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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(4-5): 527-541, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387173

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This report shows detailed characterization of LOX gene family in sorghum and provides new insight of sorghum LOX genes in genetic structure and their roles in plant response to infestation by sugarcane aphids. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are monomeric, nonheme iron-containing dioxygenases that initiate the fatty acid oxidation pathway creating oxylipins and plant hormone jasmonate both have a key role in plant development and defense. To date, a comprehensive and systematic analysis of sorghum LOXs is still deficient. Thus, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the sorghum LOXs genome and identified nine LOXs genes. Detailed examination of protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis categorized the sorghum LOXs into two subclasses, 9-LOXs (SbLOX1, SbLOX3, SbLOX4, SbLOXm, and SbLOXo), 13-LOXs (SbLOX9, SbLOX5, and SbLOX2), and the unclassified SbLOX8. This classification was further supported by sequence similarity/identity matrix and subcellular localization analysis. The lipoxygenase domains, motifs, and vital amino acids were highly conserved in all sorghum LOX genes. In silico analysis of the promoter region of SbLOXs identified different hormones responsive cis-elements. Furthermore, to explore the roles of sorghum LOXs during sugarcane aphid feeding and exogenous MeJA application, expression analysis was conducted for all the eight LOXs in resistant (Tx2783) and susceptible (Tx7000) sorghum lines, respectively. As detailed in this report, the data generated from both genome-wide identification and expression analysis of lipoxygenase genes suggest the putative functions of two 13-LOXs (SbLOX9 and SbLOX5) and three 9-LOXs (SbLOX1, SbLOX3, and SbLOXo) in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, green leaf volatiles and death acids, and all of them are involved in defense-related functions in plants. Furthermore, this report represents the first genome-wide analysis of the LOX gene family in sorghum, which will facilitate future studies to characterize the roles of each individual LOXs gene in aphid resistance and defense responses to other stresses.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lipoxigenase/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lipoxigenase/classificação , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sorghum/enzimologia , Sorghum/parasitologia
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111758, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396081

RESUMO

The cultivation of leafy vegetables on metal contaminated soil embodies a serious threat to yield and quality. In the present study, the potential role of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA; 0, 5, 10, and 20 µM) on mitigating chromium toxicity (Cr; 0, 150, and 300 µM) was investigated in choysum (Brassica parachinensis L.). With exposure to increasing Cr stress levels, a dose-dependent decline in growth, photosynthesis, and physio-biochemical attributes of choysum plants was observed. An increase in Cr levels also resulted in oxidative stress closely associated with higher lipoxygenase activity (LOX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and methylglyoxal (MG) levels. Exogenous application of JA alleviated the Cr-induced phytotoxic effects on photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange parameters, and restored growth of choysum plants. While exposed to Cr stress, JA supplementation induced plant defense system via enhanced regulation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione pool, and the glyoxalase system enzymes. The coordinated regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems expressively suppressed the oxidative and carbonyl stress at both Cr stress levels. More importantly, JA restored the mineral nutrient contents, restricted Cr uptake, and accumulation in roots and shoots of choysum plants when compared to the only Cr-stressed plants. Overall, the application of JA2 treatment (10 µM JA) was more effective and counteracted the detrimental effects of 150 µM Cr stress by restoring the growth and physio-biochemical attributes to the level of control plants, while partially mitigated the detrimental effects of 300 µM Cr stress. Hence, JA application might be considered as an effective approach for minimizing Cr uptake and its detrimental effects in choysum plants grown on contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica/fisiologia , Cromo/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 338: 128044, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932092

RESUMO

The effects of preharvest treatments with 0.1 mM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 0.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) on quality parameters of lemon fruit and their relationship with antioxidant systems, gene expression and bioactive compounds at harvest and during cold storage were evaluated. Results showed that total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and the major individual phenolics (hesperidin and eriocitrin) were always higher in treated fruit than in controls. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase was also increased at harvest by SA and MeJA treatments, especially the last enzyme, for which the expression of its codifying gene was also enhanced. In addition, treated fruit had lower weight and firmness losses, respiration rate and production of ethylene than controls. Moreover, sugars and organic acids were maintained at higher concentration in flavedo and juice as a consequence of preharvest SA and MeJA treatments, showing an effect on maintaining fruit quality properties.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Citrus/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127846, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836001

RESUMO

Cold storage is widely used for delaying ripening and senescence; however, fruit aroma diminishes noticeably after long-term cold storage. The esters synthesized by the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for 'Nanguo' pear aroma. As methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is known to act on various fruit qualities, we investigated whether it acts via the LOX pathway in cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears. MeJA treatment increased the content of volatile esters and unsaturated fatty acids and the activities of alcohol acyltransferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and LOX. It also up-regulated the expression of key genes (PuAAT, PuADH3, PuADH5, PuADH9, PuLOX1, and PuLOX3) in the LOX pathway and that of transcription factors (PuMYB21-like, PuMYB108-like, PuWRKY61, PuWRKY72, and PuWRKY31), whose genes were differentially expressed in preliminary transcriptome analysis. Therefore, considering its effects on LOX pathway-related genes and transcription factors, MeJA may be useful in preventing cold-storage-induced decline in ester biosynthesis, aroma, and consequently the quality of cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ésteres/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/genética , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 338: 128005, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977138

RESUMO

Peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit are highly susceptible to chilling injury during cold storage, resulting in internal flesh browning and a failure to soften normally. We have examined the effect of a postharvest treatment consisting of a brief (30 s) dip in the natural plant hormone jasmonic acid, prior to storage at 4 °C. Jasmonic acid treatment reduced the severity of internal flesh browning and did not inhibit fruit softening over a 35 d storage period. Two major physiological effects of jasmonic acid on the fruit were observed, an increase in ethylene production and a prevention of the decline in soluble sugar content seen in controls. An increased soluble sugar content may have multiple benefits in resisting chilling stress, scavenging reactive oxygen species and acting to stabilize membranes. Our results show that a treatment with jasmonic acid can enhance chilling tolerance of peach fruit by regulating ethylene and sugar metabolism.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Prunus persica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus persica/genética
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(1): 59-79, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860179

RESUMO

The possibility of inducing resistance to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in 'Gala' apple trees growing under optimal fertilization or nitrogen-deficiency conditions was investigated. The effects of jasmonic acid (JA) at 1.5 and 2.5 mM, and acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzothiadiazole, BTH) at 0.5 and 1.5 mM, applied separately or together, on the fecundity of T. urticae females in a laboratory test as well as on the population growth of the pest in a greenhouse experiment were determined. The influence of both elicitors on the induction of LOX and PAL gene expression was assessed in a parallel experiment using real-time PCR. Jasmonic acid showed significantly higher effectiveness in inducing apple tree resistance to T. urticae, as compared to BTH. This was particularly evident in the reduction in pest numbers that was observed in the greenhouse experiment and was also confirmed by increased LOX gene expression after treatment with JA. BTH induced the expression of the PAL gene more strongly than jasmonic acid; however, this was not reflected in the performance of the two-spotted spider mite in the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. It was also found that the antagonistic effect of BTH on JA might lead to decreased effectiveness of the jasmonic acid used to induce apple tree resistance to the two-spotted spider mite. Although nitrogen fertilization stimulated the development of spider mite populations, the resistance induction mechanism was more effective in N-fertilized plants, which was especially evident at the higher jasmonic acid concentration.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Tetranychidae , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilização , Nitrogênio
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730299

RESUMO

Flavonoids are key components of licorice plant that directly affect its medicinal quality. Importantly, the MYB family of transcription factors serves to regulate the synthesis of flavonoids in plants. The MYB transcription factors represent one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants and play important roles in the process of plant growth and development. MYB gene expression is induced by a number of plant hormones, including the lipid-based hormone jasmonate (JA). Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator that can induce the JA signaling pathway, which functions to regulate the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. In this study, MeJA was added to licorice cell suspensions, and RNA-seq analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes. As a result, the MYB transcription factors GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 were demonstrated to respond significantly to MeJA induction. Subsequently, the GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 protein were shown to localize to the cell nucleus, and it was verified that GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 could positively regulate the synthesis of flavonoids in licorice cells. Overall, this research helps illustrate the molecular regulation of licorice flavonoid biosynthesis induced by MeJA.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 691: 108513, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: MLN4924 is an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) that interferes with the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complexes formation and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of MLN4924 and its ability to sensitize a broad range of cancer cells of different origins to tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced cell death alongside unravelling its mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability and caspases processing were determined after MLN4924 treatment either alone or with zVAD-fmk (pan caspase inhibitor), necrostatin-1 (nec-1, RIPK1 inhibitor) and necrosulfonamide (NSA, MLKL inhibitor). Moreover, MLN4924 ability to potentiate TNF-induced cell death was evaluated in 24 cell lines of different cancer origins. The impact of NAE inhibition with MLN4924 on TNF-induced apoptosis and necroptosis was evaluated using zVAD-fmk and nec-1, respectively. RESULTS: MLN4924 alone was able to induce cell death in different cell lines that was attributed to apoptosis induction. Also, MLN4924 sensitized different cancer cell lines to TNF-induced cell death. MLN4924/TNF-induced cell death was apoptosis and necroptosis dependent that may be attributed to MLN4924 inhibition of NF-κB pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting NAE and NF-κB pathway with MLN4924 represents a substantial approach to enhance the sensitivity of diverse types of cancer cells. Moreover, the broad in vitro screening of MLN4924 anticancer activity provides a valuable guidance for elucidating the susceptible cancer types for the prospective clinical application of MLN4924.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 478, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended use of oseltamivir in an immunocompromised host could reportedly induce neuraminidase gene mutation possibly leading to oseltamivir-resistant influenza A/H3N2 virus. To our knowledge, no report is available on the clinical course of a severely immunocompromised patient with a dual E119D/R292K neuraminidase mutated-influenza A/H3N2 during the administration of peramivir. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old male patient was admitted for second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for active acute leukemia. The patient received 5 mg prednisolone and 75 mg cyclosporine and had severe lymphopenia (70/µL). At the time of hospitalization, the patient was diagnosed with upper tract influenza A virus infection, and oseltamivir treatment was initiated immediately. However, the patient was intolerant to oseltamivir. The following day, treatment was changed to peramivir. Despite a total period of neuraminidase-inhibitor administration of 16 days, the symptoms and viral shedding continued. Changing to baloxavir marboxil resolved the symptoms, and the influenza diagnostic test became negative. Subsequently, sequence analysis of the nasopharyngeal specimen revealed the dual E119D/R292K neuraminidase mutant influenza A/H3N2. CONCLUSIONS: In a highly immunocompromised host, clinicians should take care when peramivir is used for extended periods to treat influenza virus A/H3N2 infection as this could potentially leading to a dual E119D/R292K substitution in neuraminidase protein. Baloxavir marboxil may be one of the agents that can be used to treat this type of mutated influenza virus infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiepinas/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Carbocíclicos , Ciclopentanos/efeitos adversos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Dibenzotiepinas , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Guanidinas/efeitos adversos , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas , Mutação , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Neuraminidase/genética , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Piridonas , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641480

RESUMO

We previously reported that the cellular transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) binds a hypoxia response element (HRE) located within the promoter of Epstein-Barr virus's (EBV's) latent-lytic switch BZLF1 gene, Zp, inducing viral reactivation. In this study, EBV-infected cell lines derived from gastric cancers and Burkitt lymphomas were incubated with HIF-1α-stabilizing drugs: the iron chelator deferoxamine (Desferal [DFO]), a neddylation inhibitor (pevonedistat [MLN-4924]), and a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (roxadustat [FG-4592]). DFO and MLN-4924, but not FG-4592, induced accumulation of both lytic EBV proteins and phosphorylated p53 in cell lines that contain a wild-type p53 gene. FG-4592 also failed to activate transcription from Zp in a reporter assay despite inducing accumulation of HIF-1α and transcription from another HRE-containing promoter. Unexpectedly, DFO failed to induce EBV reactivation in cell lines that express mutant or no p53 or when p53 expression was knocked down with short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Likewise, HIF-1α failed to activate transcription from Zp when p53 was knocked out by CRISPR-Cas9. Importantly, DFO induced binding of p53 as well as HIF-1α to Zp in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, but only when the HRE was present. Nutlin-3, a drug known to induce accumulation of phosphorylated p53, synergized with DFO and MLN-4924 in inducing EBV reactivation. Conversely, KU-55933, a drug that inhibits ataxia telangiectasia mutated, thereby preventing p53 phosphorylation, inhibited DFO-induced EBV reactivation. Lastly, activation of Zp transcription by DFO and MLN-4924 mapped to its HRE. Thus, we conclude that induction of BZLF1 gene expression by HIF-1α requires phosphorylated, wild-type p53 as a coactivator, with HIF-1α binding recruiting p53 to Zp.IMPORTANCE EBV, a human herpesvirus, is latently present in most nasopharyngeal carcinomas, Burkitt lymphomas, and some gastric cancers. To develop a lytic-induction therapy for treating patients with EBV-associated cancers, we need a way to efficiently reactivate EBV into lytic replication. EBV's BZLF1 gene product, Zta, usually controls this reactivation switch. We previously showed that HIF-1α binds the BZLF1 gene promoter, inducing Zta synthesis, and HIF-1α-stabilizing drugs can induce EBV reactivation. In this study, we determined which EBV-positive cell lines are reactivated by classes of HIF-1α-stabilizing drugs. We found, unexpectedly, that HIF-1α-stabilizing drugs only induce reactivation when they also induce accumulation of phosphorylated, wild-type p53. Fortunately, p53 phosphorylation can also be provided by drugs such as nutlin-3, leading to synergistic reactivation of EBV. These findings indicate that some HIF-1α-stabilizing drugs may be helpful as part of a lytic-induction therapy for treating patients with EBV-positive malignancies that contain wild-type p53.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Transativadores/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/agonistas , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/virologia , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Elementos de Resposta , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110735, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480163

RESUMO

Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) is a plant growth regulator known for modulating plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The unavoidable arsenic (As) contamination in rice (Oryza sativa) results in reduced crop yield and greater carcinogenic risk to humans. The present work examines the significance of Me-JA induced molecular signaling and tolerance towards arsenic toxicity in rice. The arsenite (AsIII; 25 µM) stress hampered the overall growth and development of the rice seedling. However, the co-application (25 µM AsIII+0.25 µM Me-JA) resulted in increased biomass, chlorophyll content, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities as compared to AsIII treated plants. The co-application also demonstrated a marked decrease in malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and accumulation of total AsIII content (root + shoot) as compared to AsIII treated plants. The co-application also modulated the expression of genes involved in downstream JA signaling pathway (OsCOI, OsJAZ3, OsMYC2), AsIII uptake (OsLsi1, OsLsi2, OsNIP1;1, OsNIP3;1), translocation (OsLsi6, and OsINT5) and detoxification (OsNRAMP1, OsPCS2, and OsABCC2) which revealed the probable adaptive response of the rice plant to cope up arsenic stress. Our findings reveal that Me-JA alleviates AsIII toxicity by modulating signaling components involved in As uptake, translocation, and detoxification and JA signaling in rice. This study augments our knowledge for the future use of Me-JA in improving tolerance against AsIII stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110832, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563158

RESUMO

Ozone (O3), an oxidizing toxic air pollutant, is ubiquitous in industrialized and developing countries. To understand the effects of O3 exposure on apple (Malus) and to explore its defense mechanisms, we exposed 'Hongjiu' crabapple to O3 and monitored its responses using physiological, transcriptomics, and metabolomics analyses. Exposure to 300 nL L-1 O3 for 3 h caused obvious damage to the leaves of Malus crabapple, affected chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, and activated antioxidant enzymes. The gene encoding phospholipase A was highly responsive to O3 in Malus crabapple. McWRKY75 is a key transcription factor in the response to O3 stress, and its transcript levels were positively correlated with those of flavonoid-related structural genes (McC4H, McDFR, and McANR). The ethylene response factors McERF019 and McERF109-like were also up-regulated by O3. Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) decreased the damaging effects of O3 on crabapple and was most effective at 200 µmol L -1. Treatments with MeJA altered the metabolic pathways of crabapple under O3 stress. In particular, MeJA activated the flavonoid metabolic pathway in Malus, which improved its resistance to O3 stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 209-218, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414692

RESUMO

In the course of our continuous investigation on the bioactive marine-derived fungal metabolites, terrein was isolated from marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-7181. Terrein inhibited the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 and primary microglial cells. This compound also repressed the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6. These inhibitory effects of terrein were associated with the inactivation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway through suppression of the translocation of p65/p50 heterodimer into the nucleus, the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α and the DNA binding activity of the p65 subunit. In addition, terrein induced the protein expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 through the activation of nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) in BV2 and primary microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of terrein was blocked by pre-treatment with a selective HO-1 inhibitor, suggesting that its anti-neuroinflammatory effect is mediated by HO-1 induction.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ratos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407323

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/enzimologia , Cucumis melo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357181

RESUMO

Susceptibility of plants to abiotic stresses, including extreme temperatures, salinity and drought, poses an increasing threat to crop productivity worldwide. Here the drought-induced response of maize was modulated by applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) to seeds prior to sowing and to leaves prior to stress treatment. Pot experiments were conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenous applications of these hormones on maize growth, physiology and biochemistry under drought stress and well-watered (control) conditions. Maize plants were subjected to single as well as combined pre-treatments of MeJA and SA. Drought stress severely affected maize morphology and reduced relative water content, above and below-ground biomass, rates of photosynthesis, and protein content. The prolonged water deficit also led to increased relative membrane permeability and oxidative stress induced by the production of malondialdehyde (from lipid peroxidation), lipoxygenase activity (LOX) and the production of H2O2. The single applications of MeJA and SA were not found to be effective in maize for drought tolerance while the combined pre-treatments with exogenous MeJA+SA mitigated the adverse effects of drought-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in lower levels of lipid peroxidation, LOX activity and H2O2. The same pre-treatment also maintained adequate water status of the plants under drought stress by increasing osmolytes including proline, total carbohydrate content and total soluble sugars. Furthermore, exogenous applications of MeJA+SA approximately doubled the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Pre-treatment with MeJA alone gave the highest increase in drought-induced production of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Pre-treatment with MeJA+SA partially prevented drought-induced oxidative stress by modulating levels of osmolytes and endogenous ABA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the results show that seed and foliar pre-treatments with exogenous MeJA and/or SA can have positive effects on the responses of maize seedlings to drought.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2019, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332747

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a tumor suppressor that binds and represses E2F transcription factors. In cervical cancer cells, human papilloma virus (HPV) protein E7 binds to Rb, releasing it from E2F to promote cell cycle progression, and inducing ubiquitination of Rb. E7-mediated proteasomal degradation of Rb requires action by another protease, calpain, which cleaves Rb after Lys 810. However, it is not clear why cleavage is required for Rb degradation. Here, we report that the proteasome cannot initiate degradation efficiently on full-length Rb. Calpain cleavage exposes a region that is recognized by the proteasome, leading to rapid proteolysis of Rb. These findings identify a mechanism for regulating protein stability by controlling initiation and provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying transformation by HPV.


Assuntos
Calpaína/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição E2F/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Acrilatos/farmacologia , Calpaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Ciclo Celular/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição E2F/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Papillomavirus Humano 16/metabolismo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Humanos , Proteína NEDD8/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína NEDD8/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(3): 341-354, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227258

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We employed both metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches to explore the accumulation patterns of physalins, flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in Physalis angulata and revealed the genes associated with the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds under methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Physalis angulata L. is an annual Solanaceae plant with a number of medicinally active compounds. Despite the potential pharmacological benefits of P. angulata, the scarce genomic information regarding this plant has limited the studies on the mechanisms of bioactive compound biosynthesis. To facilitate the basic understanding of the main chemical constituent biosynthesis pathways, we performed both metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches to reveal the genes associated with the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds under methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Untargeted metabolome analysis showed that most physalins, flavonoids and chlorogenic acid were significantly upregulated. Targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis confirmed variations in the contents of two important representative steroid derivatives (physalins B and G), total flavonoids, neochlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid between MeJA-treated plants and controls. Transcript levels of a few steroid biosynthesis-, flavonoid biosynthesis-, and chlorogenic acid biosynthesis-related genes were upregulated, providing a potential explanation for MeJA-induced active ingredient synthesis in P. angulata. Systematic correlation analysis identified a number of novel candidate genes associated with bioactive compound biosynthesis. These results may help to elucidate the regulatory mechanism underlying MeJA-induced active compound accumulation and provide several valuable candidate genes for further functional study.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Physalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Physalis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/química , Metaboloma , Estrutura Molecular , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
Plant Sci ; 294: 110433, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234222

RESUMO

Triterpenoids produced by the secondary metabolism of Betula platyphylla Suk. exhibit important pharmacological activities, such as tumor inhibition, anti-HIV, and defense against pathogens, but the yield of natural synthesis is low, which is insufficient to meet people's needs. In this study, we identified two OSC genes of birch, named as BpCAS and Bpß-AS, respectively. The expression of BpCAS and Bpß-AS were higher levels in roots and in stems, respectively, and they induced expression in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), gibberellin (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene and mechanical damage. The function of the two genes in the triterpene synthesis of birch was identified by reverse genetics. The inhibition of Bpß-AS gene positively regulates synthesis of betulinic acid. BpCAS interference can significantly promote the upregulation of lupeol synthase gene (BPW) and ß-amyrin synthase gene(BPY), and conversion of 2,3-oxidosqualene to the downstream products betulinic acid and oleanolic acid. This study provided a basis for the genetic improvement of triterpenoid synthesis in birch through genetic engineering. The obtained transgenic birch and suspension cells served as material resources for birch triterpenoid applications in further.


Assuntos
Betula/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Betula/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Transferases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Esqualeno/análogos & derivados , Esqualeno/metabolismo
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 775-779, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249161

RESUMO

To assess the extent of susceptibility to the four most commonly used neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) of the epidemic viruses in the 2018-19 Japanese influenza season, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of four NAIs, oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir, for influenza virus isolates from patients and compared them with the results from the 2010-11 to 2017-18 seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to and after treatment, and the type/subtype was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC50 was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. Virus isolates, 51 A(H1N1)pdm09, 125 A(H3N2), and one B, were measured in the 2018-19 season and the geometric mean IC50s of the four NAIs were quite comparable to the previous eight studied seasons. No A(H1N1)pdm09 with highly reduced sensitivity for oseltamivir was found in the 2018-19 season prior to drug administration, although such A(H1N1)pdm09 were found in two, two, and two samples in the 2010-11, 2013-14, and 2015-16 seasons, respectively. No isolates with highly reduced sensitivity to the four NAIs were found for A(H3N2) or B through the 2010-11 to 2018-19 seasons. Among 18 samples with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated after NAI administration, highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir and peramivir was detected from one of the five patients treated with oseltamivir. These results suggest that the sensitivity to the four commonly used NAIs has been maintained, although viruses with highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir and peramivir have emerged in some adult patients treated with oseltamivir.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Carbocíclicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Japão , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Piranos , Estações do Ano , Ácidos Siálicos , Adulto Jovem , Zanamivir/análogos & derivados , Zanamivir/farmacologia
20.
Food Chem ; 318: 126478, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126466

RESUMO

With people's increasing needs for health concern, rutin and emodin in tartary buckwheat have attracted much attention for their antioxidant, anti-diabetic and reducing weight function. However, the biosynthesis of rutin and emodin in tartary buckwheat is still unclear; especially their later glycosylation contributing to make them more stable and soluble is uncovered. Based on tartary buckwheat' genome, the gene structures of 106 UGTs were analyzed; 21 candidate FtUGTs were selected to enzymatic test by comparing their transcript patterns. Among them, FtUGT73BE5 and other 4 FtUGTs were identified to glucosylate flavonol or emodin in vitro; especially rFtUGT73BE5 could catalyze the glucosylation of all tested flavonoids and emodin. Furthermore, the identical in vivo functions of FtUGT73BE5 were demonstrated in tartary buckwheat hairy roots. The transcript profile of FtUGT73BE5 was consistent with the accumulation trend of rutin in plant; this gene may relate to anti-adversity for its transcripts were up-regulated by MeJA, and repressed by ABA.


Assuntos
Emodina/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Rutina/biossíntese , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Fagopyrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rutina/genética , Rutina/metabolismo
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