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1.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1247-1251, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, caused by the Human Papilloma Virus, has a significant economic impact worldwide and there are no epidemiological data of this disease in Brasil. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of laryngeal papillomatosis of some otorhinolaryngology centers in São Paulo State (Brasil). METHODS: A questionnaire containing data on the number of new and follow-up cases diagnosed with laryngeal papillomatosis was sent to the Otorhinolaryngology services (n=35) of São Paulo State (Brasil). RESULTS: A total of 20 otorhinolaryngology centers answered the questionnaire. Of these, the five largest regional health centers were selected as follows: Campinas (42 cities - 4,536,657 inhabitants), Sao Jose do Rio Preto (102 cities - 1,602,845 inhabitants), Ribeirão Preto (26 cities - 1,483,715 inhabitants), Bauru (68 cities - 1,770,427 inhabitants), and Sorocaba (47 cities - 2,478,208 inhabitants). The incidence and prevalence of each regional health centers were, respectively: Campinas (5.51;7.27), Sorocaba (2.02;6.86), São José do Rio Preto (1.87;7.49), Ribeirão Preto (11.46;22.92), and Bauru (3.95;7.91). CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of the laryngeal papillomatosis of the five largest regional health centers of the interior of São Paulo State (Brasil) varied between 1.87 to 11.46 and 6.86 to 22.92 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, respectively for a total population of 11,871,852 inhabitants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Papiloma , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Papiloma/epidemiologia , Prevalência
2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(9): e00184820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027475

RESUMO

The inter-cities mobility network is of great importance in understanding outbreaks, especially in Brazil, a continental-dimension country. We adopt the data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the terrestrial flow of people between cities from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database in two scales: cities from Brazil, without the North region, and from the São Paulo State. Grounded on the complex networks approach, and considering that the mobility network serves as a proxy for the SARS-CoV-2 spreading, the nodes and edges represent cities and flows, respectively. Network centrality measures such as strength and degree are ranked and compared to the list of cities, ordered according to the day that they confirmed the first case of COVID-19. The strength measure captures the cities with a higher vulnerability of receiving new cases. Besides, it follows the interiorization process of SARS-CoV-2 in the São Paulo State when the network flows are above specific thresholds. Some countryside cities such as Feira de Santana (Bahia State), Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State), and Caruaru (Pernambuco State) have strength comparable to states' capitals. Our analysis offers additional tools for understanding and decision support to inter-cities mobility interventions regarding the SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Pandemias
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 689, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030599

RESUMO

Flooding in urban basins is a major natural catastrophe that leads to many causalities of life and property. The semi-urbanized Koraiyar River basin in Tamil Nadu has important cities like Tiruchirappalli and many towns located in it. The basin unfailingly experiences a flood event in almost every decade. It is anticipated that the basin will undergo rapid unplanned urbanization in the years to come. Such fast and erratic urban developments will only increase the risk of urban floods ultimately resulting in loss of human lives and extensive damages to property and infrastructure. The effects of urbanization can be quantified in the form of land use land cover (LULC) changes. The LULC change and its impacts on urban runoff are studied for the continuous 30-year present time period of (1986-2016) to reliably predict the anticipated impact in the future time period of (2026-2036). The analysis of land cover patterns over the years shows that urbanization is more prevalent in the northern part of the basin of the chosen study area when compared with the other regions. The extreme rainfall events that occurred in the past, and the probable future LULC changes, as well as their influence on urban runoff, are studied together in the current study. In order to minimize flood damages due to these changing land use conditions, certain preventive and protective measures have to be adopted at the earliest. There are some inevitable limitations while applying traditional measures in flood modeling studies. This investigative work considers a case study on the ungauged Koraiyar floodplains. The spatial scale risk assessment is assessed by coupling geographic information systems, remote sensing, hydrologic, and hydraulic modeling, to estimate the flood hazard probabilities in the Koraiyar basin. The maximum flood flow is generated from the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS), the hydrologic model adopted in the present study. The maximum flood flow is given as input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), an effective hydraulic model that generates water depth and flood spread area in the basin. The flood depth and hazard maps are derived for 2, 5, 10, 50, and 100-year return periods. From the analysis, it is observed that the minimum flood depth is less than 1.2 m to a maximum of 4.7 m for the 100-year return period of past to predicted future years. The simulated results show that the maximum flood depth of 4.7 m with flood hazard area of 4.32% is identified as high hazard zones from the years 1986-2036, located in the center of the basin in Tiruchirappalli city. The very high hazard flood-affected zone in the Koraiyar basin during this period is about 198.85 km2. It is noticed that the very low hazard zone occupies more area in the basin for the present and future simulations of flood hazard maps. The results show that the increase in peak runoff and runoff volume is marginally varied.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Cidades , Hidrologia , Índia
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 690, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034731

RESUMO

Urbanization is occurring globally at an unprecedented rate. The byproduct of this mounting urbanization is an increase in municipal solid waste (MSW), which has a significant effect on population health and the surrounding environment. This trend poses a challenge to the cities responsible for managing waste in a socially and environmentally acceptable manner. Effective waste management strategies depend on local waste characteristics, which vary under different cultural, climatic, and socioeconomic conditions. It is important to note that MSW disposal represents one of the largest sources for anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study found a direct proportional urban and rural gradient between household income and GHG emissions under a typical urban household size. The distribution of GHG is U-shaped. This study found that urbanization exhibited a pattern of continuous growth, and the effect of urbanization was less than the effect of the population in magnitude. The correlation between GHG and income level in recent urban sprawl along a north-south transect was lower than during the period of early urban expansion.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Efeito Estufa , Resíduos Sólidos , Urbanização
5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(3): 1748, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003833

RESUMO

The lockdown that Madrid has suffered during the months of March to June 2020 to try to control and minimize the spread of COVID-19 has significantly altered the acoustic environment of the city. The absence of vehicles and people on the streets has led to a noise reduction captured by the monitoring network of the City of Madrid. In this article, an analysis has been carried out to describe the reduction in noise pollution that has occurred and to analyze the changes in the temporal patterns of noise, which are strongly correlated with the adaptation of the population's activity and behavior to the new circumstances. The reduction in the sound level ranged from 4 to 6 dBA for the indicators Ld, Le, and Ln, and this is connected to a significant variation in the daily time patterns, especially during weekends, when the activity started earlier in the morning and lasted longer at midday, decreasing significantly in the afternoon.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Ruído , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Espanha
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 676, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025262

RESUMO

Long-term aerosol optical thickness (AOT) composited data (2002-2017) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft was used to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of aerosol in Xiamen city by using wavelet analysis, and the relationship between the surface mass concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and the AOT was analyzed by using linear regression. The results showed that AOT increased gradually from 2002 to 2011, and then decreased. AOT displayed a significant 9-month periodicity in AOT was inferred wavelet analysis. AOT also showed significant annual variability in response to changes in weather and aerosol pollution. We observed highest AOT values in April, with a monthly mean of 1.00 ± 0.18. Lowest values were observed in December, with a mean AOT of 0.52 ± 0.11. Multi-year monthly AOT fluctuations were lowest in January with a low variation coefficient (0.14), and the largest fluctuations appeared in July with a high variation coefficient (0.29). Higher AOT values (~ 1.1) were predominantly located in the southern urban areas of Xiamen and lower AOT values (~ 0.3) were mainly located in northern rural regions. The aerosol pollution was serious in April with the smallest spatial variation coefficient of 0.25, and the highest spatial variation coefficient appeared in July. Highest intraannual variability predominantly occurred in the high-value areas in the center of Xiamen. AOT values remained high in Xiamen Island throughout the year with a multi-year mean of 0.87. There was a moderate correlation between ground-based PM2.5 and MODIS AOT. Therefore, we confirm the suitability of MODIS AOT to accurately estimate PM2.5 concentration and evaluate the temporal and spatial characteristics of air quality in Xiamen.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , China , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMO

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 632-637, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012863

RESUMO

Problem: On 21 January 2020, the city of Taizhou, China, reported its first imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case and subsequently the number of cases rapidly increased. Approach: To organize the emergency responses, the government of Taizhou established on 23 January 2020 novel headquarters for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak, by coordinating different governmental agencies. People at high risk of acquiring COVID-19, as well as probable and confirmed cases, were identified and quarantined. The government closed public venues and limited gatherings. The Taizhou Health Commission shared information about identified COVID-19 patients and probable cases with affected agencies. To timely track and manage close contacts of confirmed cases, Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention did epidemiological investigations. Medical institutions or local centers for disease control and prevention reported confirmed cases to the national Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Local setting: Taizhou, a city in Zhejiang province with about 6 million residents, reported 18 confirmed COVID-2019 cases by 23 January 2020, which ranked it third globally in number of cases after Wuhan and Xiaogan cities in the Hubei province. Relevant changes: In total, 146 confirmed cases (85 cases imported and 61 cases through community transmission) and no deaths due to COVID-19 had been reported in Taizhou by 1 June 2020. Between 16 February and 1 June 2020, no confirmed case had been reported. Lesson learnt: Identifying and managing imported cases and people at risk for infection, timely information sharing, limiting gatherings and ensuring collaborations between different agencies were important in controlling COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMO

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027398

RESUMO

Chagas disease is an important endemic morbidity in Latin America affecting millions of people in the American continent. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted through the feces of the insect vector belonging to the subfamily Triatominae. The present conducted an entomological survey of triatomines and analyzed entomological indicators, such as the rate of infestation, colonization, triatomine density and natural infection in rural communities in the municipality of Campinas do Piaui, Piaui State, in the Northeast region of Brazil. Data on the search of triatomines performed in 167 domiciliary units (DUs), harvested during the period of February to July 2019, in 12 rural communities were analyzed. The capture of triatomines occurred in all studied communities, being 76 the number of positive DUs, of the 167 surveyed, presenting a global rate of infestation of 45.51%. Two triatomines species were collected: Triatoma brasiliensis (98.49%) and T. pseudomaculata (1.51%), the first was found in the domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas, while the second was captured only in peridomiciliary areas. The index of colonization was 17.1%. Natural infection was observed only in 5.44% of T. brasiliensis samples. The entomological survey was conducted in rural communities, showingthe risk of transmission of Chagas disease to the local population, requiring continuous entomological surveillance and vector control.


Assuntos
Triatoma/parasitologia , Triatominae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Humanos , População Rural
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1486, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The state of Ceará (Northeast Brazil) has shown a high incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and most of the cases that were diagnosed during the epidemic originated from the capital Fortaleza. Monitoring the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic is of strategic importance and requires the use of sensitive tools for epidemiological surveillance, including consistent analyses that allow the recognition of areas with a greater propensity for increased severity throughout the cycle of the epidemic. This study aims to classify neighborhoods in the city of Fortaleza according to their propensity for a severe epidemic of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study within the geographical area of the 119 neighborhoods located in the city of Fortaleza. To define the main transmission networks (infection chains), we assumed that the spatial diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic was influenced by population mobility. To measure the propensity for a severe epidemic, we calculated the infectivity burden (ItyB), infection burden (IonB), and population epidemic vulnerability index (PEVI). The propensity score for a severe epidemic in the neighborhoods of the city of Fortaleza was estimated by combining the IonB and PEVI. RESULTS: The neighborhoods with the highest propensity for a severe COVID-19 epidemic were Aldeota, Cais do Porto, Centro, Edson Queiroz, Vicente Pinzon, Jose de Alencar, Presidente Kennedy, Papicu, Vila Velha, Antonio Bezerra, and Cambeba. Importantly, we found that the propensity for a COVID-19 epidemic was high in areas with differing socioeconomic profiles. These areas include a very poor neighborhood situated on the western border of the city (Vila Velha), neighborhoods characterized by a large number of subnormal agglomerates in the Cais do Porto region (Vicente Pinzon), and those located in the oldest central area of the city, where despite the wealth, low-income groups have remained (Aldeota and the adjacent Edson Queiroz). CONCLUSION: Although measures against COVID-19 should be applied to the entire municipality of Fortaleza, the classification of neighborhoods generated through this study can help improve the specificity and efficiency of these measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 671, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009943

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is an emerging issue faced worldwide owing to rapid urbanization and extensive use of plastic products. The objective of this study was to determine and highlight the spatial distribution of microplastics (MPs) in the top soils of different land use types of an urbanized city, i.e., Lahore, Pakistan, influenced by different human activities. Soil samples (n = 40) were collected from eight different land use groups including agricultural areas, drains, dumping sites, industrial areas, lawns, parks, roadsides, and wastelands to represent the influence of corresponding human actions. After cleaning the samples through wet peroxide digestion and density separation, MPs were identified under a stereomicroscope. The range of MPs in top soils within Lahore district varied from 1750 to 12,200 MPs/kg with an average of 4483 ± 2315 MPs/kg. The highest concentration of MPs was present in the parks while the lowest numbers of MPs were enumerated in soil from dumping sites. About 99% of the identified MPs particles were fibers, sheets, and fragments in shape while foams and beads accounted for the rest. Moreover, among the size ranges, the large size MPs (300-5000 µm) were found in the majority (41.16%) followed by the fine size MPs (50-150 µm; 30.67%) and medium size MPs (150-300 µm; 28.17%). The current level of MPs pollution attracts the attention of researchers for a more comprehensive investigation in the future. It also incites the policy-makers to implement the regulations to prevent plastic pollution and its environmental implications.


Assuntos
Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Paquistão , Plásticos
13.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 534-544, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016405

RESUMO

Many states are adopting more stringent nutrient load restrictions, requiring utilities to invest in costly improvements. To date, substantial research has been done to independently assess the nutrient removal efficacy of wastewater treatment technologies and stormwater control measures. The analysis presented here provides a unique assessment by evaluating combinations of nutrient load reduction strategies across water supply, wastewater, and stormwater sectors. A demonstration study was conducted evaluating 7812 cross-sector removal strategies in the urban water system using empirical models to quantify efficacy of common wastewater treatment, water management, and stormwater control measures (SCMs). Pareto optimal solutions were evaluated to identify the most cost-effective strategies. To meet stringent nutrient requirements, wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) will likely require advanced biological nutrient removal with carbon and ferric addition. Even with these technologies, WWTFs may still be unable to obtain target nutrient requirements. In addition, municipalities can consider water management practices and SCMs to further reduce nutrient loading or provide a more cost-effective nutrient removal strategy. For water management practices, source separation and effluent reuse were frequently identified as part of the most effective nutrient strategies but face engineering, political, and social adoption barriers. Similarly, SCMs were frequently part of effective nutrient removal strategies compared to only adopting nutrient removal practices at WWTFs. This research provides the framework and demonstrates the value in using an urban water system approach to identify optimal nutrient removal strategies that can be easily applied to other urban areas.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Água , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Águas Residuárias
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008116

RESUMO

During the first outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic the population, focusing primarily on the risk of infection, was generally inattentive to the quality of indoor air. Spain, and the city of Madrid in particular, were among the world's coronavirus hotspots. The country's entire population was subject to a 24/7 lockdown for 45 days. This paper describes a comparative longitudinal survey of air quality in four types of housing in the city of Madrid before and during lockdown. The paper analysed indoor temperatures and variations in CO2, 2.5 µm particulate matter (PM2.5) and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations before and during lockdown. The mean daily outdoor PM2.5 concentration declined from 11.04 µg/m3 before to 7.10 µg/m3 during lockdown. Before lockdown the NO2 concentration values scored as 'very good' 46% of the time, compared to 90.9% during that period. Although the city's outdoor air quality improved, during lockdown the population's exposure to indoor pollutants was generally more acute and prolonged. Due primarily to concern over domestic energy savings, the lack of suitable ventilation and more intensive use of cleaning products and disinfectants during the covid-19 crisis, indoor pollutant levels were typically higher than compatible with healthy environments. Mean daily PM2.5 concentration rose by approximately 12% and mean TVOC concentration by 37% to 559%. The paper also puts forward a series of recommendations to improve indoor domestic environments in future pandemics and spells out urgent action to be taken around indoor air quality (IAQ) in the event of total or partial quarantining to protect residents from respiratory ailments and concomitantly enhanced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, as identified by international medical research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Habitação/classificação , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Material Particulado , Espanha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066177

RESUMO

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has made it the focus of current attention. At present, the law of COVID-19 spread in cities is not clear. Cities have long been difficult areas for epidemic prevention and control because of the high population density, high mobility of people, and high frequency of contacts. This paper analyzed case information for 417 patients with COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China. The nearest neighbor index method, kernel density method, and the standard deviation ellipse method were used to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics of the COVID-19 spread in Shenzhen. The factors influencing that spread were then explored using the multiple linear regression method. The results show that: (1) The development of COVID-19 epidemic situation in Shenzhen occurred in three stages. The patients showed significant hysteresis from the onset of symptoms to hospitalization and then to diagnosis. Prior to 27 January, there was a relatively long time interval between the onset of symptoms and hospitalization for COVID-19; the interval decreased thereafter. (2) The epidemic site (the place where the patient stays during the onset of the disease) showed an agglomeration in space. The degree of agglomeration constantly increased across the three time nodes of 31 January, 14 February, and 22 February. The epidemic sites formed a "core area" in terms of spatial distribution and spread along the "northwest-southeast" direction of the city. (3) Economic and social factors significantly impacted the spread of COVID-19, while environmental factors have not played a significant role.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
16.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(3): 030403, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071554

RESUMO

To fight the virus SARS-CoV-2 spread to Europe from China and to give support to the collapsed public health system, the Spanish Health Authorities developed a field hospital located in the facilities of Madrid exhibition centre (IFEMA) to admit and treat patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease (COVID-19). The Department of Laboratory Medicine of La Paz University Hospital in Madrid (LMD-HULP) was designated to provide laboratory services. Due to the emergency, the IFEMA field hospital had to be prepared for patient admission in less than 1 week and the laboratory professionals had to collaborate in a multidisciplinary group to assure that resources were available to start on time. The LMD-HULP participated together with the managers in the design of the tests portfolio and the integration of the healthcare information systems (IS) (hospital IS, laboratory IS and POCT management system). Laboratorians developed a strategy to quickly train clinicians and nurses on test requests, sample collection procedures and management/handling of the POCT blood gas analyser both by written materials and training videos. The IFEMA´s preanalytical unit managed 3782 requests, and more than 11,000 samples from March 27th to April 30th. Furthermore, 1151 samples were measured by blood gas analysers. In conclusion, laboratory professionals must be resilient and have to respond timely in emergencies as this pandemic. The lab's personnel selection, design and monitoring indicators to maintain and further improve the quality and value of laboratory services is crucial to support medical decision making and provide better patient care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos/organização & administração , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Espanha , Manejo de Espécimes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053788

RESUMO

Early information on public health behaviors adopted to prevent the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) may be useful in controlling the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the role of income level (IL) and the perception of older adults, regarding COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, on adopting stay-at-home preventive behavior during the first week of the outbreak in Mexico. Participants in this cross-sectional study were urban community dwellers, aged ≥ 65 years from Mexico City. A total of 380 interviews were conducted over the phone. The mean respondent age was 72.9 years, and 76.1% were women. Over half (54.2%) of the participants perceived their susceptibility to COVID-19 as very low or low. Similarly, 33.4% perceived COVID-19 severity as being very low or low, and 57.6% had decided to stay at home: this behavior was associated with IL (ß = 1.05, p < 0.001), and its total effect was partially mediated (15.1%) by perceived severity. Educational attainment was also associated with staying at home (ß = 0.10, p = 0.018) and its total effect was partially mediated (15.0%) by perceived susceptibility. Interventions aimed at low income and less educated older adults should be developed to improve preventive behaviors in this vulnerable group during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 711, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070264

RESUMO

The escalating demand for anthropic needs and urban development has highlighted the importance of monitoring and change detection of land use land cover (LULC). With an increase in agricultural expansion and infrastructural development, every land surface on earth calls for a long-term investigation of land modification patterns and their underlying contributory factors. The present investigation monitors the LULC changes and assesses the process controls in Kohima and Dimapur districts of Nagaland, India. Currently, these two districts encompassing the main urban cities of the hilly state are experiencing rapid urbanization and unplanned developmental activities. Alike any other LULC changes observed in unplanned and developing cities, these districts are likely to face environmental degradation, and particularly, the occurrence of frequent landslides and flash floods. The study has three objectives-(i) LULC mapping of Kohima and Dimapur districts for three periods (1998, 2008, and 2018), (ii) comparative analysis of LULC change patterns in the two districts during the three epochs (1998-2008, 2008-2018, and 1998-2018), and (iii) assessment of the contributory factors. For the study, remotely sensed LANDSAT images (TM and OLI) in Geographical Information System (GIS) platform were utilized along with field surveys. Supervised classification technique was employed and four major LULC classes were identified using Landsat level-1 classification system. The overall accuracy of the classification varied between 91 and 98%. Results showed that Built Up areas have increased significantly in both the districts at the rate of 322.6 ha/year in Kohima and 301.9 ha/year in Dimapur during 1998-2018. On the other hand, Agricultural Land and Forest Land declined in both districts. Changes in LULC were mainly due to marginalization of shifting cultivation, deforestation, infrastructural development, urban migration, and flourishing of aquaculture farming. This study furnishes baseline information on LULC in the data-scarce region of Northeast India and is an insinuation to the policy-makers to ensure sustainable land use planning in the face of rapid urbanization.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Agricultura , Cidades , Índia
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 712, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070268

RESUMO

A major public health concern in Mexico is the natural contamination of groundwater with fluoride and arsenic. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the magnitude of human health risk after determining fluoride and arsenic concentrations in groundwater samples (n = 50) from the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Fluoride levels in water were determined via a potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode. Arsenic concentrations in water samples were determined with an Atomic Absorption technique. Subsequently, a probabilistic health risk assessment was developed (Monte Carlo Analysis). Fluoride levels in water ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/L. For arsenic, the mean level found in the assessed water samples was 15.5 ± 5.50 µg/L (range: 2.50-30.0 µg/L). In addition, when the probabilistic health risk assessment was completed, a mean HI (cumulative hazardous index) of higher than 1 was detected, indicating a high NCR (non-carcinogenic risk) for children and adults. According to the results found in this study, exposure protection campaigns are imperative in the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, to successfully diminish exposure to arsenic and fluoride and, as a consequence, decrease the NCR in the population living in that region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Adulto , Arsênico/análise , Criança , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , México , Medição de Risco
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 738-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the status of health literacy and its influencing factors among the residents in Haidian District of Beijing, and to provide references for targeted health education intervention. METHODS: A multi-staged probability proportionate to size sampling(PPS) sampling method was used to collect 7034 residents that aged 15-69 years old in Haidian District in 2018. RESULTS: The standardized rate of health literacy among the residents of Haidian District was 28. 56%. The standardized health literacy rate of basic health knowledge and concept literacy, health lifestyle and behavior literacy, basic health skill were 35. 79%, 30. 90% and 36. 39%, respectively. The standardized health literacy rate of 6 health literacy issues from high to low were safety and first aid(66. 39%), scientific health perspectives(51. 24%), infectious diseases prevention and treatment(39. 78%), health information(30. 25%), chronic disease control and prevention(13. 33%), and basic medical care(11. 23%), respectively. The result of multiple logistic regression showed that aged between 30-39 years old, female, high school education and above, the teacher, medical and government staff, staff of other institutions, staff of other enterprises, other employees and the annual income of the family>45000 RMB were protective factors for health literacy. Aged between 50-69 years old was risk factor for health literacy. CONCLUSION: The level of health literacy in Haidian District was low. Various forms of intervention activities should be carried out to improve the residents' health literacy, especially focused on health lifestyle and behavior literacy, chronic disease control and prevention and basic medical care.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim , Cidades , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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