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1.
J Sports Sci ; 39(14): 1565-1575, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583330

RESUMO

Iron deficiency is a common nutrient deficiency within athletes, with sport scientists and medical professionals recognizing that athletes require regular monitoring of their iron status during intense training periods. Revised considerations for athlete iron screening and monitoring have suggested that males get screened biannually during heavy training periods and females require screening biannually or quarterly, depending on their previous history of iron deficiency. The prevalence of iron deficiency in female athletes is higher than their male counterparts and is often cited as being a result of the presence of a menstrual cycle in the premenopausal years. This review has sought to revise our current understanding of female physiology and the interaction between primary reproductive hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) and iron homoeostasis in females. The review highlights an apparent symbiotic relationship between iron metabolism and the menstrual cycle that requires additional research as well as identifying areas of the menstrual cycle that may be primed for nutritional iron supplementation.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ferro/metabolismo , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Progesterona/metabolismo
2.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(6): 1541-1552, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620549

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Aberrations in the stress response are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom development, maintenance, and severity. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, may play a key role in stress recovery. OBJECTIVES: In this preliminary study, we examined whether plasma GABA levels differed between women with PTSD and trauma-exposed healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty participants provided plasma samples during two phases of the menstrual cycle: the early follicular phase and the mid-luteal phase. During each phase, blood was drawn after 45 min of rest, and after mild and moderately stressful psychophysiological tasks. Plasma GABA levels were measured using HPLC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: In analyses using PTSD diagnosis as a categorical group variable, women with and without a diagnosis of PTSD did not differ in plasma GABA levels (ps > .18). However, in analyses examining PTSD symptom severity as a continuous variable, there was a trend-level positive association between more severe PTSD symptoms and higher plasma GABA levels across the four blood draws (p = .06). In analyses examining DSM-IV PTSD symptom clusters separately, dysphoria symptoms were positively and significantly associated with plasma GABA levels (p = .03). Similarly, there was a trend-level positive association between avoidance cluster symptoms and plasma GABA levels (p = .06). Plasma GABA levels were not modulated by experimentally induced stress or menstrual cycle phase. CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulation in GABA may be a neurobiological marker and/or potential treatment target for women with PTSD symptom profiles characterized by prominent dysphoria and avoidance cluster symptoms.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/sangue , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/sangue , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561085

RESUMO

Background: The increase in exercise levels in the last few years among professional and recreational female athletes has led to an increased scientific interest about sports health and performance in the female athlete population. The purpose of the IronFEMME Study described in this protocol article is to determine the influence of different hormonal profiles on iron metabolism in response to endurance exercise, and the main markers of muscle damage in response to resistance exercise; both in eumenorrheic, oral contraceptive (OC) users and postmenopausal well-trained women. Methods: This project is an observational controlled randomized counterbalanced study. One hundered and four (104) active and healthy women were selected to participate in the IronFEMME Study, 57 of which were eumenorrheic, 31 OC users and 16 postmenopausal. The project consisted of two sections carried out at the same time: iron metabolism (study I) and muscle damage (study II). For the study I, the exercise protocol consisted of an interval running test (eight bouts of 3 min at 85% of the maximal aerobic speed), whereas the study II protocol was an eccentric-based resistance exercise protocol (10 sets of 10 repetitions of plate-loaded barbell parallel back squats at 60% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 min of recovery between sets). In both studies, eumenorrheic participants were evaluated at three specific moments of the menstrual cycle: early-follicular phase, late-follicular phase and mid-luteal phase; OC users performed the trial at two moments: withdrawal phase and active pill phase. Lastly, postmenopausal women were only tested once, since their hormonal status does not fluctuate. The three-step method was used to verify the menstrual cycle phase: calendar counting, blood test confirmation, and urine-based ovulation kits. Blood samples were obtained to measure sex hormones, iron metabolism parameters, and muscle damage related markers. Discussion: IronFEMME Study has been designed to increase the knowledge regarding the influence of sex hormones on some aspects of the exercise-related female physiology. Iron metabolism and exercise-induced muscle damage will be studied considering the different reproductive status present throughout well-trained females' lifespan.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Creatina Quinase , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Hepcidinas , Humanos , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572821

RESUMO

Women have a number of specificities that differentiate them from men. In particular, the role of sex steroid hormones and the menstrual cycle (MC) significantly impact women's physiology. The literature has shown nonlinear relationships between MC, exercise, and nutritional intake. Notably, these relationships are bidirectional and less straightforward than one would suppose. For example, the theoretical implications of the MC's phases on exercise performance do not always translate into relevant practical effects. There is often a disconnect between internal measures (e.g., levels of hormone concentrations) and external performance. Furthermore, it is not entirely clear how nutritional intake varies across the MC's phases and whether these variations impact on exercise performance. Therefore, a thorough review of the existing knowledge could help in framing these complex relationships and potentially contribute to the optimization of exercise prescription and nutritional intake according to the naturally occurring phases of the MC. Throughout this review, an emerging trend is the lack of generalizability and the need to individualize interventions, since the consequences of the MC's phases and their relationships with exercise and nutritional intake seem to vary greatly from person to person. In this sense, average data are probably not relevant and could potentially be misleading.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(3): 270-276, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920801

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in neuromuscular control and mechanical properties of the ankle-stabilizing muscles between men and women, and during different phases of menstrual cycle in women. Fifteen women with regular menstrual cycles and 17 male counterparts were included in this study. Electromyographic signals were recorded from the peroneus longus (PL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles while performing three balance tasks. Muscle tone, stiffness, and elasticity of muscles were measured using a MyotonPRO in the resting position. Outcomes were measured twice (ovulation and early follicular phases) for women, while measurements were acquired only once for men. Significantly higher tibialis anterior-peroneus longus co-contraction (TA/PL ratio) was observed in all balance tasks in women than in men (p< 0.05); however, significant differences between phases of the menstrual cycle were noted only in the 2 most difficult tasks (p< 0.05). A similar pattern was observed in the postural sway. These results highlight the importance of sex-specific hormonal effects on neuromuscular control and mechanical properties, and as well as the differences during phases of the menstrual cycle. These insights assume significance in the context of developing neuromuscular strategies for the purpose of preventing lower extremity injuries during sports activities.


Assuntos
Tornozelo/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Elasticidade , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Ligamentos Articulares/fisiologia , Masculino , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(3): 461-467, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of menstrual cycle phase on perceptual responses and exercise performance is still unclear in the literature. Therefore, this study investigated salivary estradiol (sal-E2) and cortisol (sal-C) concentrations, mood, anxiety and exercise (aerobic, anaerobic) performance in physically-active women across two menstrual-cycle phases. METHODS: Twelve women (mean age 24.9±4.3 years) were assessed in the early follicular (early-FP) and mid luteal (mid-LP) phase of their menstrual cycle. In each phase, participants were tested for both aerobic (i.e. VO2max) and anaerobic (i.e. peak power, average power and Fatigue Index) performance. Basal and exercise-induced changes in sal-E2 and sal-C concentrations, self-appraised mood and anxiety were assessed. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in basal (pre-exercise) sal-E2 concentration from early-FP to mid-LP (P≤0.05), coupled with a significant increase in VO2max in early-FP (39.9±7.8 mL/kg/min) versus mid-LP (36.9±7.8 mL/kg/min). Depression also decreased with aerobic exercise, but only in the early-FP. No other significant menstrual-phase differences in exercise performance, emotional state or hormonal change scores were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that physically-active women may experience a natural rise in estradiol concentration, as they transition from the early-FP to mid-LP. In the present study, this was accompanied by a small reduction in VO2max. An exercise (aerobic)-related decline in depression also emerged in the early-FP. Most of the exercise performance, emotional state and hormonal measures did not exhibit any menstrual phase-related difference.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estradiol , Estrogênios , Teste de Esforço , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Progesterona , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 541-545, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639581

RESUMO

The implications of the menstrual cycle for disease susceptibility, development, and severity of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are largely unknown. Here, we describe two women infected with SARS-CoV-2 whose real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results and symptoms changed during the menstrual cycle. The first patient developed a fever on the first day of her menstrual period, and again on the first day of her next menstrual period after hospital discharge. RT-PCR test results were positive during the first menstrual period before admission, but turned negative during hospitalization, and then were positive again during the second menstrual period after hospital discharge. Another one also developed a fever again on the first day of her menstrual period after hospital discharge. RT-PCR test results were negative before admission and during hospitalization, but turned positive during the first menstrual period after hospital discharge. The cases indicate sex hormones may play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. For women with history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the management protocol should include assessment of the menstrual status.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
9.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(1): 260-267, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288478

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does SARS-CoV-2 infection have an effect on ovarian reserve, sex hormones and menstruation of women of child-bearing age? DESIGN: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which clinical and laboratory data from 237 women of child-bearing age diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed. Menstrual data from 177 patients were analysed. Blood samples from the early follicular phase were tested for sex hormones and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). RESULTS: Among 237 patients with confirmed COVID-19, severely ill patients had more comorbidities than mildly ill patients (34% versus 8%), particularly for patients with diabetes, hepatic disease and malignant tumours. Of 177 patients with menstrual records, 45 (25%) patients presented with menstrual volume changes, and 50 (28%) patients had menstrual cycle changes, mainly a decreased volume (20%) and a prolonged cycle (19%). The average sex hormone and AMH concentrations of women of child-bearing age with COVID-19 were not different from those of age-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Average sex hormone concentrations and ovarian reserve did not change significantly in COVID-19 women of child-bearing age. Nearly one-fifth of patients exhibited a menstrual volume decrease or cycle prolongation. The menstruation changes of these patients might be the consequence of transient sex hormone changes caused by suppression of ovarian function that quickly resume after recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Menstruação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(6): 851-856, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the influence of nutritional status and mental stress on menstrual cycle characteristics. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of low energy availability (EA) and mental health problems on the menstrual cycles of elite female rowing competitors during a survey period. METHODS: We enrolled sixteen subjects (16-18 years old) who were elite female rowing competitors preparing for an international competition. This study provides the first long-term assessment of dietary intake, body mass/composition, state of anxiety, and menstrual cycle in international level female athletes. RESULTS: Dietary energy intake increased significantly during the investigation period (P<0.001). CHO intake increased significantly during the investigation period (P<0.005). EA significantly increased during the investigation period (P<0.01). The percentage of athletes with menstrual dysfunction was 20.0% in April 2018 (2 of 10), but none of the athletes reported menstrual dysfunction in October 2019. The mental status measured by state anxiety index (STAI) did not change significantly during this survey period (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no athlete who has menstrual disfunction after sufficient CHO intake during this survey period. These findings of this study suggest that adequate EA levels and sufficient CHO intake might lead to improved menstrual function. In addition, the impact of psychological factors on menstrual dysfunction at normal levels may be less than the effects of nutritional status.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia
11.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200374, 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1279018

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo descrever as experiências das mulheres sobre as suas trajetórias desde o início dos sintomas até o diagnóstico da endometriose. Método pesquisa descritiva, qualitativa, realizada com dez mulheres com diagnóstico de endometriose no município do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil. Coletaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas áudio gravadas e posteriormente submetidas à Análise de Conteúdo por meio do software Atlas.ti 8. Resultados sem o diagnóstico de endometriose, as mulheres vivenciam sintomas fortes desde a menarca. Essa situação repercute negativamente em diferentes esferas da vida, inclusive pela desvalorização de suas queixas em seus círculos de convivência. Assim, entende-se a importância da rede de apoio perante essa situação. Diante desse contexto, as mulheres peregrinam por diversos profissionais até o diagnóstico definitivo. Considerações finais e implicações para a prática as trajetórias dessas mulheres são marcadas pela desvalorização de suas queixas por profissionais de saúde e pessoas próximas, pela naturalização da dor feminina e pela dificuldade em estabelecer um diagnóstico diferencial. No entanto, a capacidade individual de reconhecer a presença de uma patologia, o conhecimento sobre a endometriose e a experiência do profissional facilitaram o diagnóstico. No contexto da assistência de enfermagem, entender essa trajetória pode promover a escuta ativa, melhor valorização das queixas, avaliação clínica e o encaminhamento para o diagnóstico precoce.


Resumen Objetivo describir las vivencias de las mujeres en sus trayectorias desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el diagnóstico de endometriosis. Método investigación descriptiva cualitativa realizada con diez mujeres diagnosticadas con endometriosis en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil. Se recogieron entrevistas semiestructuradas grabadas en audio y posteriormente se sometieron a Análisis de Contenido utilizando el software Atlas.ti 8. Resultados sin el diagnóstico de endometriosis, las mujeres experimentan síntomas fuertes desde la menarquia. Esta situación tiene un impacto negativo en diferentes ámbitos de la vida, incluso por la devaluación de sus quejas en sus círculos de convivencia. Así, se comprende la importancia de la red de apoyo en esta situación. Ante este contexto, las mujeres deambulan por diferentes profesionales hasta el diagnóstico definitivo. Consideraciones finales e implicaciones para la práctica las trayectorias de estas mujeres están marcadas por la devaluación de sus quejas por parte de los profesionales de la salud y personas cercanas, por la naturalización del dolor femenino y por la dificultad para establecer un diagnóstico diferencial. Sin embargo, la capacidad del individuo para reconocer la presencia de una patología, el conocimiento sobre la endometriosis y la experiencia del profesional facilitaron el diagnóstico. En el contexto del cuidado de enfermería, comprender esta trayectoria puede promover la escucha activa, mejor valoración de las quejas, evaluación clínica y la derivación para diagnóstico precoz.


Abstract Objectives to describe the experiences of women on their trajectories from the beginning of symptoms to the diagnosis of endometriosis. Method descriptive, qualitative research, conducted with ten women diagnosed with endometriosis in the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil. Audio recorded semi-structured interviews were collected and later submitted to Content Analysis using Atlas.ti 8 software. Results without the diagnosis of endometriosis, women experience strong symptoms from the menarche. This situation has a negative impact on different spheres of life, including the devaluation of their complaints in their circles of coexistence. Thus, the importance of the support network in this situation is understood. Faced with this context, women wander through various professionals until the definitive diagnosis. Final considerations and implications for practice the trajectories of these women are marked by the devaluation of their complaints by health professionals and people close to them, by the naturalization of female pain and by the difficulty in establishing a differential diagnosis. However, the individual's ability to recognize the presence of a pathology, the knowledge about endometriosis and the professional's experience facilitated the diagnosis. In the context of nursing care, understanding this trajectory can promote active listening, better appreciation of complaints, clinical assessment and referral to early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dor Pélvica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Diagnóstico Precoce , Dismenorreia/complicações , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Endometriose/terapia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150 Suppl 1: 4-8, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the strategies undertaken to decentralize menstrual regulation services and implement task-sharing, including barriers and facilitators, with nonphysician providers in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted a desk review of relevant policies and health service information from grey and published literature on task-sharing in menstrual regulation services, plus stakeholder interviews with 19 representatives of relevant health organizations to investigate facilitators for and barriers to the implementation of task-sharing of these services. RESULTS: Task-sharing in menstrual regulation began in 1979 as part of the national family planning program. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has guidelines for menstrual regulation services provided by a wide range of healthcare workers using manual vacuum aspiration and the medications misoprostol and mifepristone. Despite government approval, implementation of task-sharing is challenging owing to lack of skilled providers, lack of facility readiness, and unmet need for family planning. CONCLUSION: The government needs to implement effective planning for skills building of nonphysician providers and ensuring facility readiness for provision of menstrual regulation services to reduce unsafe abortion in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Curetagem a Vácuo
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20732, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244032

RESUMO

The cerebellum contains the vast majority of neurons in the brain and houses distinct functional networks that constitute at least two homotopic maps of cerebral networks. It is also a major site of sex steroid hormone action. While the functional organization of the human cerebellum has been characterized, the influence of sex steroid hormones on intrinsic cerebellar network dynamics has yet to be established. Here we investigated the extent to which endogenous fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone alter functional cerebellar networks at rest in a woman densely sampled over a complete menstrual cycle (30 consecutive days). Edgewise regression analysis revealed robust negative associations between progesterone and cerebellar coherence. Graph theory metrics probed sex hormones' influence on topological brain states, revealing relationships between sex hormones and within-network integration in Ventral Attention, Dorsal Attention, and SomatoMotor Networks. Together these results suggest that the intrinsic dynamics of the cerebellum are intimately tied to day-by-day changes in sex hormones.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 27(6): 373-379, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027071

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to evaluate the impact of environmental exposures on the menstrual cycle length detailing timing of exposure on pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has examined the relationship between menstrual cycle length and environmental exposures including air pollutants, parabens, and polybrominated biphenyls. SUMMARY: Research is limited but suggest importance of further research in evaluating environmental exposures and menstrual cycle length.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Distúrbios Menstruais/induzido quimicamente , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 226, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irregular menstrual cycles including the length of cycles and menses, and heavy menstrual blood loss are linked to many gynaecological diseases. Obesity has been reported to be associated with irregular menstrual cycles. However, to date, most studies investigating this association are focused on adolescence or university students. Whether this association is also seen in adult women, especially women who had a history of birth has not been fully investigated. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from 1012 women aged 17 to 53 years. Data on age, weight and height, gravida, the length of menstrual cycles and menses, and the number of pads used during menses were collected. Factors associated with menstrual cycle according to BMI categories were analysed. RESULTS: There were no differences in the length of menstrual cycles and menses in women of different body mass index (BMI) groups. However, there was a significant difference in menstrual blood loss in women of different BMI categories. The odds ratio of having heavy menstrual blood loss in obese women was 2.28 (95% CL: 1.244, 4.193), compared to women with normal weight, while there was no difference in the odds ratio of having heavy menstrual blood loss in overweight, compared to normal weight, women. In contrast, the odds ratio of having heavy menstrual blood loss in underweight women was 0.4034 (95% CL: 0.224, 0.725), compared to women with normal weight. CONCLUSION: Although BMI was not correlated with the length of menstrual cycle and menses, BMI is positively associated with menstrual blood loss. Our data suggest that BMI influences menstrual blood loss in women of reproductive age and weight control is important in women's reproductive years.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/fisiopatologia , Menstruação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(5): R560-R565, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936680

RESUMO

Reproductive hormones have significant nonreproductive physiological effects, including altering fluid regulation. Our purpose was to explore the impact of sex and menstrual cycle (MC) phase on volume-regulatory responses to 24-h fluid restriction (24-h FR). Participants (men: n = 12, 20 ± 2 yr; women: n = 10, 20 ± 1 yr) were assigned two randomized and counterbalanced fluid prescriptions [Euhy: euhydrated, urine specific gravity (USG) < 1.020; Dehy: 24-h FR, USG > 1.020]. Men completed both (MEuhy, MDehy), while women completed both in the late-follicular (days 10-13; FDehy, FEuhy) and midluteal (days 18-22; LDehy, LEuhy) phases. We measured body mass, plasma and urine osmolality (Posm, Uosm), urine specific gravity (USG), urine color (Ucol), and serum copeptin; 24-h FR yielded mild dehydration without influence of sex or MC (P > 0.05). Copeptin increased in men following Dehy (pre: 8.2 ± 5.2, post: 15.8 ± 12.6, P = 0.04) but not in women (FDehy pre: 4.3 ± 1.6, post: 10.5 ± 6.9, P = 0.06; LDehy pre: 5.6 ± 3.5, post: 10.4 ± 6.2, P = 0.16). In FDehy, Posm increased following FR (pre: 288 ± 2, post: 292 ± 1, P = 0.03) but not in men (pre: 292 ± 3, post: 293 ± 2, P = 0.46). No MC differences were observed between body mass loss, Posm, Uosm, USG, and copeptin (P > 0.05). These results suggest that volume-regulatory responses to 24-h FR were present in men but not in women, without apparent effects of the menstrual cycle.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/urina , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona , Fatores Sexuais , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
17.
Physiol Rep ; 8(17): e14550, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889781

RESUMO

Progesterone and its analogues are known to influence ventilation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous and pharmaceutical female sex hormones in ventilatory control during the activation of the metaboreflex, mechanoreflex, and CO2 chemoreflex. Women aged 18-30 taking (n = 14) or not taking (n = 12) oral contraceptives (OC and NOC, respectively) were tested in the low hormone (LH) and high hormone (HH) conditions corresponding to the early follicular and mid-luteal phases (NOC) or placebo and high-dose pills (OC). Women underwent three randomized trials: (a) 3 min of passive leg movement (PLM), (b) 2 min of 40% maximal voluntary handgrip exercise followed by 2 min of post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), and (c) 5 min of breathing 5% CO2 . We primarily measured hemodynamics and ventilation. During PLM, the OC group had a smaller pressor response (p = .012). During PECO, the OC group similarly exhibited a smaller pressor response (p = .043) and also exhibited a greater ventilatory response (p = .024). Lastly, in response to breathing 5% CO2 , women in the HH phase had a greater ventilatory response (p = .022). We found that OC use attenuates the pressor response to both the metaboreflex and mechanoreflex while increasing the ventilatory response to metaboreflex activation. We also found evidence of an enhanced CO2 chemoreflex in the HH phase. We hypothesize that OC effects are from the chronic upregulation of pulmonary and vascular ß-adrenergic receptors. We further suggest that the increased cyclic progesterone in the HH phase enhances the chemoreflex.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Reflexo , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Movimento , Ventilação Pulmonar , Respiração
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 666-674, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of age and season on menstrual cycle length and basal body temperature (BBT). We also examined the effects of climate on cycle length and BBT, taking into account Japanese geographic and social characteristics. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 6 million menstrual cycles entered into a smartphone application from 310,000 females from 2016 to 2017. Only those who entered more than 10 cycles in 2 years were included. Generalized estimation equations were used to adjust for confounding factors and for within-person correlations of multiple records. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, with age, external average temperature, precipitation amount, and sunshine hours as confounding factors. RESULTS: The mean menstrual cycle length increased from age 15-23 years, subsequently decreased up to age 45 years, and then increased again. Average follicular phase body temperature showed no significant age-dependent changes, but luteal phase body temperature gradually increased up to 29 years and then stabilized and started to decrease after age 42 years. A significant association between external temperature and body temperature (follicular and luteal phase) was observed, though menstrual cycle length did not show such an association. CONCLUSION: These results, derived from data self-entered into a smartphone application, revealed underrecognized age-dependent and seasonal changes in menstrual cycle length and BBT, which will contribute to a better understanding of female reproductive health in the modern world.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Big Data , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Smartphone , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15666, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973291

RESUMO

The spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) has been linked to different cognitive processes and neurobiological factors. It has also been proposed as a putative index for striatal dopaminergic function. While estradiol is well-known to increase dopamine levels through multiple mechanisms, no study up to date has investigated whether the EBR changes across the menstrual cycle. This question is imperative however, as women have sometimes been excluded from studies using the EBR due to potential effects of their hormonal profile. Fifty-four women were tested for spontaneous EBR at rest in three different phases of their menstrual cycle: during menses (low progesterone and estradiol), in the pre-ovulatory phase (when estradiol levels peak and progesterone is still low), and during the luteal phase (high progesterone and estradiol). No significant differences were observed across the menstrual cycle and Bayes factors show strong support for the null hypothesis. Instead, we observed high intra-individual consistency of the EBR in our female sample. Accordingly, we strongly encourage including female participants in EBR studies, regardless of their cycle phase.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Olho , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 95, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a post hoc, subgroup analysis of a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of erenumab for prevention of episodic migraine (STRIVE) to determine the efficacy and safety of erenumab in women with self-reported menstrual migraine. METHODS: Patients received placebo, erenumab 70 mg, or erenumab 140 mg subcutaneously once monthly during the 6-month double-blind treatment phase of STRIVE. Women who reported history of menstrual migraine and who were ≤ 50 years old were included in the analysis. Endpoints were change from baseline in monthly migraine days (MMD) and monthly acute migraine-specific medication days (MSMD; among patients who took acute migraine-specific medications at baseline), proportion of patients achieving ≥ 50% reduction from baseline in MMD, and incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: Among 814 women enrolled in STRIVE, 232 (28.5%) reported a history of menstrual migraine and were ≤ 50 years old. Of the 232 patients, 214 (92%) had a baseline MMD > 5, suggesting a high proportion of women with attacks outside of the 5-day perimenstrual window (2 days before and 3 days after the start of menstruation). Information on "migraine days" includes (and does not discriminate between) perimenstrual and intermenstrual migraine attacks. Between-group differences from placebo over months 4-6 for erenumab 70 mg and 140 mg were - 1.8 (P = 0.001) and - 2.1 (P < 0.001) days for MMD and - 1.6 (P = 0.002) and - 2.4 (P < 0.001) days for acute MSMD, respectively. The odds of having a ≥ 50% reduction from baseline in MMD over months 4-6 were 2.2 (P = 0.024) and 2.8 (P = 0.002) times greater for erenumab 70 mg and 140 mg, respectively, than for placebo. Erenumab had an overall safety profile comparable to placebo. CONCLUSION: Data from this subgroup analysis of women with menstrual migraine are consistent with data from the overall STRIVE episodic migraine population, supporting the efficacy and safety of erenumab in women who experience menstrual migraine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02456740. Registered 28 May 2015.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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