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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125527, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648179

RESUMO

We report on a sensitive and fast quantitative MALDI-MS/MS method used to assess saffron authenticity by direct analysis through the determination of picrocrocin as the saffron authenticity marker, and using curcumin as the non-isotopic isobaric internal standard. The internal standard curcumin yielded good linearity (R2 = 0.994), and with confidence intervals at 95% for intercept. The detectable maximum adulteration percentage (99.0%) was estimated interpolating the limit of detection (LOD) for the isobaric internal standard in linear regression. The LOD was 47.63 ppm, and LOQ was 56.53 ppm. Good accuracy and precision were obtained for all concentrations. The capability of the MS approach to monitor analytes in a specific, selective fashion was used to obtain a semi-quantitative adulteration percentage and to establish the adulterant by additional experiments. The detection of gardecin and its derivatives in commercial samples indicated that Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was used as the adulterant.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Cicloexenos/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Terpenos/análise , Calibragem , Curcumina/química , Cicloexenos/normas , Glucosídeos/normas , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas , Terpenos/normas
2.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(10): 1713-1721, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588946

RESUMO

Photodegradation can be an important abiotic degradation process to consider for the fate and persistence assessment of chemical substances in the environment. In this work, using a fragrance ingredient (FI, (E)-4-(2,2,3,6-tetramethylcyclohexyl)but-3-en-2-one) as an example, we developed a streamlined workflow to investigate direct photodegradation of chemicals in the aquatic environment, including laboratory investigation of kinetics and transformation products and estimation of its aquatic environmental half-lives. Direct photodegradation was determined to be the dominant photodegradation process for FI with a quantum yield of 0.25, which was supported by photodegradation experiments conducted in natural sunlight. Accounting for light attenuation by dissolved organic matter in natural waters of different depths resulted in aquatic half-lives of <31 days even at polar latitudes. Photoisomerization was shown to be a major photodegradation pathway along with the formation and subsequent degradation of constitutional isomers and photooxidation products. These results contributed to FI being assessed as non-persistent in the environment.


Assuntos
Cicloexenos/química , Odorantes/análise , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/efeitos da radiação , Meia-Vida , Cinética , Luz Solar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação , Fluxo de Trabalho
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535952

RESUMO

In this study, we propose an improved analytical method for the multiresidue analysis of captan (plus its metabolite, tetrahydrophthalimide), folpet (plus its metabolite, phthalimide), captafol, and iprodione in cereals using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As captan, captafol, and folpet are easily degraded during homogenisation and extraction, samples were comminuted with liquid nitrogen, and both QuEChERS and ethyl acetate-based extraction workflows provided a satisfactory method performance. The optimised LC-MS/MS procedure with electrospray ionisation did not degrade these compounds, and offered sufficient method selectivity by resolving and minimising co-eluting matrix-derived interferences. The method also resolved the problem of non-specific mass spectra that these compounds usually produce on GC-MS analysis involving electron ionisation. The method performance was satisfactory for all 6 compounds at 0.01 mg kg-1 and higher levels of fortification, and validated as per the SANTE/11813/2017 guidelines of analytical quality control in a wide range of cereals including rice, wheat, sorghum, and corn. The method provides special advantage of simultaneous analysis of captan, and folpet along with their metabolites (tetrahydrophthalimide, and phthalimide, respectively) in combination with captafol, and iprodione in a single chromatographic run. Although iprodione is known to degrade to 3,5-dichloroaniline, since this metabolite is not a part of the residue definition, it was not included in the scope of this method. As the method demonstrates satisfactory selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and robustness in a wide range of cereal matrices, it is recommended for regulatory testing of these compounds in cereals.


Assuntos
Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Captana/análogos & derivados , Captana/análise , Cicloexenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidantoínas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Ftalimidas/análise , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Grão Comestível/química , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 301: 125216, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404804

RESUMO

An improved liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is reported for the determination of residues of captan (+tetrahydrophthalimide), captafol, folpet (+phthalimide), and iprodione in fruits and vegetables. The optimized electrospray ionization parameters (high cone gas flow, and a low desolvation temperature) did not result in degradation of target compounds, rather they provided a significant advantage over the conventional GC-MS/MS methods, which lack sensitivity and repeatability. Strategies for minimizing losses in recovery of these compounds during sample preparation included cryogenic comminution, extraction with acidified ethyl acetate or acetonitrile, and dilution of the final extract with acidified water prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The method performance complied with the SANTE/11813/2017 guidelines, with recoveries in the range of 70-120% at the LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg across the tested matrices at various pHs. The efficiency of the method was reflected in its precision (RSDs < 10%) for incurred residues.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verduras/química , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análise , Captana/análogos & derivados , Captana/análise , Cicloexenos/análise , Hidantoínas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Ftalimidas/análise
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5858-5869, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crocus sativus L. is an autumn-flowering geophyte belonging to the Iridaceae family, known for the medicinal and coloring uses of the spice from its dried stigmas. It is cultivated in countries with different pedoclimatic conditions. This paper reports on a two-year research project carried out in the Basilicata region of southern Italy on the question of how to obtain the highest performance from saffron. It considers corms from three different geographical origins - 'Sardinia', 'Abruzzo' and 'Kozani' at three different cultivation sites, namely Castelgrande (40° 46' N, 15° 26' E, 781 m a.s.l.), Genzano di Lucania (40° 50' N, 16° 08' E, 344 m a.s.l.), and Villa d'Agri (40° 22' N, 15° 48' E, 638 m a.s.l.). RESULTS: The highest yields were obtained in the second year by the combination of 'Genzano di L. × Sardinia' and 'Castelgrande × Abruzzo' with 28.1 and 23.9 kg ha-1 of dried stigma, respectively. Saffron quality was determined according to ISO 3632, which classifies the samples into three categories depending on the crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal content. Results highlighted that the highest values for coloring (242.1) and bitterness (97.7) were achieved in Genzano di L. during 2013. Moreover, the crocins were correlated positively with stigma yield and air mean temperature but negatively with safranal. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated, through principal component analysis (PCA), that the cultivation site with higher air temperature and without excessive rain during the flowering period generated the best stigma yield with high-quality traits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Clima , Crocus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicloexenos/análise , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosídeos/análise , Itália , Controle de Qualidade , Chuva , Temperatura , Terpenos/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 295: 387-394, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174773

RESUMO

Saffron is appreciated by its colour, taste, and aroma. To examine the effect of abiotic and biotic stress on these main properties, in the span of 2014-2016, saffron stigmas were collected from major different saffron cultivation areas of Iran and saffron quality was estimated. The quality of saffron was assessed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy following the ISO3632:2011 standard. However, the composition and concentration of crocetin esters, picrocrocin, safranal, and kaempferols, the most critical compounds determining the properties and quality of saffron can vary with the geographical origin and virus effects, being more accurate High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) methods were used to analyze saffron quality. Using HPLC-DAD we analyzed saffron plants grown at various conditions (considering altitude, temperature, and precipitation/rainfall) and in presence/absence of virus infections; we found that edaphoclimatic and cultivation conditions significantly determine the quality of the spice and the presence of virus modifies the content of its metabolites.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Crocus/virologia , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Altitude , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crocus/metabolismo , Cicloexenos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glucosídeos/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Quempferóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chuva , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Especiarias/análise , Terpenos/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 295: 72-81, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174812

RESUMO

Grapefruits are sensitive to develop chilling injury (CI) on the peel upon postharvest storage at low temperature. We investigated the influence of the storage at 2 and 12 °C on CI, carotenoids, and emission of volatiles by intact fruit. CI symptoms at 12 °C were restricted to green fruit peel sectors but at 2 °C the CI severity was higher and distributed through the whole fruit surface. Fruit peel coloration and carotenes content increased at 12 °C whereas experienced minor changes at 2 °C. At 2 °C the emission of total volatiles and specific monoterpenes, mainly limonene, but also linalool and α-terpineol was enhanced, while storage at 12 °C resulted in higher emission and diversity of cyclic sesquiterpenes and aliphatic esters. Results indicate a selective emission of volatiles by intact red grapefruit that appears to be a specific response to the storage temperature or to the cold-induced damage.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Citrus paradisi/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Temperatura Baixa , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/química , Frutas/química , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
8.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 171-178, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001725

RESUMO

Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world; so, determining optimum conditions for its processing is crucial. The most important processing stage of saffron is drying of its stigma, which should be optimized and there are no reports on reactance-window (RW) of saffron. In this research, drying of saffron with traditional, RW, and oven driers and at three temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 °C, as well as room temperature (25 °C) were studied. Regarding process duration, RW drier with 200 µm Mylar membrane and oven drier were the best methods with average drying time of 25.28 and 22.28 min, respectively. As far as the concentration of bioactive ingredients, i.e., picrocrocin, safranal, and crocin, of saffron was concerned, RW drier with Pyrex glass was better than other driers, resulting in 112.83 [Formula: see text] of picrocrocin, 51.79 [Formula: see text] of safranal, and 274.76 [Formula: see text] of crocin. The panelist most favored those saffron samples dried by RW with 300 µm Mylar membrane.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Dessecação/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Carotenoides/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Cor , Cicloexenos/análise , Flores/química , Glucosídeos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Pós/análise , Sensação , Especiarias/análise , Temperatura , Terpenos/análise
9.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027274

RESUMO

The chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Siparuna aspera, Siparuna macrotepala, Piper leticianum, Piper augustum and the rhizome of Hedychium coronarium were evaluated. These species are used medicinally in different ways by the Amazonian communities that live near the Kutukú mountain range. Chemical studies revealed that the main components for the two Siparuna species were germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, α-pinene, δ-cadinene, δ-elemene, α-copaene and ß-caryophyllene; for the two Piper species ß-caryophyllene, germacrene D, α-(E,E)-farnesene, ß-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, δ-cadinene and for H. coronarium 1,8-cineole, ß-pinene, α-pinene and α-terpineol. The antioxidant activity of all essential oils was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), photochemiluminescence (PCL) quantitative assays, and DPPH and ABTS bioautographic profiles, with different results for each of them. Antimicrobial activity studies were carried out on three yeasts, six Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria, by means of the disc diffusion method. The essential oil of H. coronarium showed the most relevant results on L. grayi, K. oxytoca and S. mutans, P. augustum and P. leticianum on S. mutans. An antibacterial bioautographic test for H. coronarium was also carried out and highlighted the potential activity of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/análise , Zingiberaceae/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Floresta Úmida , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(14): 2125-2127, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381960

RESUMO

SPME analysis of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Curcuma longa L. were performed by using a DVB/CARB/PDMS fiber. The SPME analysis of Zingiber officinale showed that the main components found were camphene (7.27%), geranial (8.37%), α-zingiberene (14.50%), α-farnesene (9.14%), ß-bisabolene (6.52%), and ß-sesquiphellandrene (9.92%). The SPME analysis of Curcuma longa showed that main components were p-cymene (12.96%) and ar-turmerone (12.08%). Other components were ß-phellandrene (7.86%), terpinolene (6.97%), ar-curcumene (8.53%), α-zingiberene (8.46%), and ß-sesquiphellandrene (7.37%).


Assuntos
Curcuma/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Gengibre/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cimenos , Cetonas/análise , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Monoterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Terpenos/análise
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(4): 486-493, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124962

RESUMO

The expression of biosynthesis controlling genes of crocin and safranal in saffron (Crocus sativus) can be influenced by ultrasonic waves. Sterilized saffron corms were cultured in a ½-MS medium supplemented by 2-4-D and BAP.  Saffron callus cells were treated with ultrasonic waves in a cellular suspension culture under optimal growth conditions. The samples were collected at 24 and 72 hours after treatment in three replications. The secondary metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the gene expression was analysed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results indicate that this elicitor can influence the expressions of genes CsBCH, CsLYC and CsGT-2; the ultrasonic waves acted as an effective mechanical stimulus to the suspension cultures. The analysis of variance of the ultrasonically produced amounts of safranal and crocin indicates that there is a significant difference between once- and twice-treated samples in that the amount of safranal was the highest within the samples taken from the twice-treated suspension culture at 72 h after the ultrasound treatment, and the crocin was maximised after 24 h passed the twice-applied ultrasound treatment.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Crocus/genética , Crocus/metabolismo , Cicloexenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crocus/citologia , Cicloexenos/análise , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Ondas Ultrassônicas
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(16): 2394-2397, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468889

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of three Lamiaceae species from Uzbekistan was investigated by GC-MS analysis. ß-Linalool (26.6%), α-terpineol (10.0%), coumarin (8.9%) and 4,5,7,7α-tetrahydro-4,4,7α-trimethyl-2(6H)-benzofuranone (5.4%) resulted as the main components of Ajuga turkestanica essential oil, while camphene (17.1%), 1,8-cineole (15.9%), ß-cymene (7.9%) and limonene (7.4%) in Phlomis regelii. The essential oil of Thymus seravschanicus was dominated by thymol (37.5%), phellandral (26.0%), τ-terpinene (6.6%) and ß-cymene (5.2%). The essential oils had considerable antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and fungi. Among the tested samples of essential oils, P. regelii essential oil has the significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 117.8 ± 8.02 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos , Timol/análise , Thymus (Planta)/química , Uzbequistão
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(12): 10877-10885, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243633

RESUMO

Spontaneous oxidized flavor (SOF) has been reported over the past 5 decades as a sporadic objectionable flavor problem in bovine milk. Parameters previously reported to influence SOF development in milk have been contradictory, limiting the ability to monitor and develop mitigation strategies. The current paper investigates the causative compounds associated with milk identified as SOF milk in the Midwest dairy region of the United States. Based on GC/MS-olfactometry analysis, endo-borneol, 2-methylisoborneol, and α-terpineol were identified as the off-flavor compounds. Sensory recombination studies further confirmed the sensory contribution of these compounds to the noted off-flavor attributes in the original milk, which were described as "green," "musty," and "unclean." These compounds are known microbial-derived flavor taints, indicating oxidation was not the origin of the objectionable flavor in the milk. This noted misclassification of the milk as SOF indicates the challenge of defining flavor defects without the identification of the active compounds.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Paladar , Animais , Canfanos/análise , Bovinos , Cor , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Olfatometria , Oxirredução
14.
Fitoterapia ; 130: 225-233, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213756

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to contribute to the characterization of Crocus taxa using morphological, phytochemical and genetic analysis. The styles of C. cartwrightianus, C. oreocreticus and C. laevigatus, collected in the island of Crete were compared to those of C. sativus cultivated at the region of Western Macedonia (Greece). Phytochemical analysis was done using GC-MS and HPLC methods, while ISSR markers were used for their genetic characterization. Safranal was the major volatile component of the styles of C. sativus, 4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde of C. cartwrightianus and C. oreocreticus, and isophorone of C. laevigatus. C. sativus had the highest content of crocins and picrocrocin, while C. laevigatus the lowest (only 5% of C. sativus' quantity) and negligible amount of picrocrocin. According to both the genetic and the chemical analysis, C. cartwrightianus is more related to C. oreocreticus, while C. sativus and C. laevigatus are more distinct. Concordance between the two different types of data was also confirmed by the Mantel test (r = 0.932, P = .68). This is the first thorough screening of secondary metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) and also genetic and morphological characters of wild Crocus styles simultaneously, that contributes to the identification and valorisation of genotypes with similar to C. sativus traits which may be introduced as new cultivars through breeding.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Crocus/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cicloexenos/análise , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Marcadores Genéticos , Glucosídeos/análise , Grécia , Terpenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12200, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111795

RESUMO

Chios mastic products are well-known for their broad applications in food industry, cosmetics, and healthcare since the antiquity. Given our recent finding that Chios mastic water (CMW) exerts antigenotoxic action, in the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic as well as the antigenotoxic potential of the four major compounds of CMW, namely, verbenone, α-terpineol, linalool, and trans-pinocarveol. The cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in cultured human lymphocytes and the Drosophila Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART), also known as the wing spot test, were employed. None of the four major CMW's constituents or their mixtures showed genotoxic or recombinogenic activity in either of the assays used. Co-treatment of each of the constituents with MMC revealed that all except trans-pinocarveol exerted antigenotoxic potential. Moreover, co-administration of verbenone with linalool or α-terpineol presented statistically significant reduction of MMC-induced mutagenicity. In conclusion, the major CMW constituents were shown to be free of genotoxic effects, while some exerted antigenotoxic activity either alone or in combinations, suggesting synergistic phenomena. Our results provide evidence on the key antigenotoxicity effectors of the plant extract CMW.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resina Mástique/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Pistacia/toxicidade , Recombinação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/farmacologia , Água/química , Água/farmacologia , Asas de Animais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Environ Entomol ; 47(6): 1547-1552, 2018 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137276

RESUMO

We report here the pheromone of Megacyllene antennata (White) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a species native to southwestern North America whose larvae feed in woody tissues of mesquite (Prosopis species; Fabaceae). Adult males sex-specifically produced a blend of eight common natural products, including the monoterpene alcohol (S)-α-terpineol; the monoterpenes (S)-limonene and terpinolene; the aromatic alcohols (R)-1-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethanol; and (E)-2-hexenol, (E)-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol. Individual males produced the components in varying amounts, but (S)-α-terpineol and (E)-2-hexenal were always present and together constituted the majority of the blend. A synthetic reconstruction of the complete blend attracted both males and females of M. antennata during field bioassays, as did all subsets of the blend that included (S)-α-terpineol and (E)-2-hexenol. Adults were most strongly attracted to blends of the latter two compounds when in ratios approaching parity. Neither of the compounds were present in the bouquet of volatiles emitted by host plants of the larvae.


Assuntos
Besouros/química , Cicloexenos/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Animais , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Feminino , Masculino
17.
Food Chem ; 264: 301-309, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853380

RESUMO

This investigation focuses on the use of chitosan treatment simulating a bentonite fining in order to detect any modification of the wine haze potential by simultaneously evaluating the secondary effects on untargeted fixed and volatile compounds. A significant removal of chitinases was observed after fining an aromatic white wine with 1 g/L of a fungoid chitosan. Even if the more stable thaumatin like protein fractions were not significantly affected, the heat stability of the fined chitosan wine samples were highly improved in the 55-62 °C range. Among the secondary effects of a fining treatment, a reduction of tartaric acid, malic acid, potassium and iron was showed. All the free terpenols with the exception of α-terpineol were reduced in significant amounts, whilst the glycosylated forms and the fermentative aroma compounds were not affected by a 1 g/L chitosan addition.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho , Bentonita , Quitinases/metabolismo , Cor , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Monoterpenos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
18.
Phytomedicine ; 43: 21-27, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is a highly valued agricultural product that is used mainly as a food coloring and flavoring agent. Three main secondary metabolites of Crocus sativus including crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal are responsible for the color, the bitter taste and for the odor and aroma, respectively. As a component of traditional medicine, saffron has been utilized as a medicinal herb for treating various ailments including cramps, asthma, liver disease, menstruation disorders, pain, and in the pathogenesis of cancer. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: To summarize the recent published data on the chemo-preventive properties of Crocus sativus in cancer treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature. METHODS: A search of English-language literature was performed using Scopus, EMBASE and PubMed. We applied no restriction in time. Articles were searched using the keywords "Lung", "breast", "skin", "prostate", "leukemia", "cancer", "neoplasm", "tumor", "malignancy", "saffron", "crocus sativus", "crocin", "crocetin", "picrocrocin", and "safranal". RESULTS: Saffron has been reported to exert anti-tumor and anti-cancer effects in various types of cancer including lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, skin cancer and prostate cancer. This appears to be via various mechanisms including: the induction of apoptosis, arresting cell cycle progression, suppressing expression of matrix metalloproteinase, modulatory effects on some phase II detoxifying enzymes and decreasing expression of inflammatory molecules are potential mechanisms of saffron-induced anticancer effects. CONCLUSION: Saffron possesses potent anti-tumor properties and represents an efficacious and safe treatment.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Crocus/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crocus/metabolismo , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Feminino , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/farmacologia
19.
Food Chem ; 257: 325-332, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622218

RESUMO

A new UHPLC-DAD-MS method based on a Core-Shell particles column was developed to realize the rapid separation of saffron stigma metabolites (Crocus sativus L.). A single separation of 35 compounds included cis and trans-crocetin esters (crocins), cis-crocetin, trans-crocetin, kaempferol derivatives, safranal, and picrocrocin from pure saffron stigmas. This method permitted the detection of 11 picrocrocin derivatives as the typical group of compounds from saffron as well as the detection of gardenia-specific compounds as typical adulterant markers. The metabolite concentration in a Standardized Saffron Extract (SSE) was determined using the method described herein and by comparison to the ISO3632 conventional method. The safranal content was 5-150 times lower than the value of 2% that was expected via ISO3632 analyses. Using the same Core-Shell separation, geniposide detection appeared to be a relevant approach for detecting the adulteration of saffron by using gardenia.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crocus/química , Gardenia/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Crocus/metabolismo , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Gardenia/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Isomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Controle de Qualidade , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Med Pr ; 69(2): 167-178, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils are fragrances extracted from plants. They have a smooth consistency and pleasant smell. Essential oils have been applied in aromatherapy, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to analyze the composition of selected essential oils used in respiratory diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The qualitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. For the study 6 essential oils available in Polish shops and used in various respiratory diseases were chosen. The results were compared with the information provided by the manufacturer and the literature. RESULTS: The method used in the presented work allowed to qualitatively identify the main components in studied essential oils. In the analyzed samples generally occurred: α- i ß-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol and caryophyllene. In addition to limonene, the presence of linalool, eugonol and geraniol, potentially allergenic substances, were also detected. CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative composition of the studied essential oils comply with the existing literature data. Their main ingredients show antimicrobial and antiviral activities, therefore they are used to eradicate the symptoms of infection. However, the attention should be paid to the composition of the products because they often comprise potential allergens. Information on the presence of such a substance in the preparation should be clearly marked by the manufacturer on the packaging. Fragrances are also found in a number of household products that increase their concentration in the air of living premises, thereby increasing the risk of side effects especially in people with allergies or sensitive. Med Pr 2018;69(2):167-178.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Aromaterapia/métodos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Limoneno , Monoterpenos/análise , Polônia , Terpenos/análise
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