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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

RESUMO

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Smog , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

RESUMO

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Cidades
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Cidades , Biodiversidade
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247993, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278544

RESUMO

Abstract Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.


Resumo Os morcegos apresentam grande importância na homeostasia dos ecossistemas e são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de micro-organismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos com potencial patogênico. Portanto, este estudo visou isolar fungos presentes em amostras biológicas de morcegos na cidade de Sinop - MT, que possui grandes áreas de desmatamento devido à urbanização e agricultura. Foram capturados 48 morcegos de diferentes espécies, em onze fragmentos florestais urbanos definidos de acordo com fluxo de pessoas e animais domésticos, para obtenção de amostras biológicas. Essas amostras foram processadas e submetidas aos cultivos microbiológicos, para isolamento e identificação dos gêneros dos fungos. Dos 48 morcegos, 34 (70,83%) foram positivos para pelos menos um gênero de fungo, sendo 18 (37,5%) fêmeas e 16 (33,33%) machos, e os gêneros isolados a partir das amostras biológicas foram Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp. e Candida sp., que podem ser causadores de infecções oportunistas. Desse total, a espécie que apresentou maior positividade para pelo menos um gênero de fungo foi Molossus molossus com 21 (43,8%). Nossos resultados demonstram que os morcegos capturados nos fragmentos florestais urbanos na cidade de Sinop - MT, podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, aumentando assim o risco de exposição e aquisição de infecções fúngicas oportunistas por pessoas e animais domésticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Quirópteros , Brasil , Florestas , Cidades , Ecossistema , Fungos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1499, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how urban environments influence people's health, especially as individuals age, can help identify ways to improve health in the rapidly urbanizing and rapidly aging populations. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between age and self-reported health (SRH) in adults living in Latin-American cities and whether gender and city-level socioeconomic characteristics modify this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of 71,541 adults aged 25-97 years, from 114 cities in 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, El Salvador, and Guatemala), as part of the Salud Urbana en America Latina (SALURBAL) Project. We used individual-level age, gender, education, and self-reported health (SRH) data from harmonized health surveys. As proxies for socioeconomic environment we used a city-level socioeconomic index (SEI) calculated from census data, and gross domestic product (GDP) per-capita. Multilevel Poisson models with a robust variance were used to estimate relative risks (RR), with individuals nested in cities and binary SRH (poor SHR vs. good SRH) as the outcome. We examined effect modification by gender and city-level socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: Overall, 31.4% of the sample reported poor SRH. After adjusting for individual-level education, men had a lower risk of poor SRH (RR = 0.76; CI 0.73-0.78) compared to women, and gender modified the association between age and poor SRH (p-value of interaction < 0.001). In gender stratified models, the association between older age and poor SRH was more pronounced in men than in women, and in those aged 25-65 than among those 65+ (RR/10 years = 1.38 vs. 1.10 for men, and RR/10 years = 1.29 vs. 1.02 for women). Living in cities with higher SEI or higher GDP per-capita was associated with a lower risk of poor SRH. GDP per-capita modified the association between age (25-65) and SRH in men and women, with SEI the interaction was less clear. CONCLUSIONS: Across cities in Latin America, aging impact on health is significant among middle-aged adults, and among men. In both genders, cities with lower SEI or lower GDP per-capita were associated with poor SRH. More research is needed to better understand gender inequalities and how city socioeconomic environments, represented by different indicators, modify exposures and vulnerabilities associated with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Hispânico ou Latino , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(3): 35, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939127

RESUMO

The project of naturalizing ethics has multiple contributions, from cognitive and moral psychology to primatology, neuroscience or evolutionary theory. One of the strategies for naturalizing ethics has been to argue that moral norms and values can be explained away if we focus on their causal history, if it is possible to offer both an ultimate and proximate causal explanation for them. In this article, I will focus on the contribution of cognitive and moral psychology as a way of offering a proximate causal explanation for moral judgments. I am mostly interested in understanding to what extent these cognitive and psychological questions have some bearing in the fields of ethics and meta-ethics. Does this research programme put at stake the contention that ethics is a manifestation of human rationality? Is it true that finding the cognitive underpinnings of some of our moral judgments vindicates some meta-ethical position, namely some kind of reductionist naturalism? In the end, I will argue that even if scientific disciplines such as cognitive psychology give us a naturalized picture of the moral agent, there seem to be no reasons to think that from a naturalized perspective of the agent capable of perceiving value it must follow the naturalization of value itself.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Cidades , Emoções , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272430, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939494

RESUMO

Municipal amalgamation is one of the core policy tools for Chinese government intervention in urbanization. The city-county merger policy provides a valuable research object for examining whether government-led urban expansion improves the quality of public services. By using city panel data from 2003 to 2019, this paper examines the policy effects of city-county mergers on the quality of public services using the Propensity Score Matching-Difference-in-Differences (PSM-DID) model. The results indicate that, after controlling for other factors, city-county mergers have increased the quality of public services by 1.2%. A placebo test has validated the robustness of this positive effect. Through further tests, the paper finds that the policy has positively affected all three aspects of the quality of public services in China: education, health care, and transport infrastructure, with the greatest impact being on education. Using a case study of a city-county merger in the Fenghua District of Ningbo, this paper depicts the transmission mechanism and argues that the policy affects the quality of public services by providing institutional security (financial and administrative power) and promoting regional integration in the new city area.


Assuntos
Governo , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Atenção à Saúde
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4636, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941122

RESUMO

The United Nations specified the need for "providing universal access to greenspace for urban residents" in the 11th Sustainable Development Goal. Yet, how far we are from this goal remains unclear. Here, we develop a methodology incorporating fine-resolution population and greenspace mappings and use the results for 2020 to elucidate global differences in human exposure to greenspace. We identify a contrasting difference of greenspace exposure between Global South and North cities. Global South cities experience only one third of the greenspace exposure level of Global North cities. Greenspace exposure inequality (Gini: 0.47) in Global South cities is nearly twice that of Global North cities (Gini: 0.27). We quantify that 22% of the spatial disparity is associated with greenspace provision, and 53% is associated with joint effects of greenspace provision and spatial configuration. These findings highlight the need for prioritizing greening policies to mitigate environmental disparity and achieve sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cidades , Humanos , Nações Unidas
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 926812, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937257

RESUMO

Human brucellosis (HB) has re-emerged in China since the mid-1990s, and exhibited an apparent geographic expansion shifted from the traditional livestock regions to the inland areas of China. It is often neglected in non-traditional epidemic areas, posing a serious threat to public health in big cities. We carried out a retrospective epidemiological study in Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. It utilizes long-term surveillance data on HB during 2008-2021 and investigation data during 2014-2021. A total of 1989 HB cases were reported in Xi'an, consisting of 505 local cases, i.e., those located in Xi'an and 1,484 non-local cases, i.e., those located in other cities. Significantly epidemiological heterogeneity was observed between them, mainly owing to differences in the gender, occupation, diagnostic delays, and reporting institutions. Serological investigations suggested that 59 people and 1,822 animals (sheep, cattle, and cows) tested positive for brucellosis from 2014 to 2021, with the annual average seroprevalence rates were 1.38 and 1.54%, respectively. The annual animal seroprevalence rate was positively correlated with the annual incidence of non-local HB cases. Multivariate boosted regression tree models revealed that gross domestic product, population density, length of township roads, number of farms, and nighttime lights substantially contributed to the spatial distribution of local HB. Approximately 7.84 million people inhabited the potential infection risk zones in Xi'an. Our study highlights the reemergence of HB in non-epidemic areas and provides a baseline for large and medium-sized cities to identify regions, where prevention and control efforts should be prioritized in the future.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9383273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909821

RESUMO

Urban landscape design is of great significance to the development of the city. To solve the problem of manual acquisition characteristics of urban landscape design systems and low target detection accuracy, a new idea based on neural network and multi-objective testing technology construction urban landscape design system is proposed. By analyzing key technologies, the database establishment proposes to build a city landscape design system. Establish a city landscape design 3D model library using neural network and multi-objective testing technology. The system enables terrain measurements, GIS, visualization, massive data processing, virtual reality technology, etc., so that users can more and more effectively feel the rationality of space design and the feasibility of planning program. Through the experimental test, the following conclusions were obtained. First, the accuracy of multi-objective detection technology is maintained at around 88%. Second, the system landscape generation module generates fast, and the calculation time is between 0.57 and 46 s. Third, through analysis of the evaluation results of ecological suitability, the A-city landscape ecological function partition is divided into the plan for the plan to provide reliable data protection. The fourth is based on satisfaction evaluation indicators, which is conducive to the choice of the optimal plan of urban landscape design, thereby promoting the sustainable development of the city.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1745593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909860

RESUMO

City brain is a complex system, including online center, server network, and system with given algorithm. The core of the city brain is the intelligent system. After putting the urban brain into the intelligent nerve center, on the basis of not changing its original data structure, combining its own characteristics for design and then integrating into application, it can intelligently change the urban management mode. Urban planning leads the development of smart cities on a certain meaning, and smart city planning must have scientific and rational urban planning. The intelligent model is used to make urban planning form a more modern, convenient, and reasonable urban architectural planning. Some influential books on classical architectural theory are the theoretical basis of intelligent urban planning and even the trend and implementation blueprint of how smart cities will develop in the future. In this paper, four algorithms, ant colony algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, genetic algorithm, and improved ant colony algorithm, are proposed to optimize the characteristics of urban architectural planning and landscape design; especially the security research of architecture and landscape characteristics is very important. The improved ant colony algorithm has the shortcoming of insufficient optimization ability in the face of complex path selection. By improving the influencing factors, a new ant colony algorithm is created. The improved ant colony algorithm achieves the best in security features, so it is advocated to use this algorithm for planning and design. The urban form in smart city aims to create a beautiful and comfortable urban environment, improve the competitiveness of cities in the rapid urbanization process, improve the living standards of the public, and shape the image of this beautiful city.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Planejamento de Cidades , Algoritmos , Cidades
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4266723, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909865

RESUMO

With the advent of the information technology revolution and the Internet era, information technology is gradually occupying an important position and becoming an important strategic factor in economic development. As an emerging technology that has been developing continuously in recent years, big data is becoming an important industry to improve the innovation and development of the urban economy. Like AI technology, cloud computing, and the Internet, big data has become an important application technology for economic growth and economic efficiency improvement in today's world. It is an effective means of progress and development in a region and an important strategic resource. As a new technology, big data has attracted more and more attention from all walks of life. Many companies have turned their attention to developing big data for economic benefits. "Enjoy your old age" is the yearning of every old man and his family. In recent years, the national level has been committed to "creating an urban built environment for the elderly to achieve healthy aging." From the perspective of promoting the physical and mental health of the elderly, this paper analyzes the impact of the urban built environment on the physical and mental health of the elderly based on the needs of the elderly and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions based on the current status and existing problems of the urban built environment for the elderly. Based on the combined data analysis method and technology in big data, this paper conducted a field questionnaire survey on a total of 4,000 elderly people in urban and rural areas by means of the questionnaire survey. It is found that the existing problems of the built environment in the old cities include scattered content, one-sided understanding, and rigid design. According to the problems, the solutions of building consensus, paying attention to planning, combining urban characteristics, and the joint efforts of all sectors of society are put forward. And programming tools are used to combine formulas and analyze related data in detail. The analysis results show that the physical and mental health index of the elderly is highly correlated with factors such as changes in the consensus degree of the urban built environment, urban built environment planning, urban built environment policy support, and multiparty efforts in the urban built environment. Changes show a positive change.


Assuntos
Big Data , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Ambiente Construído , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos , Masculino
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272213, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913928

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel early warning system that has usually been applied to predict the financial stress events is established to predict the likelihood of housing price crises in China. To achieve this goal, a signal extraction approach is used to monitor the evolution of a number of economic indicators that tend to exhibit the abnormal behaviors. 13 economic variables were selected as the individual indicators, and constructed as the four comprehensive indicators. Our empirical work shows that the early warning system for urban housing price crises is suitable for China's four province-level municipalities. The in-sample forecasting results indicate the reliability of the early warning system for urban housing price crises. By studying the out-of-sample forecasting results, the likelihood of housing price crises for the four cities can be effectively predicted. We construct a novel weighted average comprehensive indicator, which performs better than the three others in terms of overall performance across all of the criteria considered in. It is shown that the extended system is more flexible in decision making than the traditional early warning system.


Assuntos
Habitação , China , Cidades , Previsões , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272458, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917292

RESUMO

Medical facility equality is a critical metric for determining equal access to medical care. Their spatial distribution is important for effective pandemic treatment and daily prevention in cities. This paper used the Kernel Density Two-Step Floating Catchment Area (KD2SFCA) and shortest distance methods to calculate the accessibility of designated COVID-19 Fangcang hospitals and fever clinics in the Wuhan Metropolitan Development Zone. Their equality was evaluated by the Gini coefficient and Lorentz curve. Several results were obtained: (1) The facilities' accessibility declines radial from the central to peripheral areas. (2) Most of the demand points in the study area can reach the medical facilities for COVID-19 pandemic treatment within 60 minutes. (3) For the spatial distribution of these facilities, the equality evaluated for different time thresholds differed significantly, with long time thresholds having better equality than for short time thresholds. (4) While the distances distribution of fever clinics is balanced, the equality gap in various areas remains enormous when considering population distribution. Suggestions for optimizing the spatial distribution of pandemic treatment medical facilities in Wuhan are proposed, and which will serve as references for the planning of Wuhan's pandemic medical facilities in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Área Programática de Saúde , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 633, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922695

RESUMO

A recently conducted study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encouraged access to urban green space for the public over the prevalence of COVID-19 in that exposure to urban green space can positively affect the physical and mental health, including the reduction rate of heart disease, obesity, stress, stroke, and depression. COVID-19 has foregrounded the inadequacy of green space in populated cities. It has also highlighted the extant inequities so as to unequal access to urban green space both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this regard, it seems that one of the problems related to Malatya is the uncoordinated distribution of green space in different parts of the city. Therefore, knowing the quantity and quality of these spaces in each region can play an effective role in urban planning. The aim of the present study has been to evaluate urban green space per capita and to investigate its distribution based on the population of the districts of Battalgazi county in Malatya city through developing an integrated methodology (remote sensing and geographic information system). Accordingly, in Google Earth Engine by images of Sentinel-1 and PlanetScope satellites, it was calculated different indexes (NDVI, EVI, PSSR, GNDVI, and NDWI). The data set was prepared and then by combining different data, classification was performed according to support vector machine algorithm. From the landscaping maps obtained, the map was selected with the highest accuracy (overall accuracy: 94.43; and kappa coefficient: 90.5). Finally, by the obtained last map, the distribution of urban green space per capita and their functions in Battalgazi county and its districts were evaluated. The results of the study showed that the existing urban green spaces in the Battalgazi/Malatya were not distributed evenly on the basis of the districts. The per capita of urban green space is twenty-four regions which is more than 9m2 and in twenty-three ones is less than 9m2. The recommendation of this study was that Türkiye city planners and landscape designers should replan and redesign the quality and equal distribution of urban green spaces, especially during and following COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, drawing on the Google Earth Engine cloud system, which has revolutionized GIS and remote sensing, is recommended to be used in land use land cover modeling. It is straightforward to access information and analyze them quickly in Google Earth Engine. The published codes in this study makes it possible to conduct further relevant studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Parques Recreativos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Urbanização
16.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(8): e648-e657, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health impacts of climate warming are usually quantified based on daily average temperatures. However, extra health risks might result from hot nights. We project the future mortality burden due to hot nights. METHODS: We selected the hot night excess (HNE) to represent the intensity of night-time heat, which was calculated as the excess sum of high temperature during night time. We collected historical mortality data in 28 cities from three east Asian countries, from 1981 to 2010. The associations between HNE and mortality in each city were firstly examined using a generalised additive model in combination with a distributed lag non-linear model over lag 0-10 days. We then pooled the cumulative associations using a univariate meta-regression model at the national or regional levels. Historical and future hourly temperature series were projected under two scenarios of greenhouse-gas emissions from 1980-2099, with ten general circulation models. We then projected the attributable fraction of mortality due to HNE under each scenario. FINDINGS: Our dataset comprised 28 cities across three countries (Japan, South Korea, and China), including 9 185 598 deaths. The time-series analyses showed the HNE was significantly associated with increased mortality risks, the relative mortality risk on days with hot nights could be 50% higher than on days with non-hot nights. Compared with the rise in daily mean temperature (lower than 20%), the frequency of hot nights would increase more than 30% and the intensity of hot night would increase by 50% by 2100s. The attributable fraction of mortality due to hot nights was projected to be 3·68% (95% CI 1·20 to 6·17) under a strict emission control scenario (SSP126). Under a medium emission control scenario (SSP245), the attributable fraction of mortality was projected to increase up to 5·79% (2·07 to 9·52), which is 0·95% (-0·39 to 2·29) more than the attributable fraction of mortality due to daily mean temperature. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides evidence for significant mortality risks and burden in association with night-time warming across Japan, South Korea, and China. Our findings suggest a growing role of night-time warming in heat-related health effects in a changing climate. FUNDING: The National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shanghai International Science and Technology Partnership Project.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Previsões
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 653, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933570

RESUMO

Kolkata has a reputation for being one of the world's most polluted cities, particularly in the post-monsoon months of October, November, and December. Diwali, a Hindu festival, coincides with these months where a large number of firecrackers are set off followed by high emissions of air pollutants. As a result, the air quality index (AQI) deteriorates to "very poor" (301 ≤ AQI ≤ 400) and "poor" (201 ≤ AQI ≤ 300) categories. This situation stays for several days to a month. The present study aims to identify the thresholds for PM2.5 and PM10 that cause the AQI of Kolkata to deteriorate to "very poor" and "poor." For this purpose, we have used a rough set theory-based condition-decision support system to predict the aforementioned categories of AQI. We have developed a Z-number-based novel quantification measure of semantic information of AQI to assess the reliability of the outcomes, as generated from the condition-decision-based decision rules, during post-monsoon season. The result reveals the best possible forecast of AQI with linguistic summarization of the reliability or confidence for different threshold ranges of PM10 and PM2.5. Inverse-decision rules based on rough set theory are utilized to justify and validate the forecasts. The explainability of the condition-decision support system is demonstrated/visualized using a flow graph that maps rough-rule-based different decision paths between input and output with strength, certainty, and coverage. The investigation resulted in an advanced intelligent environmental decision support system (IEDSS) for air-quality prediction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915939

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the occurrence of occupational injuries among sanitation workers in Shenzhen, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention of occupational injuries among sanitation workers. Methods: From May to November 2020, a cluster sampling method was used to select some street sanitation workers in Shenzhen to conduct a questionnaire survey. A total of 2200 questionnaires were recovered, of which 2167 were valid (98.5% effective recovery rate) . The socio-demographic data, length of service, type of work and occurrence of occupational injuries of sanitation workers were collected, and the distribution characteristics of occupational injuries and their relationship with factors such as type of work were analyzed. Results: Among the 2167 sanitation workers, 240 (11.1%) had experienced occupational injuries. The most common occupational injuries among sanitation workers were sharp injury, heat stroke and motor vehicle traffic accident, with the incidence rates of 6.1% (133/2167) , 2.4% (53/2167) and 1.7% (36/2167) respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the distribution of occupational injuries among sanitation workers with different lengths of work and types of work (P<0.05) . The incidence of occupational injury among sanitation workers with more than 5 years of service was significantly higher than that of workers with less than 5 years of service (P<0.05) . The incidence of sharp injury among garbage sorting and transportation personnel was higher (7.9%, 21/265) , the incidence of heat stroke among manual cleaners was higher (3.1%, 42/1366) , and the incidence of motor vehicle traffic accident among mechanized cleaners was higher (5.4%, 10/184) . Conclusion: There are many cases of occupational injuries among sanitation workers in Shenzhen. Targeted measures should be taken to prevent the occurrence of different types of work and different types of occupational injuries, and to improve the occupational health level of sanitation workers.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor , Saúde do Trabalhador , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Acidentes de Trabalho , Cidades , Golpe de Calor/epidemiologia , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Saneamento
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269797, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925920

RESUMO

The aim of the paper is to propose the construction of an index that captures the economic complexity of cities over the globe, as well as to explore whether it is a good predictor for a range of city-level economic outcomes. This index aspires to mitigate data scarcity for cities and to provide policy makers with the tools for monitoring the evolving role of cities in the global economy. Analytically, we implement the economic complexity methodology on data for the ownership, location and economic activities of the world's 3,000 largest firms and their subsidiaries to propose a new indicator that quantifies the network of the largest cities worldwide and the economic activities of their globalized firms. We first show that complex cities are the highly diversified cities that host non-ubiquitous economic activities of firms with global presence. Then, in a sample of EU cities, we show that complex cities tend to be more prosperous, have higher population, and are associated with more jobs, human capital, innovation, technology and transport infrastructure. Last, using OLS methodology and accounting for several other confounders, we show that a higher ECI, at the city level, enhances the resilience of cities to negative economic shocks, i.e., their ability to bounce back after a shock. Specifically, we find that the expected increase of the ratio of employment in 2012 over 2006 is 0.01 (mean: 0.992; standard deviation: 0.081) when the ECI increases by 1 unit (mean: 0.371; standard deviation: 1.094), i.e., a satisfactory pace of recovery, in terms of employment. The ability to diversify in the presence of a shock, the reallocation of factors of production to other sectors and the ability to extract rents associated with those diversified activities, uncovers the mechanics of the ECI index.


Assuntos
Emprego , Ocupações , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Tecnologia
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272363, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925938

RESUMO

This work presents an economic analysis that illustrates the feasibility and the possible benefits related to the replacement of internal combustion vehicles (ICVs)by electric vehicles (EVs) public transportation in medium-sized cities. According to the current operating conditions, we calculate the cost of operating internal combustion vehicles and compare them with a selected EV with approximately the same passenger capacity. We calculate the CO2 emissions in both cases. Moreover, for the case of EV, we analyze two scenarios: 1) Use the grid to charge the EV and 2) a grid-connected photovoltaic system using the available land in the store terminals. The net present value (NPV) indicates the feasibility of two EV replacement scenarios: EV fleet using energy from the grid and EV fleet with a PV system energy generation interconnected to the grid. The economic analysis considers the different prices of electricity according to the existing tariff schemes in Mexico. Due to the electricity generation mix in Mexico, in the case of CO2 emissions, the reduction is not as expected in the only grid connection; but a PV system reduces more than 30% CO2. This analysis was carried out for two medium-sized cities: Morelia, Michoacán, and Cuernavaca, Morelos, both in Mexico.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Eletricidade , Cidades , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , México , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise
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