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1.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the association between severe obesity and in-hospital mortality is inconsistent. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) levels on mortality in the medical wards. The analysis was performed separately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of adult patients admitted to the medical wards at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. The study was conducted between January 1, 2011, to March 23, 2021. Patients were divided into two sub-cohorts: pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19. Patients were then clustered into groups based on BMI ranges. A multivariate logistic regression analysis compared the mortality rate among the BMI groups, before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 179,288 patients were admitted to the medical wards and had a recorded BMI measurement. 149,098 were admitted before the COVID-19 pandemic and 30,190 during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic, multivariate analysis showed a "J curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity (BMI > 40) had an aOR of 0.8 (95% CI:0.7-1.0, p = 0.018) compared to the normal BMI group. In contrast, during the pandemic, the analysis showed a "U curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity had an aOR of 1.7 (95% CI:1.3-2.4, p < 0.001) compared to the normal BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Medical ward patients with severe obesity have a lower risk for mortality compared to patients with normal BMI. However, this does not apply during COVID-19, where obesity was a leading risk factor for mortality in the medical wards. It is important for the internal medicine physician to understand the intricacies of the association between obesity and medical ward mortality.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 132-135, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New York State implemented an 11-week elective surgery ban in response to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, during which pediatric patients from the 10 New York Presbyterian network hospitals requiring urgent or emergent surgical procedures were cared for at Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital (MSCH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was abstracted from the electronic medical record of all patients aged 0 to 20 years who had surgery at MSCH from March 23, 2020 to June 7, 2020. Comparative analysis of demographic and clinical data elements between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive and negative cohorts was conducted using the Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: A total of 505 surgical procedures were performed in 451 patients, with 32 procedures (6.3%) performed in 21 SARS-CoV-2-positive children. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in Medicaid beneficiaries was more than twice the prevalence in commercially insured (6.8% vs. 2.6%, P=0.04) children. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were more likely to undergo multiple surgical procedures (23.8% vs. 7.2%, P=0.02), and to have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class designations (69.8% III to V vs. 47.4% I to II, P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity across sex, age, race, or ethnicity groups, or in emergent case status or surgical procedure type. Thirty-day mortality rate was <0.1% overall, with no deaths in the SARS-CoV-2-positive group. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, we found a higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in urgent/emergent pediatric surgical patients compared with other institutions in the United States. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were more likely to be Medicaid beneficiaries, were clinically more complex, and had more surgical procedures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 618-624, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) treating patients with COVID-19 report psychological distress. We examined whether disturbed sleep was associated with psychological distress in New York City (NYC) HCWs during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). METHODS: HCWs completed a survey screening for acute stress (4-item Primary Care PTSD screen), depressive (Patient Health Questionaire-2), and anxiety (2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale) symptoms. Insomnia symptoms (modified item from the Insomnia Severity Index) and short sleep (SS, sleep duration <6 h/day) were assessed. Poisson regression analyses predicting psychological distress from SS and insomnia symptoms, adjusting for demographics, clinical role/setting, redeployment status, shifts worked, and multiple comparisons were performed. RESULTS: Among 813 HCWs (80.6% female, 59.0% white) mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 h/night. Prevalence of SS, insomnia, acute stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were 38.8%, 72.8%, 57.9%, 33.8%, and 48.2%, respectively. Insomnia symptoms was associated with acute stress (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.69), depressive (PR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.33), and anxiety (PR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.55, 1.94) symptoms. SS was also associated with acute stress (PR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.29), depressive (PR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.233, 1.51), and anxiety (PR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.26, 1.50) symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Our cross-sectional analysis may preclude the identification of temporal associations and limit causal claims. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, SS and insomnia were associated with psychological distress symptoms in NYC HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sleep may be a target for interventions to decrease psychological distress among HCWs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono
4.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(5)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913970

RESUMO

Atypical presentations of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been reported in patients who have COVID-19. We have seen this occurrence in our center in Bronx, New York, where multitudes of patients sought treatment for the coronavirus. We studied the prevalence of atypical STEMI findings among patients with COVID-19 who presented during the first 2 months of the pandemic. Consistent with previous reports, 4 of our 10 patients with COVID-19 and STEMI had no identifiable culprit coronary lesion; rather, they often had diffuse ST-segment elevations on surface electrocardiograms along with higher levels of D-dimer and inflammatory markers. In contrast, 32 of 33 patients without COVID-19 (97%) had a culprit lesion. The patients with COVID-19 and a culprit lesion more often needed thrombectomy catheterization and administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Our study confirms that patients with COVID-19 often have atypical STEMI presentations, including the frequent absence of a culprit coronary lesion. Our findings can help clinicians prepare for these atypical clinical presentations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
5.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 118, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While people who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to the adverse outcomes of events like COVID-19, little is known regarding the impact of the current pandemic on PWID. We examine how COVID-19 has affected PWID in New York City across four domains: substance use, risk behaviors, mental health, and service utilization. METHODS: As part of a randomized trial to improve access to HCV treatment for PWID, we recruited 165 participants. Eligibility criteria included detectable HCV RNA and recent drug injection. The present cross-sectional analysis is based on a subsample of 106 participants. We compared responses between two separate samples: 60 participants interviewed prior to the pandemic (pre-COVID-19 sample) and 46 participants interviewed during the pandemic (COVID-19 sample). We also assessed differences by study group [accessible care (AC) and usual care (UC)]. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-COVID-19 sample, those interviewed during COVID-19 reported higher levels of mental health issues, syringe reuse, and alcohol consumption and greater reductions in syringe-service programs and buprenorphine utilization. In the analysis conducted by study group, the UC group reported significantly higher injection risk behaviors and lower access to buprenorphine treatment during COVID-19, while during the same period, the AC group reported lower levels of substance use and injection risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: The current study provides insight on how COVID-19 has negatively affected PWID. Placing dispensing machines of harm-reduction supplies in communities where PWID live and increasing secondary exchange, mobile services, and mail delivery of supplies may help maintain access to lifesaving supplies during big events, such as COVID-19. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03214679. Registered July 11 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03214679 .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
6.
Acad Radiol ; 28(12): 1645-1653, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740527

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers and insufficient testing make containment of the virus difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine if unexpected lung base findings on abdominopelvic CTs concerning for COVID-19 infection could serve as a surrogate for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search of abdominopelvic CT reports from March 1,2020 to May 2,2020 was performed for keywords suggesting COVID-19 infection by lung base findings. COVID-19 status, respiratory symptoms, laboratory parameters and patient outcomes (hospitalization, ICU admission and/or intubation, and death) were recorded. The trend in cases of unexpected concerning lung base findings on abdominopelvic CT at our institution was compared to the total number of confirmed new cases in NYC over the same time period. RESULTS: The trend in abnormal lung base findings on abdominopelvic CT at our institution correlated with the citywide number of confirmed new cases, including rise and subsequent fall in total cases. The trend was not mediated by COVID-19 testing status or number of tests performed. Patients with respiratory symptoms had significantly higher ferritin (median = 995ng/ml vs 500ng/ml, p = 0.027) and death rate (8/24, 33% vs 4/54, 9%, p = 0.018) compared to those without. CONCLUSION: The rise and fall of unexpected lung base findings suggestive of COVID-19 infection on abdominopelvic CT in patients without COVID-19 symptoms correlated with the number of confirmed new cases throughout NYC from the same time period. A model using abdominopelvic CT lung base findings can serve as a surrogate for future COVID-19 outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(4): 1978-1994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803054

RESUMO

Objectives . We investigated the association of pre-existing economic variables with COVID-19 infections and mortality in New York City. Methods . We combined ZIP code-level data from New York City's Department of Health with five-year American Community Survey data. We estimated ordinary least squares models of the prevalence of positive COVID-19 test results and deaths per 100,000 population. Results . We found ZIP codes with higher concentrations of residents living in crowded living quarters, employees in high-risk occupations, and employees commuting more than half an hour were positively and significantly associated with higher infection rates. Higher rates of crowded housing were also significantly and positively related to mortality rates, though the positive point estimates for the other two economic variables were not statistically significant. Conclusions . Economic factors such as working and living conditions beyond common measures such as poverty generate significant public health effects. Policymakers should consider these associations while designing and modifying public health policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Habitação , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pobreza , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053158, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among New York City Health and Hospitals (NYC H+H) healthcare workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and describe demographic and occupational factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. DESIGN: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of data from SARS-CoV-2 serological tests accompanied by a demographic and occupational survey administered to healthcare workers. SETTING: A large, urban public healthcare system in NYC. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were employed by NYC H+H and either completed serological testing at NYC H+H between 30 April 2020 and 30 June 2020, or completed SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing outside of NYC H+H and were able to self-report results from the same time period. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, stratified by key demographic and occupational characteristics reported through the demographic and occupational survey. RESULTS: Seven hundred and twenty-seven survey respondents were included in analysis. Participants had a mean age of 46 years (SD=12.19) and 543 (75%) were women. Two hundred and fourteen (29%) participants tested positive or reported testing positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG+). Characteristics associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 serostatus were Black race (25% IgG +vs 15% IgG-, p=0.001), having someone in the household with COVID-19 symptoms (49% IgG +vs 21% IgG-, p<0.001), or having a confirmed COVID-19 case in the household (25% IgG +vs 5% IgG-, p<0.001). Characteristics associated with negative SARS-CoV-2 serostatus included working on a COVID-19 patient floor (27% IgG +vs 36% IgG-, p=0.02), working in the intensive care unit (20% IgG +vs 28% IgG-, p=0.03), being employed in a clinical occupation (64% IgG +vs 78% IgG-, p<0.001) or having close contact with a patient with COVID-19 (51% IgG +vs 62% IgG-, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore the significance that community factors and inequities might have on SARS-CoV-2 exposure for healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258088, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted medical student education, particularly in New York City (NYC). We aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students' residency choices. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of medical students in all years of study at four NYC medical schools (Columbia, Cornell, NYU, and SUNY Downstate). The survey was fielded from 19 Aug 2020 to 21 Sep 2020. Survey questions included items assessing COVID-19 impact on residency choices, personal impact of COVID-19, residency/specialty choices, and factors influencing these choices. RESULTS: A total of 2310 students received the survey, with 547 (23.7%) providing partial responses and 212 (9.2%) providing valid responses for our primary analysis. 59.0% of participants thought that COVID-19 influenced their choice of residency/specialty, with 0.9% saying the influence was to a great extent, 22.2% to some extent, and 35.8% very little. On multivariable analysis, factors that were independently associated with COVID-19 impacting residency choice included low debt ($1 to $99,999: adjOR 2.23, 95%CI 1.02-5.03) compared with no debt and Other race/ethnicity (adjOR 0.26, 95%CI 0.10-0.63) compared with White race/ethnicity. On secondary analysis of all participants answering survey items for logistic regression regardless of survey completion, direct personal impact of COVID-19 was significantly associated with COVID-19 impacting specialty choice (adjOR 1.90, 95%CI 1.04-3.52). Moreover, 24 students (11.6%) reported a change in their top residency choice from before to during/after COVID-19, citing concerns about frontline work, work-life balance, and risk of harm. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that 3 in 5 (59.0%) participants felt that COVID-19 impacted their residency choice, with 11.6% of respondents explicitly changing their top specialty choice. Investigating the impact of the pandemic on medical student residency considerations is crucial to understand how medical career outlooks may change in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia
10.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671463

RESUMO

Background: This study sought to determine the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus on surfaces that trainees and faculty of an academic eye clinic came into contact with during daily life at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved collection of at least two samples by teams on four different days (November 9, 2020 - December 18, 2020) using sterile swabs (Puritan HydraFlock, Garden Grove, CA). Collection sites were grouped into four zones depending on proximity and amount of time personnel spent there. Samples were transported to the laboratory in transport medium and RNA was extracted using the QIAamp DSP Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Germantown, MD). Presence of viral RNA was investigated using the Luna Universal Probe One-step RT-qPCR kit (New England Biolabs, Ipwsich, MA). Results: 834 samples were submitted. Two were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The first was a sample from a patient bathroom sink handle in the main emergency department. The second was a nasal swab sample from a staff member who had been assigned to collect samples. Prior to this positive result, this asymptomatic staff member had tested positive for COVID-19, had quarantined for two weeks, and had received a negative test. Conclusion: Though COVID-19 is currently widespread in the United States, this study shows that health care personnel working in New York City at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center have a low chance of encountering viral RNA on surfaces they are in close contact with during daily life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1946, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics in the United States are disproportionately affected by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). While social distancing and quarantining are effective methods to reduce its spread, Hispanics, who are more likely to be essential workers and live in multigenerational homes than non-Hispanics, may face challenges that limit their ability to carry out these preventative efforts. We elicited the experiences of Hispanic adults with social distancing and self-quarantining during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York. METHODS: In this qualitative study, Hispanic adults receiving care at a federally qualified community health center in East Harlem, New York, were recruited for remote one-on-one semi-structured interviews from 5/15/2020 to 11/17/2020. Interviews were conducted by a bilingual interviewer in Spanish or English, using a semi-structured topic guide informed by the Health Belief Model. Audio-recordings were professionally transcribed. We used thematic analysis to iteratively code the data. Each transcript was independently coded by two research team members, then reconciled by a third. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Among 20 participants, four major themes emerged; Hispanics were: (1) fearful of contracting and transmitting COVID-19, (2) engaging in practices to reduce transmission of COVID-19, (3) experiencing barriers to social distancing and quarantining, and (4) facing an enduring psychological and physical toll from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Despite understanding the risks for contracting COVID-19 and taking appropriate precautions, Hispanics faced numerous challenges to social distancing and quarantining, such as living in crowded, multi-generational households, working as essential workers, and providing unpaid care to family members. Such challenges took a toll on their physical, emotional, and financial well-being. Our findings suggest that a tailored approach to public health messaging and interventions for pandemic planning are warranted among members of this community. Further research is needed to understand and mitigate the long term physical and psychological consequences of the pandemic among Hispanics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051045, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dynamics of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens following infection suggest an initial decay of antibody followed by subsequent stabilisation. We aim to understand the longitudinal humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike (S) protein and to evaluate their correlation to clinical symptoms among healthcare workers (HCWs). DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a New York City public hospital in the South Bronx, New York. PARTICIPANTS: HCWs participated in phase 1 (N=500) and were followed up 4 months later in phase 2 (N=178) of the study. They underwent SARS-CoV-2 PCR and serology testing for N and S protein antibodies, in addition to completion of an online survey in both phases. Analysis was performed on the 178 participants who participated in both phases of the study. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Evaluate longitudinal humoral responses to viral N (qualitative serology testing) and S protein (quantitative Mount Sinai Health System ELISA to detect receptor-binding domain and full-length S reactive antibodies) by measuring rate of decay. RESULTS: Anti-N antibody positivity was 27% and anti-S positivity was 28% in phase 1. In phase 1, anti-S titres were higher in symptomatic (6754 (5177-8812)) than in asymptomatic positive subjects (5803 (2825-11 920)). Marginally higher titres (2382 (1494-3797)) were seen in asymptomatic compared with the symptomatic positive subgroup (2198 (1753-2755)) in phase 2. A positive correlation was noted between age (R=0.269, p<0.01), number (R=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of symptoms (R=0.434, p<0.01), and phase 1 anti-S antibody titre. A strong correlation (R=0.898, p<0.001) was observed between phase 1 titres and decay of anti-S antibody titres between the two phases. Significant correlation with rate of decay was also noted with fever (R=0.428, p<0.001), gastrointestinal symptoms (R=0.340, p<0.05), and total number (R=0.357, p<0.01) and duration of COVID-19 symptoms (R=0.469, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher initial anti-S antibody titres were associated with larger number and longer duration of symptoms as well as a faster decay between the two time points.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258916, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of antipsychotic exposure and are disproportionally affected by higher mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our goal was to determine whether concurrent antipsychotic medication use was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality in older patients with preexisting behavioral health problems. We also report on findings from post-COVID follow-ups. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients at a geriatric psychiatric clinic in New York City. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic and clinical data including medication, diagnosis and Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) scales on outpatients who had COVID-19 between February 28th and October 1st 2020 were extracted from the electronic health records (EHR) from the hospital. RESULTS: A total of 56 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 (mean age 76 years; median age 75 years) and 13 (23.2%) died. We found an increased mortality risk for patients who were prescribed at least one antipsychotic medication at the time of COVID-19 infection (Fisher's exact test P = 0.009, OR = 11.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-96.0). This result remains significant after adjusting for age, gender, housing context and dementia (Logistic regression P = 0.035, Beta = 2.4). Furthermore, we found that most patients who survived COVID-19 (88.4%) recovered to pre-COVID baseline in terms of psychiatric symptoms. Comparison of pre- and post-COVID assessments of CGI-S for 33 patients who recovered from COVID-19 were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: We observed a higher COVID-19 mortality associated with concurrent antipsychotics use in older patients receiving behavioral health services. The majority of patients in our geriatric clinic who recovered from COVID-19 appeared to return to their pre-COVID psychiatric function. More precise estimates of the risk associated with antipsychotic treatment in older patients with COVID-19 and other underlying factors will come from larger datasets and meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Psiquiatria Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1847-1850, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499539

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate all-cause excess deaths in Mexico City (MXC) and New York City (NYC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We estimated expected deaths among residents of both cities between March 1 and August 29, 2020, using log-linked negative binomial regression and compared these deaths with observed deaths during the same period. We calculated total and age-specific excess deaths and 95% prediction intervals (PIs). Results. There were 259 excess deaths per 100 000 (95% PI = 249, 269) in MXC and 311 (95% PI = 305, 318) in NYC during the study period. The number of excess deaths among individuals 25 to 44 years old was much higher in MXC (77 per 100 000; 95% PI = 69, 80) than in NYC (34 per 100 000; 95% PI = 30, 38). Corresponding estimates among adults 65 years or older were 1263 (95% PI = 1199, 1317) per 100 000 in MXC and 1581 (95% PI = 1549, 1621) per 100 000 in NYC. Conclusions. Overall, excess mortality was higher in NYC than in MXC; however, the excess mortality rate among young adults was higher in MXC. Public Health Implications. Excess all-cause mortality comparisons across populations and age groups may represent a more complete measure of pandemic effects and provide information on mitigation strategies and susceptibility factors. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10): 1847-1850. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306430).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 70(4): 1-21, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499632

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, approximately 400,000 persons were exposed to toxic contaminants and other factors that increased their risk for certain physical and mental health conditions. Shortly thereafter, both federal and nonfederal funds were provided to support various postdisaster activities, including medical monitoring and treatment. In 2011, as authorized by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, the CDC World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program began providing medical screening, monitoring, and treatment of 9/11-related health conditions for WTC responders (i.e., persons who were involved in rescue, response, recovery, cleanup, and related support activities after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks) and affected WTC survivors (i.e., persons who were present in the dust or dust cloud on 9/11 or who worked, lived, or attended school, child care centers, or adult day care centers in the New York City disaster area). REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2012-2020. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services WTC Health Program is administered by the director of CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The WTC Health Program uses a multilayer administrative claims system to process members' authorized program health benefits. Administrative claims data are primarily generated by clinical providers in New York and New Jersey at the Clinical Centers of Excellence and outside those states by clinical providers in the Nationwide Provider Network. This report describes WTC Health Program trends for selected indicators during 2012-2020. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 104,223 members were enrolled in the WTC Health Program, of which 73.4% (n = 76,543) were responders and 26.6% (n = 27,680) were survivors. WTC Health Program members are predominantly male (78.5%). The median age of members was 51 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 44-57) in 2012 and 59 years (IQR: 52-66) in 2020. During 2012-2020, enrollment and number of certifications of WTC-related health conditions increased among members, with the greatest changes observed among survivors. Overall, at enrollment, most WTC Health Program members lived in New York (71.7%), New Jersey (9.3%), and Florida (5.7%). In 2020, the total numbers of cancer and noncancer WTC-related certifications among members were 20,612 and 50,611, respectively. Skin cancer, male genital system cancers, and in situ neoplasms (e.g., skin and breast) are the most common WTC-related certified cancer conditions. The most commonly certified noncancer conditions are in the aerodigestive and mental health categories. The average number of WTC-related certified conditions per certified member is 2.7. In 2020, a total of 40,666 WTC Health Program members received annual monitoring and screening examinations (with an annual average per calendar year of 35,245). In 2020, the total number of WTC Health Program members who received treatment was 41,387 (with an annual average per calendar year of 32,458). INTERPRETATION: Since 2011, the WTC Health Program has provided health care for a limited number of 9/11-related health conditions both for responders and survivors of the terrorist attacks. Over the study period, program enrollment and WTC certification increased, particularly among survivors. As the members age, increased use of health services and costs within the WTC Health Program are expected; chronic diseases, comorbidities, and other health-related conditions unrelated to WTC exposures are more common in older populations, which might complicate the clinical management of WTC-related health conditions. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Analysis of administrative claims data in the context of WTC research findings can better clarify the health care use patterns of WTC Health Program members. This information guides programmatic decision-making and might also help guide future disaster preparedness and response health care efforts. Strengthening the WTC Health Program health informatics infrastructure is warranted for timely programmatic and research decision-making.


Assuntos
Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Programas Governamentais , Promoção da Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(9): e1009334, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495965

RESUMO

Epidemiological models can provide the dynamic evolution of a pandemic but they are based on many assumptions and parameters that have to be adjusted over the time the pandemic lasts. However, often the available data are not sufficient to identify the model parameters and hence infer the unobserved dynamics. Here, we develop a general framework for building a trustworthy data-driven epidemiological model, consisting of a workflow that integrates data acquisition and event timeline, model development, identifiability analysis, sensitivity analysis, model calibration, model robustness analysis, and projection with uncertainties in different scenarios. In particular, we apply this framework to propose a modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, including new compartments and model vaccination in order to project the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in New York City (NYC). We find that we can uniquely estimate the model parameters and accurately project the daily new infection cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, in agreement with the available data from NYC's government's website. In addition, we employ the calibrated data-driven model to study the effects of vaccination and timing of reopening indoor dining in NYC.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053633, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been renewed focus on health systems integrating social care to improve health outcomes with relatively less related research focusing on 'real-world' practice. This study describes a health system's experience from 2018 to 2020, following the successful pilot in 2017, to scale social needs screening of patients within a large urban primary care ambulatory network. SETTING: Academic medical centre with an ambulatory network of 18 primary care practices located in an urban county in New York City (USA). PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study used electronic health records of 244 764 patients who had a clinical visit between 10 April 2018 and 8 December 2019 across any one of 18 primary care practices. METHODS: We organised measures using the RE-AIM framework domains of reach and adoption to ascertain the number of patients who were screened and the number of providers who adopted screening and associated documentation, respectively. We used descriptive statistics to summarise factors comparing patients screened versus those not screened, the prevalence of social needs screening and adoption across 18 practices. RESULTS: Between April 2018 and December 2019, 53 093 patients were screened for social needs, representing approximately 21.7% of the patients seen. Almost one-fifth (19.6%) of patients reported at least one unmet social need. The percentage of screened patients varied by both practice location (range 1.6%-81.6%) and specialty within practices. 51.8% of providers (n=1316) screened at least one patient. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate both the potential and challenges of integrating social care in practice. We observed significant variability in uptake across the health system. More research is needed to better understand factors driving adoption and may include harmonising workflows, establishing unified targets and using data to drive improvement.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Orthopedics ; 44(5): 293-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590943

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly changed the landscape of health care, particularly in the New York City area. The elderly population is particularly vulnerable to both the novel coronavirus and the effects of a fracture. The goal of this study was to compare trends and outcomes of hip fracture patients during the pandemic. This was a retrospective chart review of hip fracture patients from a suburban academic hospital on Long Island, New York, who presented from March 1 to May 30, 2020. Patient COVID-19 status, demographics, and hospital outcome measures were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using heteroscedastic t tests for quantitative variables and chi-square tests for qualitative variables. There were 82 patients in the 2020 cohort and 111 in the 2019 control group, representing a 29.9% decrease in cases. The 2020 cohort presented to the hospital an average of 2.77 days after injury compared with 1.15 days for the 2019 control group (P=.0976). Patients in the 2020 cohort were more likely to be discharged home than to rehabilitation (P<.0001) and tended to be discharged with oral anticoagulation (P=.0809). There was no increase in 1-, 3-, or 6-month complications or mortality. During the pandemic, fewer patients were admitted with hip fractures, and the time from injury to presentation doubled. Patients were significantly less likely to be discharged to rehabilitation and more were discharged with oral anticoagulants. Overall, there was no increase in complications, and these data indicate that the authors were successfully able to provide high-quality care to hip fracture patients during the pandemic. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(5):293-298.].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(6): 100476, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent analyses have suggested that the number of births in the United States may decrease substantially in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Some of this decline may be attributable to economic disruptions that are often linked to lowered birth rates.1 However to the best of our knowledge, empirical data to validate these projections and to look more specifically at the consequences of "lockdowns," have not yet been published. The objective of our study was to compare the birth rates in New York City and Long Island hospitals during the 9 months after the lockdown, to the birth rates during the same time frames in previous years. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, retrospective study of live births from hospitals in the New York City Maternal-Fetal Medicine Research Consortium, an ongoing collaboration at several hospitals in New York City and Long Island. This consortium captures approximately one-third of the births in New York City (eg, of the 117,013 births recorded in 2017, 42,680 [36.6%] were from this consortium). To evaluate whether the lockdown in New York City (the first in the United States) between March 2020 and June 2020 resulted in a change in the number of births after the lockdown, we calculated the total live births 9 months after the lockdown (between December 2020 and February 2021) and compared the number with the total in the same 3 months during the previous 4 years. Fourteen hospitals with a total of greater than 55,000 annualized live births were included. Time series regression was performed to test the birth trends and to determine whether any change was a part of an ongoing trend. RESULTS: Figure 1 shows the total live births in the different time frames. There were 12,099 live births that occurred between December 2020 and February 2021. This is 2994 (19.8%) less live births than the previous year. In addition, the average number of live births in the 4 years before the study period was 15,101 births. This decrease was seen in all the hospitals included in the cohort. The hospitals located within New York City (N=10) had a larger drop in birth rate in the last 2 years (-1947, 18.9%) than in the hospitals located in Long Island (N=4) (-581, 13.4%). Figure 2 represents the total live births by individual hospitals in the different time frames. Among the entire cohort, the largest drop in birth rate in the previous years was only 4.9%. In addition, there was no significant trend in the number of births in the previous years (P=.586). Furthermore, no significant trend was identified in the hospitals located in New York City or Long Island (P=.831 and P=.178, respectively). Hospitals with large numbers of Medicaid-funded births showed the same trend as hospitals with smaller numbers of such births. CONCLUSION: Nine months after the lockdown was implemented, we observed a nearly 20% decrease in live births than the previous year. Although these data demonstrate a decline that is even greater than previously projected by analysts,1 there are several issues that should be considered. Firstly, the relationship between lockdowns and preterm birth is unclear, because we did not evaluate the birth outcomes, and thus, we cannot comment on preterm birth. However, most data do not suggest a major effect in the direction of more preterm births.2-4 We are unable to comment on the outmigration of pregnant women to other hospitals, the 3 accredited free-standing birth centers in New York City, or other geographic areas. However, the estimates on the outmigration data were less than the decrease we found. Using anonymized smartphone location data of approximately 140,000 New York City residents, a company specializing in geospatial analysis found that approximately 5% of New York City residents left New York City between March and May, with the majority moving to surrounding locations in the Northeast and to South Florida.5 The steeper decrease in live births in hospitals located in New York City than in those located in Long Island may be related to the population density and the recommended social distancing practices. The population density is higher in New York City than in Long Island (27,000 people per square mile vs 2360 people per square mile). Thus, the lockdown may have had a reduced effect on the number of live births in areas with a lower population density. In addition, most of the New York City residents outmigrated to surrounding locations including Long Island, which may have diminished the decrease in live births. Our data clearly demonstrate that there were significant changes in the number of births in the 9 months after the nation's first lockdown. Although we cannot definitively determine the contributions of migration, family choice, or other factors to those changes, these preliminary findings should provide direction to future studies. That work should consider zip codes, parities, and other factors that might exaggerate or mitigate the trends we report here.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nascimento Prematuro , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1717, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the interplay between race and comorbidities on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, it is vital that testing be performed in areas of greatest need, where more severe cases are expected. The goal of this analysis is to evaluate COVID-19 testing data in NYC relative to risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity and demographic characteristics of NYC neighborhoods. METHODS: COVID-19 testing and the racial/ethnic composition of NYC Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA) were obtained from the NYC Coronavirus data repository and the American Community Survey, respectively. The prevalence of neighborhood-level risk factors for COVID-19 severity according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for risk of severe illness and complications from COVID-19 were used to create a ZCTA-level risk index. Poisson regressions were performed to study the ratio of total tests relative to the total ZCTA population and the proportion of positive tests relative to the total tests performed over time. RESULTS: From March 2nd-April 6th, the total tests/population (%) was positively associated with the proportion of white residents (IRRadj: 1.0003, 95% CI: 1.0003-1.0004) and the COVID risk index (IRRadj: 1.038, 95% CI: 1.029-1.046). The risk index (IRRadj: 1.017, 95% CI: 0.939-1.101) was not associated with total tests performed from April 6th-May 12th, and inversely associated from May 12th-July 6th (IRRadj: 0.862, 95% CI: 0.814-0.913). From March 2nd-April 6th the COVID risk index was not statistically associated (IRRadj: 1.010, 95% CI: 0.987-1.034) with positive tests/total tests. From April 6th-May 12th, the COVID risk index was positively associated (IRRadj: 1.031, 95% CI: 1.002-1.060), while from May 12th-July 6th, the risk index was inversely associated (IRRadj: 1.135, 95% CI: 1.042-1.237) with positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Testing in NYC has suffered from the lack of availability in high-risk populations, and was initially limited as a diagnostic tool for those with severe symptoms, which were mostly concentrated in areas where vulnerable residents live. Subsequent time periods of testing were not targeted in areas according to COVID-19 disease risk, as these areas still experience more positive tests.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , SARS-CoV-2
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