blotting. In vivo evaluation of sclareol was carried out in xenografted tumor mice models. RESULTS: Sclareol significantly reduced cell viability, induced G1 phase arrest and subsequently triggered apoptosis in H1688 cells. In addition, this sclareol-induced growth arrest was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX, activation of ATR and Chk1. Moreover, in vivo evaluation of sclareol showed that it could inhibit tumor weight and volume in a H1688 xenograft model. CONCLUSION: Sclareol might be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of SCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5001-5013, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878788

RESUMO

AIM: Newly synthesized platinum(IV) complexes with ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate ligands (EDDA-type) (butyl-Pt and pentyl-Pt) were investigated against two cancer (A549 lung, and HTB 140 melanoma) and one non-cancerous (MRC-5 embryonic lung fibroblast) human cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of these agents were compared with those of cisplatin after 6-, 24- and 48-h treatment. Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay was performed to estimate the cytotoxic effect, while the inhibitory effect on cell proliferation was measured using 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Type of cell death induced by these agents was determined by electrophoretic analysis of DNA, flow cytometry and by western blot analysis of proteins involved in induction of apoptosis. The effects of gamma irradiation, alone and in combination with platinum-based compounds, were examined by clonogenic and SRB assays. RESULTS: All examined platinum-based compounds had inhibitory and antiproliferative effects on A549 cells, but not on HTB140 and MRC-5 cells. Butyl-Pt, pentyl-Pt and cisplatin arrested the cell cycle in the S-phase and induced apoptotic cell death via regulation of expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and BCL2-associated X (BAX) proteins. Platinum-based compounds increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to gamma irradiation. Butyl-Pt and pentyl-Pt showed better antitumour effects against A549 cells than did cisplatin, by interfering in cell proliferation and the cell cycle, and by triggering apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The effects of gamma irradiation on tumour cells may be amplified by pre-treatment of cells with platinum-based compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Ácido Edético/química , Raios gama , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Compostos Organoplatínicos/síntese química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Radiossensibilizantes/síntese química , Radiossensibilizantes/química
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5211-5219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: CBP is a transcriptional coactivator in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway that is related to cell kinetics and differentiation. This study aimed to characterize ß-catenin-activated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the direct effects of PRI-724 (a selective inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin/CBP signaling) on HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ß-catenin was performed in 199 HCC resected samples. Moreover, using cultured HCC cell lines, cell kinetics and its related proteins were analyzed after treatment of cells with C-82 (active form of PRI-724). RESULTS: Nuclear ß-catenin expression was found in 18% of HCC cases and the tumor sizes in these positive samples were larger. In HCC cell lines with a constitutively activated ß-catenin, C-82 inhibited cell proliferation. C-82 led to an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase also increased. Moreover, C-82 treatment significantly decreased the expression of cell proliferating markers and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. CONCLUSION: PRI-724(C-82) may be a novel drug for ß-catenin-activated HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 281-290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865918

RESUMO

Objective-To investigate cystathionine ß synthase (CBS)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and to identify its effect on the proliferation of U266 cells. Methods-Bone marrow samples of 19 MM patients and 23 healthy donors were collected. qRT-PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expression levels of H2S synthases, cystathionine ß synthase, and cystathionine γ lyase. ELISA assays quantified the amount of H2S produced by the two enzymes CBS and CSE. CCK-8 experiment was used to investigate the influence of the CBS inhibitor amino oxyacetic acid and the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine on the proliferation of U266 cells. Flow cytometry and western blotting were performed to determine the effects of AOAA, PAG, and NaHS on cell cycle distribution as well as Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression. Results-Patients with MM had higher level of CBS compared with healthy donors. AOAA significantly inhibited cell proliferation in both a time and concentration dependent characteristic, whereas PAG does not. After 24 hours of treatment, AOAA significantly elevated the G0/G1 phase proportion of cells, and reduced the cell distribution in both S and G2/M phases, while NaHS accelerated cell cycle progression by reducing the relative number of cells in G0/G1 phase and increasing the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase. Moreover, AOAA abolished the impact of NaHS on cell cycle progression of U266 cells. AOAA treatment also led to a significant decrease in Bcl-2 expression and dramatic increase in Caspase-3 expression, though NaHS reversed these effects. Conclusion-CBS/H2S system might have a certain effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Alquinos/farmacologia , Ácido Amino-Oxiacético/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistationina beta-Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cistationina gama-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cistationina gama-Liase/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5043-5060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764935

RESUMO

Background: Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a common component of most idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones and is often used as a nidus to induce the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Methods: This work comparatively studies the cytotoxicity of four kinds of HAP crystals with different sizes (40 nm to 2 µm), namely, HAP-40 nm, HAP-70 nm, HAP-1 µm, and HAP-2 µm, on human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Results: HAP crystals reduce the viability and membrane integrity of HK-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and consequently cause cytoskeleton damage, cell swelling, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular calcium concentration, blocked cell cycle and stagnation in G0/G1 phase, and increased cell necrosis rate. HAP toxicity to HK-2 cells increases with a decrease in crystal size. Conclusion: Cell damage caused by HAP crystals increases the risk of kidney stone formation.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Durapatita/química , Durapatita/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/citologia , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3685-3696, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although chemotherapy agents, such as oxaliplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel and bortezomib frequently cause severe peripheral neuropathy, very few studies have reported the effective strategy to prevent this side effect. In this study, we first investigated whether these drugs show higher neuropathy compared to a set of 15 other anticancer drugs, and then whether antioxidants, such as sodium ascorbate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and vitamin B12 have any protective effect against them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat PC12 cells were induced to differentiate into neuronal cells by repeated overlay of serum-free medium supplemented with nerve growth factor. The cytotoxic levels of anticancer drugs against four human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, three normal oral cells, and undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Cells were sorted for apoptotic cells (distributed into subG1 phase) and cells at different stages of cell cycle (G1, S and G2/M). RESULTS: All 19 anticancer drugs showed higher cytotoxicity against PC12 compared to oral normal cells. Among them, bortezomib showed the highest cytotoxicity against both undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cell and, committed them to undergo apoptosis. Sodium ascorbate and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, but not vitamin B12, completely reversed the cytotoxicity of bortezomib. CONCLUSION: Bortezomib-induced neuropathy might be ameliorated by antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Ratos
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16292-16301, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601208

RESUMO

Notch pathway signaling is implicated in several human cancers. Aberrant activation and mutations of Notch signaling components are linked to tumor initiation, maintenance, and resistance to cancer therapy. Several strategies, such as monoclonal antibodies against Notch ligands and receptors, as well as small-molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), have been developed to interfere with Notch receptor activation at proximal points in the pathway. However, the use of drug-like small molecules to target the downstream mediators of Notch signaling, the Notch transcription activation complex, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report the discovery of an orally active small-molecule inhibitor (termed CB-103) of the Notch transcription activation complex. We show that CB-103 inhibits Notch signaling in primary human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other Notch-dependent human tumor cell lines, and concomitantly induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, thereby impairing proliferation, including in GSI-resistant human tumor cell lines with chromosomal translocations and rearrangements in Notch genes. CB-103 produces Notch loss-of-function phenotypes in flies and mice and inhibits the growth of human breast cancer and leukemia xenografts, notably without causing the dose-limiting intestinal toxicity associated with other Notch inhibitors. Thus, we describe a pharmacological strategy that interferes with Notch signaling by disrupting the Notch transcription complex and shows therapeutic potential for treating Notch-driven cancers.


Assuntos
Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/química , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Multimerização Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730293

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are often extracts of single or multiple herbs containing hundreds of compounds, and hence it has been difficult to study their mechanisms of action. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a complex mixture of compounds extracted from two medicinal plants and has been used in Chinese hospitals to treat cancer for over twenty years. To demonstrate that a systematic analysis of molecular changes resulting from complex mixtures of bioactives from TCM can identify a core set of differentially expressed (DE) genes and a reproducible set of candidate pathways. We used in vitro cancer models to measure the effect of CKI on cell cycle phases and apoptosis, and correlated those phenotypes with CKI induced changes in gene expression. We treated two cancer cell lines with or without CKI and assessed the resulting phenotypes by employing cell viability and proliferation assays. Based on these results, we carried out high-throughput transcriptome data analysis to identify genes and candidate pathways perturbed by CKI. We integrated these differential gene expression results with previously reported results and carried out validation of selected differentially expressed genes. CKI induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the cancer cell lines tested. In these cells CKI also altered the expression of 363 core candidate genes associated with cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA replication/repair, and various cancer pathways. Of these, 7 are clinically relevant to cancer diagnosis or therapy, 14 are cell cycle regulators, and most of these 21 candidates are downregulated by CKI. Comparison of our core candidate genes to a database of plant medicinal compounds and their effects on gene expression identified one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many regulatory relationships between compounds in CKI and DE genes. By identifying genes and promising candidate pathways associated with CKI treatment based on our transcriptome-based analysis, we have shown that this approach is useful for the systematic analysis of molecular changes resulting from complex mixtures of bioactives.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Injeções , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Prostate ; 80(12): 950-961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is characterized by aberrant lipid metabolism, including elevated fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of fatty acid oxidation. This study aimed to determine if CPT1B has a critical role in prostate cancer progression and to identify its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: CPT1B expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases was compared with patient survival data. A tissue microarray was constructed with 60 samples of prostate cancer and immunohistochemically stained for CPT1B. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines 22RV1 and C4-2 in which CPT1B expression had been stably knocked down were established; and cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays, respectively. To examine the impact of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on CPT1B expression, JASPAR CORE was searched to identify AR-binding sites in CPT1B. Dual luciferase and ChIP assays were performed to confirm CPT1B activity and AR binding, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in prostate cancer underwent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Enzalutamide-resistant C4-2 cells were generated and the mechanism of enzalutamide resistance and downstream signaling pathway changes of CPT1B to C4-2 was explored through CCK-8 test. RESULTS: CPT1B expression was upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue and was associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival. Silencing of CPT1B resulted in downregulated cell proliferation, reduced S-phase distribution, and lower invasive ability, whereas the opposite was observed in CRPC cells overexpressing CPTB1. DEGS in prostate cancer were correlated with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, molecular transducer activity, and calcium ion binding. AR may regulate CPT1B expression and activity via specific binding sites, as confirmed by dual luciferase and ChIP assays. The CCK-8 experiment demonstrated that CPT1B overexpression in C4-2 cells did not significantly increase the ability of enzalutamide resistance. However, overexpression of CPT1B in C4-2R cells significantly increased the enzalutamide resistance. Upregulation of CPT1B expression increased AKT expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: CPT1B is upregulated in prostate cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis, indicating its potential as a biomarker. AR inhibits the transcription of CPT1B. In the CRPC cell line, overexpression of CPT1B alone cannot promote enzalutamide resistance, but in the drug-resistant line C4-2R, overexpression of CPT1B can promote the resistance of C4-2R to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17808-17819, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661168

RESUMO

p53 is the most frequently mutated, well-studied tumor-suppressor gene, yet the molecular basis of the switch from p53-induced cell-cycle arrest to apoptosis remains poorly understood. Using a combination of transcriptomics and functional genomics, we unexpectedly identified a nodal role for the caspase-8 paralog and only human pseudo-caspase, FLIP(L), in regulating this switch. Moreover, we identify FLIP(L) as a direct p53 transcriptional target gene that is rapidly up-regulated in response to Nutlin-3A, an MDM2 inhibitor that potently activates p53. Genetically or pharmacologically inhibiting expression of FLIP(L) using siRNA or entinostat (a clinically relevant class-I HDAC inhibitor) efficiently promoted apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells in response to Nutlin-3A, which otherwise predominantly induced cell-cycle arrest. Enhanced apoptosis was also observed when entinostat was combined with clinically relevant, p53-activating chemotherapy in vitro, and this translated into enhanced in vivo efficacy. Mechanistically, FLIP(L) inhibited p53-induced apoptosis by blocking activation of caspase-8 by the TRAIL-R2/DR5 death receptor; notably, this activation was not dependent on receptor engagement by its ligand, TRAIL. In the absence of caspase-8, another of its paralogs, caspase-10 (also transcriptionally up-regulated by p53), induced apoptosis in Nutlin-3A-treated, FLIP(L)-depleted cells, albeit to a lesser extent than in caspase-8-proficient cells. FLIP(L) depletion also modulated transcription of canonical p53 target genes, suppressing p53-induced expression of the cell-cycle regulator p21 and enhancing p53-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic PUMA. Thus, even in the absence of caspase-8/10, FLIP(L) silencing promoted p53-induced apoptosis by enhancing PUMA expression. Thus, we report unexpected, therapeutically relevant roles for FLIP(L) in determining cell fate following p53 activation.


Assuntos
Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Acetilação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
15.
Life Sci ; 257: 118122, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702446

RESUMO

AIMS: Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from the root, rhizome and stem bark of Coptidis Rhizoma. Previous studies have revealed the anti-tumor potential of berberine against various types of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, we focused on the effects of berberine on fatty acid synthesis and extracellular vesicles formation in cancer cells, and revealed the internal mechanism of berberine inhibition on cancer cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-proliferative activity of berberine was determined by cell counting and microscope observation and cell cycle analysis. Activities of AMPK and ACC, expression of extracellular vesicles markers were detected by western blotting. 13C labeling metabolic flux analysis was used for determination of de novo synthesis of fatty acids. The excreted extracellular vesicles in culture mediums were separated by both polyethylene glycol enrichment of extracellular vesicles and differential centrifugation separation. KEY FINDINGS: Among our early experiments, 5-10 µmol/L berberine exhibited the substantial anti-proliferative effect against human colon cancer cell line HCT116, cervical cancer cell line HeLa and other cancer cells. It was also revealed that, through activating AMPK, berberine inhibited ACC activity then suppressed intracellular fatty acid synthesis, finally decreased the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles. Moreover, supplement with citrate acid, palmitic acid, as well as exogenous extracellular vesicles, could rescue the inhibitory effect of berberine on cell proliferation, suggesting that inhibited ACC activity, suppressed fatty acid synthesis and decreased extracellular vesicles production were important mechanisms account for berberine inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that berberine suppresses cancer cell proliferation through inhibiting the synthesis of fatty acids and decreasing biogenesis and secretion of extracellular vesicles, suggests that berberine is a promising candidate for the development of new therapies for cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702063

RESUMO

The diagnosis of patients with malignancies relies on the results of a clinical cytological examination. To enhance the diagnostic qualities of cytological examinations, it is important to have a detailed analysis of the cell's characteristics. There is, therefore, a need for developing a new auxiliary method for cytological diagnosis. In this study, we focused on studying the charge of the cell membrane surface of fixed cells, which is one of important cell's characteristics. Although fixed cells lose membrane potential which is observed in living cells owing to ion dynamics, we hypothesized that fixed cells still have a cell membrane surface charge due to cell membrane components and structure. We used 5 cell lines in this study (ARO, C32TG, RT4, TK, UM-UC-14). After fixation with CytoRich Red, we measured the cell membrane surface charge of fixed cells in solution using zeta potential measurements and fixed cells on glass slides, visualizing it using antibody-labeled beads and positively-charged beads. Furthermore, we measured the cell membrane surface charge of fixed cells under different conditions, such as different solution of fixative, ion concentration, pH, and pepsin treatments. The zeta potential measurements and visualization using the beads indicated that the cell membrane surface of fixed cells was negatively charged, and also that the charge varied among fixed cells. The charge state was affected by the different treatments. Moreover, the number of cell-bound beads was small in interphase, anaphase, and apoptotic cells. We concluded that the negative cell membrane surface charge was influenced by the three-dimensional structure of proteins as well as the different types of amino acids and lipids on the cell membrane. Thus, cell surface charge visualization can be applied as a new auxiliary method for clinical cytological diagnosis. This is the first systematic report of the cell membrane surface charge of fixed cells.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas/ultraestrutura , Citodiagnóstico , Anáfase/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixadores/farmacologia , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pepsina A/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3621-3637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547018

RESUMO

Background: Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, the concentration of the AgNO3 and ratio of reactants act synergistically to influence the reaction kinetics, molecular mechanics, enzymatic catalysis and protein conformations that aid to affect the size, shape and biochemical corona of nanoparticles. The present study was performed to investigate the influence of reaction parameters on the bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using Mentha arvensis and to determine their potential to control the proliferation of colon cancer cells'. Methods: Plant-mediated method was used for the bio-fabrication and stabilization of AgNPs. Reaction parameters were arranged, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of AgNPs were collected by using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. NPs were characterized structurally and optically by using SEM, AFM, EDX and DLS techniques. AgNPs and plant aqueous extract were tested against HCT116 colon cancer cells by using SRB assay, Annexin V assay and cell cycle analysis. Results: Spectrophotometric comparison of various reaction conditions manifested that 5 mM of AgNO3, 60 °C in an acidic pH and a mixing ratio of 1:9 of plant extract and AgNO3, respectively, are the optimized conditions for AgNP synthesis. Structural evaluation by SEM, AFM and particle size analysis confirmed that the NPs are <100 nm and are anisotropic, spherical, triangular and moderately dispersed in the colloidal mixture. SRB assay expressed biomass-stabilized AgNPs as effective cytotoxic particles against HCT116 colon cancer cells, and the IC50 was measured at 1.7 µg/mL. Annexin V apoptosis assay further confirmed that the AgNPs induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Experimental evidence manifested that the AgNPs arrest cell cycle and expressed entrapment of a greater number of cells in the Sub-G1 phase, further verifying the anticancer abilities of AgNPs. Conclusion: These findings explain the synergistic effects of physicochemical parameters to optimize the phytosynthesis of biocompatible AgNPs to overcome the limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic treatments of colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Mentha/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Catálise , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temperatura
18.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108461, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531316

RESUMO

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of papillary thyroid cancer. While rapamycin has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor effects, it may also activate AKT, resulting in increased cell survival and drug resistance, thereby limiting its anti-tumor effects. Resveratrol can also inhibit tumor growth by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The present study investigated the anti-tumor effects of the combined use of rapamycin and resveratrol in papillary thyroid cancer. We first treated two human papillary thyroid cancer cell lines (KTC-1 and TPC-1) with single or combined administration, and examined the effects on proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion/migration of papillary thyroid cancer cells. A mouse xenograft model was induced with KTC-1 and TPC-1 cells followed by treatment with single or combined administration. Body weight and tumor size were monitored to assess the toxicity of each compound. The phosphorylation of AKT and the mTORC1 target p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) in tumors was also examined. Both rapamycin and resveratrol inhibited proliferation, altered the cell cycle, and induced apoptosis of papillary thyroid cancer cells. Invasion and migration were also reduced, as was the tumor growth rate in the xenograft model. Co-administration significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effects than use of any one drug, and significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K compared to treatment with rapamycin alone. Overall, compared to single use of rapamycin or resveratrol, co-administration had a synergistic effect in inhibiting proliferation and invasion/migration of papillary thyroid cancer cells and inducing apoptosis. Resveratrol is sensitizing the anti-tumor effects of rapamycin and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling is involved. Although further animal and clinical studies are needed to clarify the mechanism and assess drug safety, the present study suggests that the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be a promising strategy for the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
19.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 51-54, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg5 on the proliferation, cycle and invasion of gastric carcinoma cell lines, providing experimental evidence for the anti-tumor mechanism of ginsenoside Rg5. METHODS: In this experimental study, the human immortalized normal gastric mucosa cell GES-1 and gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS and MKN-45 were treated with Rg3 and Rg5 at the concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 µmol/L for 24 h, 3 parallel holes were set for each group. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, transwell assay, ELISA and immunoblotting were performed. RESULTS: The viabilities of AGS and MKN-45 were suppressed by Rg3 and Rg5 in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity of Rg5 against gastric cancer cells was stronger than that of Rg3, and its toxicity to GES-1 was lower than that of Rg3. After the treatment of 20 µmol/L of Rg5 for 24 h, Rg5 could generate cell cycle S phase arresting by decreasing the CyclinA1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) complex production and increasing the P21CIPI. Rg5 inhibited the migration of MNK-45 cells by reducing the expressions of MMP2 and MMP9. WB results showed that Rg5 inhibited the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer mainly by inhibiting the expression of Notch1 protein to regulate its downstream cycle and invasion related proteins. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Rg5 exhibits stronger anti-cancer activity than Rg3 in gastric cancer cells, and has higher anti-gastric cancer cell activity than Rg3 and inhibits cell proliferation and migration by regulating the Notch1 pathway.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
20.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2675-2685, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the anti-cancer mechanism of N-Farnesyl-norcantharimide (NC15). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of NC15-treated human leukemic Jurkat T (JKT) cells was assessed using the Kit-8 cell counting method. Flow cytometry analysis, human apoptosis antibody array assay, and whole genome sequencing were adopted to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer activity of NC15 in JKT cells. RESULTS: The growth inhibition rates of NC15 in JKT cells were about 80% and 95% after treatment with 8 µmol/l NC15 for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The percentages of NC15-treated JKT cells in the sub-G1 phase at 24 and 48 h were 22.0% and 34.3%, respectively, in contrast to the 1.5% in the control. Next-generation sequencing showed that many tumor suppressor genes (TSG) were up-regulated, while many genes associated with steroid biosynthesis, metabolic pathways, and fatty acid metabolism were down-regulated. CONCLUSION: NC15 can reduce the cell viability and increase the percentage of JKT cells in the sub-G1 phase by up-regulating TSG and related genes, and down-regulating the genes for steroid biosynthesis, metabolic pathways and fatty acid metabolism, instead of through apoptosis.


Assuntos
Cantaridina/análogos & derivados , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Esteroides/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/citologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cantaridina/química , Cantaridina/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
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