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1.
Nucl Med Biol ; 74-75: 12-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421441

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The demand for Gallium-68 (68Ga) for labelling PET radiopharmaceuticals has increased over the past few years. 68Ga is obtained through the decayed parent radionuclide 68Ge using commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators. The principal limitation of commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators is that only a limited and finite quantity of 68Ga (<1.85 GBq at start of synthesis) may be accessed. The focus of this study was to investigate the use of a low energy medical cyclotron for the production of greater quantities of 68Ga and to develop an automated and rapid procedure for processing the product. METHODS: Enriched ZnCl2 was electrodeposited on a platinum backing using a NH4Cl (pH 2-4) buffer. The Zn target was irradiated with GE PETtrace 880 at 35 µA and 14.5 and 12.0 MeV beam energy. The irradiated Zn target was purified using octanol resin on an automated system. RESULTS: Following the described procedure, 68Ga was obtained in 6.30 ±â€¯0.42 GBq after 8.5 min bombardment and with low radionuclidic impurities (66Ga (<0.005%) and 67Ga (<0.09%)). Purification on a single octanol resin gave 82% recovery with resulting [68Ga]GaCl3 obtained in 3.5 mL of 0.2 M HCl. [68Ga]GaCl3 production from irradiation to final product was <45 min. To highlight the utility of the automated procedure, [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE labelling was incorporated to give 1.56 GBq at EOS of the labelled peptide with RCY of >70%. CONCLUSIONS: A straightforward procedure for producing 68Ga on a low energy medical cyclotron was described. Current efforts are focus on high activity production and radiolabelling using solid target produced 68Ga.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Radioisótopos de Gálio/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Geradores de Radionuclídeos/instrumentação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Gálio/química , Radioisótopos de Gálio/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Compostos Organometálicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/isolamento & purificação
2.
Nucl Med Biol ; 74-75: 49-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To optimize 68Ga production using a liquid cyclotron target, investigations were performed to compare production yields using different concentrations of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2, nitric acid, and irradiation parameters. METHODS: Different concentrations of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 (0.6 M, 1.2 M and 1.42 M) in varying normality of nitric acid (0.8-1.5 N) were prepared and irradiated with protons (incident energy ~14 MeV) using a BMLT-2 liquid target at different beam currents (30-50 µA) and irradiation times (30-60 min). The 68Ga production and saturation yields were calculated and compared. [68Ga]GaCl3 was isolated using in-house developed hydroxamate resin and optimized for routine application. Recycling of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 from the recovered target solution was also investigated. RESULTS: On increasing concentration of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 from 0.6 M to 1.2 M in 0.8 N nitric acid, decay corrected yield of 68Ga at EOB was found to be 1.64 GBq (44.4 mCi) and 3.37 GBq (91.0 mCi), respectively at 30 µA beam current, indicating production yield was proportional to zinc nitrate concentration for a 30 min irradiation. However, when beam current was increased to 40 µA while maintaining nitric acid concentration at 0.8 N, the proportional relationship of 68Zn-concentration with 68Ga production yield was lost [0.6 M, 2.29 GBq (61.9 mCi); 1.2 M, 3.6 GBq (97.3 mCi)] for a 30 min irradiation. In fact, the effect was more profound for 60 min irradiations [0.6 M, 2.96 GBq (80.0 mCi); 1.2 M, 4.25 GBq (115 mCi)]. Increasing nitric acid concentration to 1.25-1.5 N improved 68Ga production yield for 40 µA, 60-min irradiations (1.2 M; 5.17 GBq (140 mCi)). MP-AES analysis showed metal impurities as <0.20 µg Ga (n = 3), <0.93 µg Zn (n = 3) and < 2.7 µg Fe (n = 3). Based on above finding, 1.42 M [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 in 1.2 N-HNO3 solutions were also studied to achieve highest production yields of 9.85 ±â€¯2.09 GBq (266 ±â€¯57 mCi) for 60 min irradiation at 40 µA beam current. After recycling,> 99% pure recycled [68Zn]zinc nitrate was obtained in 82.6 ±â€¯13.6% yield. CONCLUSIONS: 68Ga production yields were dependent on all four variables: concentrations of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 and nitric acid, beam current and duration of irradiation. Of note, increasing beam current and irradiation time may require increased concentrations of nitric acid to achieve expected increments in 68Ga production yield.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Radioisótopos de Gálio/metabolismo , Nitratos/química , Radioquímica , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Compostos de Zinco/química , Gálio/química , Radioisótopos de Gálio/química , Radioisótopos de Gálio/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prótons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/isolamento & purificação
3.
Med Phys ; 46(3): 1437-1446, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Technetium-99m (99m Tc) is the radioisotope most widely used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. It is readily available from 99 Mo/99m Tc generators as the ß- decay product of the 99 Mo (T½  = 66 h) parent nuclide. This latter is obtained as a fission product in nuclear reactors by neutron-induced reactions on highly enriched uranium. Alternative production routes, such as direct reactions using proton beams on specific target materials [100 Mo(p,2n)99m Tc], have the potential to be both reliable and relatively cost-effective. However, results showed that the 99m Tc extracted from proton-bombarded 100 Mo-enriched targets contains small quantities of several Tc radioisotopes (93m Tc, 93 Tc, 94 Tc, 94m Tc, 95 Tc, 95m Tc, 96 Tc, and 97m Tc). The aim of this work was to estimate the dose increase (DI) due to the contribution of Tc radioisotopes generated as impurities, after the intravenous injection of four radiopharmaceuticals prepared with cyclotron-produced 99m Tc (CP-99m Tc) using 99.05% 100 Mo-enriched metallic targets. METHODS: Four 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals (pertechnetate, sestamibi (MIBI), hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO) and disodium etidronate (HEDP)) were considered in this study. The biokinetic models reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for each radiopharmaceutical were used to define the main source organs and to calculate the number of disintegrations per MBq that occurred in each source organ (Nsource ) for each Tc radioisotope present in the CP-99m Tc solution. Then, target organ equivalent doses and effective dose were calculated for each Tc radioisotope with the OLINDA/EXM software versions 1.1 and 2.0, using the calculated Nsource values and the adult male phantom as program inputs. Total effective dose produced by all Tc isotopes impurities present in the CP-99m Tc solution was calculated using the fraction of total activity corresponding to each radioisotope and compared with the effective dose delivered by the generator-produced 99m Tc. RESULTS: In all cases, the total effective DI of CP-99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals calculated with either versions of the OLINDA software was less than 10% from 6 up to 12 h after EOB. 94m Tc and 93m Tc are the Tc radioisotopes with the highest concentration in the CP-99m Tc solution at EOB. However, their contribution to DI 6 h after EOB is minimal, due to their short half-lives. The radioisotopes with the largest contribution to the effective DI are 96 Tc, followed by 95 Tc and 94 Tc. This is due to the types of their emissions and relatively long half-lives, although their concentration in the CP-99m Tc solution is five times lower than that of 94m Tc and 93m Tc at the EOB. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the radiation dose caused by other Tc radioisotopes contained in CP-99m Tc produced as described here is quite low. Even though the concentrations of the 94 Tc and 95 Tc radioisotopes in the CP-99m Tc solution exceed the limits established by the European Pharmacopoeia, CP-99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals could be used in routine nuclear medicine diagnostic studies if administered from 6 to 12 h after the EOB, thus maintaining the effective DI within the 10% limit.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radioquímica/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Tecnécio/química , Adulto , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Doses de Radiação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Tecnécio/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577612

RESUMO

Technetium-99m (99mTc) is the most used radionuclide worldwide in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging procedures. 99mTc is typically extracted from portable generators containing 99Mo, which is produced normally in nuclear reactors as a fission product of highly enriched Uranium material. Due to unexpected outages or planned and unplanned reactor shutdown, significant 99mTc shortages appeared as a problem since 2008 The alternative cyclotron-based approach through the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction is considered one of the most promising routes for direct 99mTc production in order to mitigate potential 99Mo shortages. The design and manufacturing of appropriate cyclotron targets for the production of significant amounts of a radiopharmaceutical for medical use is a technological challenge. In this work, a novel solid target preparation method was developed, including sputter deposition of a dense, adherent, and non-oxidized Mo target material onto a complex backing plate. The latter included either chemically resistant sapphire or synthetic diamond brazed in vacuum conditions to copper. The target thermo-mechanical stability tests were performed under 15.6 MeV proton energy and different beam intensities, up to the maximum provided by the available GE Healthcare (Chicago, IL, USA) PET trace medical cyclotron. The targets resisted proton beam currents up to 60 µA (corresponding to a heat power density of about 1 kW/cm²) without damage or Mo deposited layer delamination. The chemical stability of the proposed backing materials was proven by gamma-spectroscopy analysis of the solution obtained after the standard dissolution procedure of irradiated targets in H2O2.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons , Tecnécio/química , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Espectrometria gama
5.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(8): 084702, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184645

RESUMO

A 250 GHz continuous-wave (CW) gyrotron has been developed at the IAP RAS jointly with GYCOM Ltd., as a prototype of the microwave source for the envisaged prospective nuclear fusion power plants (DEMO). The main applications of such a tube are electron cyclotron resonance heating and electron cyclotron resonance current drive of magnetically confined plasma as well as its diagnostics based on collective Thomson scattering in various reactors for controlled thermonuclear fusion (e.g., tokamaks and stellarators). The results of the preliminary experimental tests in a pulsed mode of operation are presented. The microwave power of up to 330 kW with an efficiency of 30% without collector depression was obtained. At an accelerating voltage of 55 kV and an electron beam current of 12.5 A (which corresponds to the design parameters for CW operation), the measured output power was about 200 kW. The TEM00 mode content evaluated at the tube output is not less than 98.6%.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Espalhamento de Radiação , Vácuo
6.
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the gamma-emitting radionuclide Technetium-99m (99mTc) is still the workhorse of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as it is used worldwide for the diagnosis of a variety of phatological conditions. 99mTc is obtained from 99Mo/99mTc generators as pertechnetate ion, which is the ubiquitous starting material for the preparation of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. 99Mo in such generators is currently produced in nuclear fission reactors as a by-product of 235U fission. Here we investigated an alternative route for the production of 99Mo by irradiating a natural metallic molybdenum powder using a 14-MeV accelerator-driven neutron source. METHODS: after irradiation, an efficient isolation and purification of the final 99mTc-pertechnetate was carried out by means of solvent extraction. Monte Carlo simulations allowed reliable predictions of 99Mo production rates for a newly designed 14-MeV neutron source (New Sorgentina Fusion Source). RESULTS: in traceable metrological conditions, a level of radionuclidic purity consistent with accepted pharmaceutical quality standards, was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: we showed that this source, featuring a nominal neutron emission rate of about 1015 s-1, may potentially supply an appreciable fraction of the current 99Mo global demand. This study highlights that a robust and viable solution, alternative to nuclear fission reactors, can be accomplished to secure the long-term supply of 99Mo.


Assuntos
Molibdênio/química , Radioisótopos/química , Tecnécio/química , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Fissão Nuclear , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1719: 311-318, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476520

RESUMO

Urine is a sample of choice for noninvasive biomarkers search because it is easily available in large amounts and its molecular composition provides information on processes in the organism. The high potential of urine peptidomics has been demonstrated for clinical purpose. Several mass spectrometry based approaches have been successfully applied for urine peptidome analysis and potential biomarkers search. Summarizing literature data and our own experience we developed a protocol for comprehensive urine peptidome analysis. The technology includes several stages and consists of urine sample preparation by size exclusion chromatography and identification of featured peptides by nano-HPLC coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, semiquantitative and statistical data analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Urinálise/métodos , Humanos
8.
Phys Med Biol ; 62(17): L20-L30, 2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742053

RESUMO

Proton ranges in water between 145 MeV to 227 MeV initial energy have been measured at a clinical superconducting synchrocyclotron using the acoustic signal induced by the ion dose deposition (ionoacoustic effect). Detection of ultrasound waves was performed by a very sensitive hydrophone and signals were stored in a digital oscilloscope triggered by secondary prompt gammas. The ionoacoustic range measurements were compared to existing range data from a calibrated range detector setup on-site and agreement of better than 1 mm was found at a Bragg peak dose of about 10 Gy for 220 MeV initial proton energy, compatible with the experimental errors. Ionoacoustics has thus the potential to measure the Bragg peak position with submillimeter accuracy during proton therapy, possibly correlated with ultrasound tissue imaging.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Terapia com Prótons , Água/química , Calibragem , Humanos
9.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 43(9): 1402-1412, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443689

RESUMO

99mTc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of 99mTc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of 99mTc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. 99mTc is usually supplied to hospitals through a 99Mo/99mTc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the ß decay of the parent nuclide 99Mo (t½ = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced 99Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for 99mTc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about 99mTc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of 99mTc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced 99mTc are described.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Radioisótopos/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Tecnécio/química , Meia-Vida , Humanos
10.
Metallomics ; 9(1): 82-92, 2017 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27905613

RESUMO

Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(iii) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(iii), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailability. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized by use of a newly developed 21 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization. This technique allowed for the rapid detection of synechobactins from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 as well as amphibactins from Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53 based on high mass accuracy and resolution allowing for observation of specific Fe isotopes and isotopic fine structure enabling highly confident identification of these siderophores. When combined with molecular network analysis two new amphibactins were discovered and verified by tandem MS. These results show that high-field FTICR MS is a powerful technique that will greatly improve the ability to rapidly identify and discover metal binding species in the environment.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrioses/diagnóstico , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo
11.
J Proteome Res ; 16(2): 1087-1096, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936753

RESUMO

Successful high-throughput characterization of intact proteins from complex biological samples by mass spectrometry requires instrumentation capable of high mass resolving power, mass accuracy, sensitivity, and spectral acquisition rate. These limitations often necessitate the performance of hundreds of LC-MS/MS experiments to obtain reasonable coverage of the targeted proteome, which is still typically limited to molecular weights below 30 kDa. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) recently installed a 21 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer, which is part of the NHMFL FT-ICR User Facility and available to all qualified users. Here we demonstrate top-down LC-21 T FT-ICR MS/MS of intact proteins derived from human colorectal cancer cell lysate. We identified a combined total of 684 unique protein entries observed as 3238 unique proteoforms at a 1% false discovery rate, based on rapid, data-dependent acquisition of collision-induced and electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectra from just 40 LC-MS/MS experiments. Our identifications included 372 proteoforms with molecular weights over 30 kDa detected at isotopic resolution, which substantially extends the accessible mass range for high-throughput top-down LC-MS/MS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/análise , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Misturas Complexas/química , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Proteômica/instrumentação
12.
J Nucl Med ; 58(5): 791-798, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738005

RESUMO

A single-site prospective open-label clinical study with cyclotron-produced sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc-NaTcO4) was performed in patients with indications for a thyroid scan to demonstrate the clinical safety and diagnostic efficacy of the drug and to confirm its equivalence with conventional 99mTc-NaTcO4 eluted from a generator. Methods:99mTc-NaTcO4 was produced from enriched 100Mo (99.815%) with a cyclotron (24 MeV; 2 h of irradiation) or supplied by a commercial manufacturer (bulk vial eluted from a generator). Eleven patients received 325 ± 29 (mean ± SD) MBq of the cyclotron-produced 99mTc-NaTcO4, whereas the age- and sex-matched controls received a comparable amount of the generator-derived tracer. Whole-body and thyroid planar images were obtained for each participant. In addition to the standard-energy window (140.5 keV ± 7.5%), data were acquired in lower-energy (117 keV ± 10%) and higher-energy (170 keV ± 10%) windows. Vital signs and hematologic and biochemical parameters were monitored before and after tracer administration. Results: Cyclotron-produced 99mTc-NaTcO4 showed organ and whole-body distributions identical to those of conventional 99mTc-NaTcO4 and was well tolerated. All images led to a clear final diagnosis. The fact that the number of counts in the higher-energy window was significantly higher for cyclotron-produced 99mTc-NaTcO4 did not influence image quality in the standard-energy window. Image definition in the standard-energy window with cyclotron-produced 99mTc was equivalent to that with generator-eluted 99mTc and had no particular features allowing discrimination between the 99mTc production methods. Conclusion: The systemic distribution, clinical safety, and imaging efficacy of cyclotron-produced 99mTc-NaTcO4 in humans provide supporting evidence for the use of this tracer as an equivalent for generator-eluted 99mTc-NaTcO4 in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio/farmacocinética , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo/instrumentação , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Geradores de Radionuclídeos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio/síntese química , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
Phys Med Biol ; 61(18): 6602-6619, 2016 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27541137

RESUMO

In this work, we describe a new design of water calorimeter built to measure absorbed dose in non-standard radiation fields with reference depths in the range of 6-20 mm, and its initial testing in clinical electron and proton beams. A functioning calorimeter prototype with a total water equivalent thickness of less than 30 mm was constructed in-house and used to obtain measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams and cyclotron-based 60 MeV monoenergetic and modulated proton beams. Corrections for the conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and non-water materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Absorbed dose to water was measured with an associated type A standard uncertainty of approximately 0.4% and 0.2% for the electron and proton beam experiments, respectively. In terms of thermal stability, drifts were on the order of a couple of hundred µK min-1, with a short-term variation of 5-10 µK. Heat transfer correction factors ranged between 1.021 and 1.049. The overall combined standard uncertainty on the absorbed dose to water was estimated to be 0.6% for the 6 MeV and 8 MeV electron beams, as well as for the 60 MeV monoenergetic protons, and 0.7% for the modulated 60 MeV proton beam. This study establishes the feasibility of developing an absorbed dose transfer standard for short-range clinical electrons and protons and forms the basis for a transportable dose standard for direct calibration of ionization chambers in the user's beam. The largest contributions to the combined standard uncertainty were the positioning (⩽0.5%) and the correction due to conductive heat transfer (⩽0.4%). This is the first time that water calorimetry has been used in such a low energy proton beam.


Assuntos
Calorimetria/métodos , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Elétrons , Prótons , Radiometria/instrumentação , Água/química , Calibragem , Radiometria/métodos , Condutividade Térmica
14.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 104: 106-12, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26142809

RESUMO

The irradiation facility at an old medical cyclotron (Ep=17 MeV; Ed=10 MeV) was upgraded by extending the beam line and incorporation of solid state targetry. Tests performed to check the quality of the available beam are outlined. Results on nuclear data measurements and improvement of radiochemical separations are described. Using solid targets, with the proton beam falling at a slanting angle of 20°, a few radionuclides, e.g. (75)Se, (120)I, (124)I, etc. were produced with medium currents (up to 20 µA) in no-carrier-added form in quantities sufficient for local use. The extended irradiation facility has considerably enhanced the utility of the medical cyclotron.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Marcação por Isótopo/instrumentação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Doses de Radiação
15.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 166(1-4): 257-60, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897142

RESUMO

The ARRONAX cyclotron is able to deliver alpha particles at 68 MeV. In the frame of radiological research, a new method is studied to infer in situ the deposited dose: it is based on the online measurement of the bremsstrahlung (>1 keV) produced by the interaction of the incident particle with the medium. Experiments are made using bombarded poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-equivalent water targets in order to characterise this continuous X-ray spectrum. The intensity of the bremsstrahlung spectrum allows for the beam monitoring. A simulation code of the bremsstrahlung has been built, and a good agreement is found with the experimental spectra. With this simulation, it is possible to predict the sensibility of this method: it varies with the target thickness, showing a good sensibility for thin target (<1000 µm) and saturation for thicker ones. Bremsstrahlung spectrum also shows a sensibility on the target's chemical composition.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Modelos Teóricos , Polimetil Metacrilato/efeitos da radiação , Radiobiologia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Partículas alfa , Simulação por Computador , Método de Monte Carlo , Fótons , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Raios X
16.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 99: 20-4, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699664

RESUMO

Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during (13)N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for (18)F production in a previous work.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Modelos Estatísticos , Nêutrons , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Método de Monte Carlo
17.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 97: 87-92, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25562677

RESUMO

A high power [F-18] fluoride target package for the RDS-112 cyclotron has been designed, tested, and commercially deployed. The upgrade includes the CF-1000 target, a 1.3kW water target with an established commercial history on RDS-111/Eclipse cyclotrons, and a redesigned collimator with improved heat rejection capabilities. Conjugate heat transfer analyses were employed to both evaluate the existing collimator capabilities and design a suitable high current replacement.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/instrumentação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
18.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 86(12): 123303, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26724018

RESUMO

A (11)C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive (11)C ion beams. In the ISOL system, (11)CH4 molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive (12)CH4 gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of (11)CH4 gases. We investigated the separation of CH4 molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH4. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Marcação por Isótopo/instrumentação , Geradores de Radionuclídeos/instrumentação , Refrigeração/instrumentação , Íons/síntese química , Íons/isolamento & purificação , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Refrigeração/métodos
19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 86(12): 123510, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26724030

RESUMO

The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 µA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes (82)Sr and (223,224)Ra are also presented.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Marcação por Isótopo/instrumentação , Física Nuclear/instrumentação , Radioisótopos/isolamento & purificação , Geradores de Radionuclídeos/instrumentação , Academias e Institutos , Desenho de Equipamento , Radioisótopos/química , Federação Russa
20.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 14(5): 635-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24988058

RESUMO

This paper provides a model for planning a new proton therapy center based on clinical data, referral pattern, beam utilization and technical considerations. The patient-specific data for the depth of targets from skin in each beam angle were reviewed at our center providing megavoltage photon external beam and proton beam therapy respectively. Further, data on insurance providers, disease sites, treatment depths, snout size and the beam angle utilization from the patients treated at our proton facility were collected and analyzed for their utilization and their impact on the facility cost. The most common disease sites treated at our center are head and neck, brain, sarcoma and pediatric malignancies. From this analysis, it is shown that the tumor depth from skin surface has a bimodal distribution (peak at 12 and 26 cm) that has significant impact on the maximum proton energy, requiring the energy in the range of 130-230 MeV. The choice of beam angles also showed a distinct pattern: mainly at 90° and 270°; this indicates that the number of gantries may be minimized. Snout usage data showed that 70% of the patients are treated with 10 cm snouts. The cost of proton beam therapy depends largely on the type of machine, maximum beam energy and the choice of gantry versus fixed beam line. Our study indicates that for a 4-room center, only two gantry rooms could be needed at the present pattern of the patient cohorts, thus significantly reducing the initial capital cost. In the USA, 95% and 100% of patients can be treated with 200 and 230 MeV proton beam respectively. Use of multi-leaf collimators and pencil beam scanning may further reduce the operational cost of the facility.


Assuntos
Ciclotrons/economia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons , Síncrotrons/economia , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Terapia com Prótons/economia , Terapia com Prótons/instrumentação , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Síncrotrons/instrumentação
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