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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673170

RESUMO

Urban evaporation, as an essential part of local water vapor resources in urban areas, has often been underestimated. One possible reason is that the evaporation of urban hardened surfaces is seldom considered and poorly understood in urban evaporation estimation. This study focused on the mechanisms and calculation of evaporation on hardened surfaces in urban areas. Experimental monitoring was used to monitor the processes and characteristics of evaporation on hardened surfaces. Mathematical models based on water quantity constraints were built to calculate evaporation of hardened surfaces. The results showed that: The interception abilities for rainwater and rainfall days of impervious hardened surfaces determine their evaporated water amount, which means no water, no evaporation for the impervious surfaces. The greater evaporation of artificial sprinkling on roads happened in fewer days of rainfall and frost. The evaporation of pervious hardened ground is continuous compared to the impervious surface. Its soil moisture in the sub-layer of permeable concrete decreases periodically with a period of one day. The evaporation of hardened surfaces occupies 16-29% of the total amount of evaporation in the built-up areas in cities. Therefore, the hardened surface evaporation has great significance on the urban hydrological cycle and urban water balance.


Assuntos
Solo , Movimentos da Água , Cidades , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Ciclo Hidrológico
2.
Nature ; 591(7848): 78-81, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658697

RESUMO

Knowing the extent of human influence on the global hydrological cycle is essential for the sustainability of freshwater resources on Earth1,2. However, a lack of water level observations for the world's ponds, lakes and reservoirs has limited the quantification of human-managed (reservoir) changes in surface water storage compared to its natural variability3. The global storage variability in surface water bodies and the extent to which it is altered by humans therefore remain unknown. Here we show that 57 per cent of the Earth's seasonal surface water storage variability occurs in human-managed reservoirs. Using measurements from NASA's ICESat-2 satellite laser altimeter, which was launched in late 2018, we assemble an extensive global water level dataset that quantifies water level variability for 227,386 water bodies from October 2018 to July 2020. We find that seasonal variability in human-managed reservoirs averages 0.86 metres, whereas natural water bodies vary by only 0.22 metres. Natural variability in surface water storage is greatest in tropical basins, whereas human-managed variability is greatest in the Middle East, southern Africa and the western USA. Strong regional patterns are also found, with human influence driving 67 per cent of surface water storage variability south of 45 degrees north and nearly 100 per cent in certain arid and semi-arid regions. As economic development, population growth and climate change continue to pressure global water resources4, our approach provides a useful baseline from which ICESat-2 and future satellite missions will be able to track human modifications to the global hydrologic cycle.


Assuntos
Atividades Humanas , Internacionalidade , Ciclo Hidrológico , Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Humanos , Hidrologia , Imagens de Satélites , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145045, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770879

RESUMO

Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) play an important role in reducing methane emissions in nature. Most current researches focus on the natural habitats (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, paddy fields, etc.). However, methanotrophs and the methane-oxidizing process remain essentially unclear in artificial habitat, such as the urban water cycle systems. Here, high-throughput sequencing and qPCR were used to analyze the community structure and abundance of MOB. Six different systems were selected from Yunyang City, Chongqing, China, including the raw water system (RW), the water supply pipe network system (SP), the wastewater pipe network system (WP), the hospital wastewater treatment system (HP), the municipal wastewater treatment plant system (WT) and the downstream river system (ST) of a wastewater treatment plant. Results clearly showed that the MOB community structure and network interaction patterns of the urban water cycle system were different from those of natural water bodies. Type I MOB was the dominant clade in HP. Methylocysis in Type II was the most abundant genus among the whole urban water cycle system, indicating that this genus had a high adaptability to the environment. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and concentration significantly affected the MOB communities in the urban water cycle system. The network of MOB in WT was the most complicated, and there were competitive relationships among species in WP. The structure of the network in HP was unstable, and therefore, it was vulnerable to environmental disturbances. Methylocystis (Type II) and Methylomonas (Type I) were the most important keystone species in the entire urban water cycle system. Overall, these findings broaden the understanding of the distribution and interaction patterns of MOB communities in an urban water cycle system and provide valuable clues for ecosystem restoration and environmental management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Methylococcaceae , China , Metano , Oxirredução , Microbiologia do Solo , Ciclo Hidrológico
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535451

RESUMO

The presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the aquatic environment has recently become a global issue. The very large number of CECs reported in the literature makes it difficult to interpret potential risks as well as the removal efficiencies, especially for the more recalcitrant compounds. As such, there is a need for indicator compounds that are representative of CECs detected in systems worldwide. In an effort to develop such a list, five criteria were used to address the potential for applying indicator compounds; these criteria include usage, occurrence, resistance to treatment, persistence, and physicochemical properties that shed light on the potential degradability of a class of compounds. Additional constraints applied included the feasibility of procuring and analyzing compounds. In total, 22 CECs belonging to 13 groups were selected as indicator compounds. These compounds include acetaminophen and ibuprofen (analgesic); erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim (antibiotics); diazepam and fluoxetine (antidepressants); carbamazepine (antiepileptic); atenolol and propranolol (ß-blockers); gemfibrozil (blood lipid regulator); tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) (fire retardant); cotinine (nicotine metabolite); atrazine, metolachlor, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) (pesticides); 17ß-estradiol and cholesterol (steroids); caffeine (psychomotor stimulant); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (surfactants); and iopromide (X-ray contrast agent). These thirteen groups of compounds represent CECs with the greatest resistance to treatment processes, most persistent in surface waters, and detected with significant frequency throughout the water cycle. Among the important implications of using indicator compounds are the ability to better understand the efficacy of treatment processes as well as the transport and fate of these compounds in the environment.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Sulfametoxazol , Estados Unidos , Águas Residuárias , Ciclo Hidrológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(4): 1227-1237, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625570

RESUMO

Selection and dissemination of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) require a deeper understanding since antibiotics are permanently released to the environment. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the phenotypic resistance of 499 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. from urban water sources, and the prevalence of 20 ARGs within those isolates. Resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, quinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines was mainly observed in the hospital effluent, municipal wastewater and river water downstream the city. Resistant strains were frequently identified as P. aeruginosa and P. putida. P. aeruginosa isolates were mostly resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and gentamycin, while P. putida strains were especially resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam. ARGs such as blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaPER-1, blaAmpC, blaVIM-1, PstS, qnrA, qnrB, ermB, tetA, tetB and tetC have been detected. The blaAmpC gene was found in P. aeruginosa, while blaTEM-1 and blaPER-1 genes were found in P. putida. Class 1 integron integrase gene was found in 6.81% of the Pseudomonas isolates.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas , Ciclo Hidrológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Integrons/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Águas Residuárias
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 289-298, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477237

RESUMO

Evapotranspiration is the key element of hydrological energy cycle and climate system. It is of great significance to estimate the spatiotemporal variation of evapotranspiration and its response to climate and land use changes for understanding the effects of water cycle and ecological processes in urban basins. Based on the three-temperature model and MODIS Image, we estimated and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of evapotranspiration in Nanning City from 2001 to 2018, and examined the influence and driving mode of main climate factors and land use types on evapotranspiration. The results showed that the annual average evapotranspiration of Nanning City ranged from 495.7 to 781.1 mm during 2001-2018, with the inter annual relative variability ranging from -22.5% to 23.1%, showing an overall upward trend. The regional evapotranspiration showed a distribution pattern of high north-south and low middle, with the urban evapotranspiration being significantly lower than suburban area. The evapotranspiration had a significant multiple correlation with climate factors. The influence of temperature on the evapotranspiration was stronger than precipita-tion. Evapotranspiration was temperature driven in suburbs, but was driven by multiple factors in urban area. The average evapotranspiration of different land use types in Nanning was forests (823.4 mm) > grasslands (675.6 mm) > croplands (582.9 mm) > urban area (346.6 mm). The change of land use type was the main underlying surface factor leading to the significant change of regional evapotranspiration.


Assuntos
Clima , Florestas , China , Temperatura , Ciclo Hidrológico
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5184, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056977

RESUMO

The global monsoon is characterised by transitions between pronounced dry and wet seasons, affecting food security for two-thirds of the world's population. Rising atmospheric CO2 influences the terrestrial hydrological cycle through climate-radiative and vegetation-physiological forcings. How these two forcings affect the seasonal intensity and characteristics of monsoonal precipitation and runoff is poorly understood. Here we use four Earth System Models to show that in a CO2-enriched climate, radiative forcing changes drive annual precipitation increases for most monsoon regions. Further, vegetation feedbacks substantially affect annual precipitation in North and South America and Australia monsoon regions. In the dry season, runoff increases over most monsoon regions, due to stomatal closure-driven evapotranspiration reductions and associated atmospheric circulation change. Our results imply that flood risks may amplify in the wet season. However, the lengthening of the monsoon rainfall season and reduced evapotranspiration will shorten the water resources scarcity period for most monsoon regions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Recursos Hídricos , Vento , Atmosfera/química , Austrália , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Planeta Terra , Inundações , América do Norte , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Temperatura , Ciclo Hidrológico
8.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744527

RESUMO

Beachgoers in the United States face many different hazards, but rip currents are annually the deadliest for ocean swimmers. Despite the risk presented by rip currents, it is apparent that the public has a limited understanding of their danger and the proper mitigating actions to take when caught in one. A virtual reality (VR) video game placing participants in a simulated rip current was developed to help ameliorate this issue. The VR game was used to survey beachgoers on the Atlantic Coast of Long Island, New York during July and August 2019. The actions participants took when confronted with the rip current were recorded, along with whether they escaped it or drowned. An interview with each player was also conducted after they partook in the game to determine the realism of the rip current simulation and its effectiveness in demonstrating proper actions to take when impacted by one. Analysis of those results indicates that VR has potential to communicate rip current risk and ways to minimize it in a unique and engaging manner. However, further work is needed to improve ease of use of the VR simulation and better understand how factors such as demographics influence perceived rip current risk and behavioral response.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Realidade Virtual , Ciclo Hidrológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Water Res ; 182: 115906, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629317

RESUMO

While we increasingly turn to desalination as a secure water supply, it is still perceived as an expensive and environmentally damaging solution, affordable only for affluent societies. In this contribution, we recast desalination from one of a last resort to a far-reaching, climate change mitigating, water security solution. First, we argue that the benefits of desalination go beyond the single-use value of the water produced. If coupled with water reuse for irrigation, desalination reduces groundwater abstraction and augments the water cycle. As such, it may support both adaptation to, and mitigation of climate change impacts by deploying plentiful water for human use, with all the benefits that entails, while helping preserve and restore ecosystems. Second, we counter two arguments commonly raised against desalination, namely its environmental impact and high cost. The environmental impact can be fully controlled so as not to pose long-term threats, if driven by renewable energy. Desalination may then have a zero carbon footprint. Moreover, appropriately designed outfalls make the disposal of brine at sea compatible with marine ecosystems.. Recovery of energy, minerals and more water from brine reject (particularly in the form of vapour for cooling to enable more crops and vegetation to grow), while possible, is often hardly economically justified. However, resource recovery may become more attractive in the future, and help reduce the brine volumes to dispose of. When fresh water becomes scarce, its cost tends to go up, making desalination increasingly economic. Moreover, desalination can have virtually no environmental costs. Considering the environmental costs of over-abstraction of freshwater, desalination tilts the balance in its favour.


Assuntos
Ciclo Hidrológico , Purificação da Água , Ecossistema , Humanos , Água do Mar , Abastecimento de Água
10.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1472(1): 139-154, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445256

RESUMO

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow regions of strong horizontal water vapor transport that play important roles in the global water cycle, weather, and hydrology. Motivated by challenges in simulating ARs with state-of-the-art global models, this paper diagnoses model errors with a focus on relative contributions of moisture convergence, evaporation, and precipitation to AR column-integrated water vapor (IWV) budget. Using 20-year simulations by 24 global weather/climate models, budget terms are calculated for four AR sectors: postfrontal, frontal, prefrontal, and pre-AR, with biases assessed against two reanalysis products. The results indicate that each sector is unique in terms of the dominant water vapor balance, and that the terms exhibiting the largest intermodel spread are the same terms dominating the water vapor balance in each sector. Overall, simulated bulk AR characteristics (e.g., geometry, frequency, and intensity) are more sensitive to biases in IVT convergence and IWV tendency than to biases in evaporation and precipitation, although evaporation/precipitation biases do affect key AR bulk characteristics in selected sectors. The large intermodel spread (particularly for precipitation) and, in certain cases, discrepancies between the reanalysis references themselves (particularly for precipitation types) highlight the need for observational efforts that target better constraining AR processes in weather/climate models and reanalyses.


Assuntos
Clima , Modelos Teóricos , Vapor , Ciclo Hidrológico , Mudança Climática
11.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1472(1): 76-94, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386251

RESUMO

The ocean plays a dominant role in the global water cycle. It is the center of action for global evaporation and precipitation and supplies the moisture that falls as continental precipitation. It also acts to some extent as nature's rain gauge, as it tells us about the long-term changes in the global water cycle through monitoring of the changes in ocean surface salinity. As climate warms, the global water cycle is expected to intensify as a result of the strong nonlinear dependence of water vapor pressure (moisture-holding capacity) on temperature. Such change is of great concern, as it has profound socioeconomic impacts throughout the globe. Despite the evidence of an intensified global water cycle, two important questions remain: What is the pattern of the warming-induced intensification of the water cycle? and What is the rate of intensification? Our article provides a synthesis review of recent progress in diagnosing and understanding the changes in both the global water cycle and ocean salinity in recent decades. Targeted numerical ocean model experiments are also reviewed to provide insights into the response of salinity to the changes in evaporation-minus-precipitation flux, meltwater runoff, and ocean warming.


Assuntos
Salinidade , Ciclo Hidrológico , Clima , Mudança Climática , Modelos Teóricos , Oceanos e Mares
12.
Water Res ; 177: 115753, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302808

RESUMO

The pharmaceutical torasemide is an important loop diuretic and was 2017 one of the ten most prescribed drugs in Germany. Despite its detection in different compartments of the urban water cycle including drinking water, no studies were so far performed to elucidate its fate in the environment and the occurrence of transformation products (TPs). Therefore, we investigated the phototransformation, microbial degradation, transformation with human liver microsomes and anodic oxidation of torasemide to obtain good coverage of environmentally relevant degradation products. Overall sixteen products were identified, covering the following reaction mechanisms: aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylation, including further oxidation to carboxylic acids and quinone imines, amide cleavage, N-dealkylation, N-dearylation, and sulfonamide hydrolysis to sulfonic acids. Especially the formation of quinone imines could be of concern as they are highly reactive electrophiles. Torasemide itself was observed in all investigated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples and wastewater-impacted surface waters. The maximum detected concentration was about 350 ng L-1. Only three of the sixteen transformation products were generally observed in at least one of the samples and the most frequently detected TPs were the human metabolites hydroxytorasemide (TP 364a) and carboxytorasemide (TP 378a). The complete removal of TP 364a during wastewater treatment was in agreement with the results of microbial degradation experiments. TP 364a was most likely transformed into TP 378a, which was microbially less degraded in lab experiments. Based on estimated concentrations, TP 378a could reach about 1 µg L-1 in the investigated wastewater matrices.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alemanha , Humanos , Torasemida , Águas Residuárias , Ciclo Hidrológico
13.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1472(1): 49-75, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246848

RESUMO

Globally, thermodynamics explains an increase in atmospheric water vapor with warming of around 7%/°C near to the surface. In contrast, global precipitation and evaporation are constrained by the Earth's energy balance to increase at ∼2-3%/°C. However, this rate of increase is suppressed by rapid atmospheric adjustments in response to greenhouse gases and absorbing aerosols that directly alter the atmospheric energy budget. Rapid adjustments to forcings, cooling effects from scattering aerosol, and observational uncertainty can explain why observed global precipitation responses are currently difficult to detect but are expected to emerge and accelerate as warming increases and aerosol forcing diminishes. Precipitation increases with warming are expected to be smaller over land than ocean due to limitations on moisture convergence, exacerbated by feedbacks and affected by rapid adjustments. Thermodynamic increases in atmospheric moisture fluxes amplify wet and dry events, driving an intensification of precipitation extremes. The rate of intensification can deviate from a simple thermodynamic response due to in-storm and larger-scale feedback processes, while changes in large-scale dynamics and catchment characteristics further modulate the frequency of flooding in response to precipitation increases. Changes in atmospheric circulation in response to radiative forcing and evolving surface temperature patterns are capable of dominating water cycle changes in some regions. Moreover, the direct impact of human activities on the water cycle through water abstraction, irrigation, and land use change is already a significant component of regional water cycle change and is expected to further increase in importance as water demand grows with global population.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Inundações , Chuva , Ciclo Hidrológico , Humanos , Temperatura
14.
Water Res ; 175: 115706, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199185

RESUMO

Elevated concentrations of sulfamate, the anion of sulfamic acid, were found in surface waters and finished drinking water in Germany with concentrations up to 580 µg/L and 140 µg/L, respectively. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was identified as the dominant source of sulfamate in the urban water cycle, as sulfamate concentrations correlated positively (0.77 > r < 0.99) with concentrations of the wastewater tracer carbamazepine in samples from different waterbodies. Ozonation and activated sludge experiments proved that sulfamate can be formed from chemical and biological degradation of various precursors. Molar sulfamate yields were highly compound-specific and ranged from 2% to 56%. However, the transformation of precursors to sulfamate in WWTPs and wastewater-impacted waterbodies was found to be quantitatively irrelevant, since concentrations of sulfamate in these compartments are already high, presumably due to its primary use as an acidic cleaning agent. Sulfamate concentrations in the influent and effluent of studied WWTPs ranged from 520 µg/L to 1900 µg/L and from 490 µg/L to 1600 µg/L, respectively. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to assess the recalcitrance of sulfamate for chemical oxidation. In combination with the results from sampling conducted at full-scale waterworks, it was shown that common drinking water treatment techniques, including ozonation and filtration with activated carbon, are not capable to remove sulfamate. The results of biodegradation tests and from the analysis of samples taken at four bank filtration sites indicate that sulfamate is attenuated in the sediment/water interface of aquatic systems and during aquifer passage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Sulfamate concentrations decreased by between 62% and 99% during aquifer passage at the bank filtration sites. Considering the few data on short term ecotoxicity, about 30% of the presented sulfamate levels in ground and surface water samples did exceed the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of sulfamate, and thus effects of sulfamate on the aquatic ecosystem of wastewater-impacted waterbodies in Germany cannot be excluded so far. Toxicological estimations suggest that no risk to human health is expected by concentrations of sulfamate typically encountered in tap water.


Assuntos
Ciclo Hidrológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Humanos , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049986

RESUMO

Urbanization modifies land surface characteristics with consequent impacts on local energy, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Despite the disproportionate impact of cities on CO2 emissions, few studies have directly quantified CO2 conditions for different urban land cover patches, in particular for arid and semiarid regions. Here, we present a comparison of eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes (FC) and CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) in four distinct urban patches in Phoenix, Arizona: a xeric landscaping, a parking lot, a mesic landscaping, and a suburban neighborhood. Analyses of diurnal, daily, and seasonal variations of FC and [CO2] were related to vegetation activity, vehicular traffic counts, and precipitation events to quantify differences among sites in relation to their urban land cover characteristics. We found that the mesic landscaping with irrigated turf grass was primarily controlled by plant photosynthetic activity, while the parking lot in close proximity to roads mainly exhibited the signature of vehicular emissions. The other two sites that had mixtures of irrigated vegetation and urban surfaces displayed an intermediate behavior in terms of CO2 fluxes. Precipitation events only impacted FC in urban patches without outdoor water use, indicating that urban irrigation decouples CO2 fluxes from the effects of infrequent storms in an arid climate. These findings suggest that the proportion of irrigated vegetation and urban surfaces fractions within urban patches could be used to scale up CO2 fluxes to a broader city footprint.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Poaceae/fisiologia , Chuva , Solo , Urbanização , Arizona , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cidades , Clima Desértico , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Ciclo Hidrológico/fisiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979264

RESUMO

The fate of water and water-soluble toxic wastes in the subsurface is of high importance for many scientific and practical applications. Although solute transport is proportional to water flow rates, theoretical and experimental studies show that heavy-tailed (power-law) solute transport distribution can cause chemical transport retardation, prolonging clean-up time-scales greatly. However, no consensus exists as to the physical basis of such transport laws. In percolation theory, the scaling behavior of such transport rarely relates to specific medium characteristics, but strongly to the dimensionality of the connectivity of the flow paths (for example, two- or three-dimensional, as in fractured-porous media or heterogeneous sediments), as well as to the saturation characteristics (i.e., wetting, drying, and entrapped air). In accordance with the proposed relevance of percolation models of solute transport to environmental clean-up, these predictions also prove relevant to transport-limited chemical weathering and soil formation, where the heavy-tailed distributions slow chemical weathering over time. The predictions of percolation theory have been tested in laboratory and field experiments on reactive solute transport, chemical weathering, and soil formation and found accurate. Recently, this theoretical framework has also been applied to the water partitioning at the Earth's surface between evapotranspiration, ET, and run-off, Q, known as the water balance. A well-known phenomenological model by Budyko addressed the relationship between the ratio of the actual evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation, ET/P, versus the aridity index, ET0/P, with P being the precipitation and ET0 being the potential evapotranspiration. Existing work was able to predict the global fractions of P represented by Q and ET through an optimization of plant productivity, in which downward water fluxes affect soil depth, and upward fluxes plant growth. In the present work, based likewise on the concepts of percolation theory, we extend Budyko's model, and address the partitioning of run-off Q into its surface and subsurface components, as well as the contribution of interception to ET. Using various published data sources on the magnitudes of interception and information regarding the partitioning of Q, we address the variability in ET resulting from these processes. The global success of this prediction demonstrated here provides additional support for the universal applicability of percolation theory for solute transport as well as guidance in predicting the component of subsurface run-off, important for predicting natural flow rates through contaminated aquifers.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Ciclo Hidrológico , Modelos Teóricos , Porosidade , Solo , Água , Movimentos da Água
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(2): 944-959, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638295

RESUMO

The world's largest afforestation programs implemented by China made a great contribution to the global "greening up." These programs have received worldwide attention due to its contribution toward achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. However, emerging studies have suggested that these campaigns, when not properly implemented, resulted in unintended ecological and water security concerns at the regional scale. While mounting evidence shows that afforestation causes substantial reduction in water yield at the watershed scale, process-based studies on how forest plantations alter the partitioning of rainwater and affect water balance components in natural vegetation are still lacking at the plot scale. This lack of science-based data prevents a comprehensive understanding of forest-related ecosystem services such as soil conservation and water supply under climate change. The present study represents the first "Paired Plot" study of the water balance of afforestation on the Loess Plateau. We investigate the effects of forest structure and environmental factors on the full water cycle in a typical multilayer plantation forest composed of black locust, one of the most popular tree species for plantations worldwide. We measure the ecohydrological components of a black locust versus natural grassland on adjacent sites. The startling finding of this study is that, contrary to the general belief, the understory-instead of the overstory-was the main water consumer in this plantation. Moreover, there is a strict physiological regulation of forest transpiration. In contrast to grassland, annual seepage under the forest was minor in years with an average rainfall. We conclude that global long-term greening efforts in drylands require careful ecohydrologic evaluation so that green and blue water trade-offs are properly addressed. This is especially important for reforestation-based watershed land management, that aims at carbon sequestration in mitigating climate change while maintaining regional water security, to be effective on a large scale.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ciclo Hidrológico , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Solo
18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(2): 658-668, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386797

RESUMO

Ongoing intensification of the hydrological cycle is altering rainfall regimes by increasing the frequency of extreme wet and dry years and the size of individual rainfall events. Despite long-standing recognition of the importance of precipitation amount and variability for most terrestrial ecosystem processes, we lack understanding of their interactive effects on ecosystem functioning. We quantified this interaction in native grassland by experimentally eliminating temporal variability in growing season rainfall over a wide range of precipitation amounts, from extreme wet to dry conditions. We contrasted the rain use efficiency (RUE) of above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) under conditions of experimentally reduced versus naturally high rainfall variability using a 32-year precipitation-ANPP dataset from the same site as our experiment. We found that increased growing season rainfall variability can reduce RUE and thus ecosystem functioning by as much as 42% during dry years, but that such impacts weaken as years become wetter. During low precipitation years, RUE is lowest when rainfall event sizes are relatively large, and when a larger proportion of total rainfall is derived from large events. Thus, a shift towards precipitation regimes dominated by fewer but larger rainfall events, already documented over much of the globe, can be expected to reduce the functioning of mesic ecosystems primarily during drought, when ecosystem processes are already compromised by low water availability.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Poaceae , Chuva , Ciclo Hidrológico
19.
Ann Rev Mar Sci ; 12: 525-557, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451084

RESUMO

Glacial-interglacial cycles have constituted a primary mode of climate variability over the last 2.6 million years of Earth's history. While glacial periods cannot be seen simply as a reverse analogue of future warming, they offer an opportunity to test our understanding of the response of precipitation patterns to a much wider range of conditions than we have been able to directly observe. This review explores key features of precipitation patterns associated with glacial climates, which include drying in large regions of the tropics and wetter conditions in substantial parts of the subtropics and midlatitudes. I describe the evidence for these changes and examine the potential causes of hydrological changes during glacial periods. Central themes that emerge include the importance of atmospheric circulation changes in determining glacial-interglacial precipitation changes at the regional scale, the need to take into account climatic factors beyond local precipitation amount when interpreting proxy data, and the role of glacial conditions in suppressing the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoon systems.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Camada de Gelo , Modelos Teóricos , Ciclo Hidrológico , Mudança Climática/história , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/história , História Antiga , Humanos
20.
Plant Sci ; 290: 110146, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779906

RESUMO

Current climate change models project that water availability will become more erratic in the future. With soil nitrogen (N) supply coupled to water availability, it is important to understand the combined effects of variable water and N supply on food crop plants (above- and below-ground). Here we present a study that precisely controls soil moisture and compares stable soil moisture contents with a controlled wetting-drying cycle. Our aim was to identify how changes in soil moisture and N concentration affect shoot-root biomass, N acquisition in wheat, and soil N cycling. Using a novel gravimetric platform allowing fine-scale control of soil moisture dynamics, a 3 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted on wheat plants subjected to three rates of N application (0, 25 and 75 mg N/kg soil) and three soil moisture regimes (two uniform treatments: 23.5 and 13% gravimetric moisture content (herein referred to as Well-watered and Reduced water, respectively), and a Variable treatment which cycled between the two). Plant biomass, soil N and microbial biomass carbon were measured at three developmental stages: tillering (Harvest 1), flowering (Harvest 2), and early grain milk development (Harvest 3). Reduced water supply encouraged root growth when combined with medium and high N. Plant growth was more responsive to N than the water treatments imposed, with a 15-fold increase in biomass between the high and no added N treatment plants. Both uniform soil water treatments resulted in similar plant biomass, while the Variable water treatment resulted in less biomass overall, suggesting wheat prefers consistency whether at a Well-watered or Reduced water level. Plants did not respond well to variable soil moisture, highlighting the need to understand plant adaptation and biomass allocation with resource limitation. This is particularly relevant to developing irrigation practices, but also in the design of water availability experiments.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo Hidrológico , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Triticum/metabolismo
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