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1.
Water Res ; 168: 115140, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604177

RESUMO

The mitigation of microplastic pollution in the environment calls for a better understanding of the sources and transportation, especially from land sources to the open ocean. We conducted a large-scale investigation of microplastic pollution across the Greater Melbourne Area and the Western Port area, Australia, spanning gradients of land-use from un-developed catchments in conservation areas to more heavily-developed areas. Microplastics were detected in 94% of water samples and 96% of sediment samples, with abundances ranging from 0.06 to 2.5 items/L in water and 0.9 to 298.1 items/kg in sediment. The variation of microplastic abundance in sediments was closely related to that of the overlying waters. Fiber was the most abundant (89.1% and 68.6% of microplastics in water and sediment respectively), and polyester was the dominant polymer in water and sediment. The size of more than 40% of all total microplastics observed was less than 1 mm. Both light and dense polymers of different shapes were more abundant in sediments than those in water, indicating that there is microplastic accumulation in sediments. The abundance of microplastics was higher near coastal cities than at less densely-populated inland areas. A spatial analysis of the data suggests that the abundance of microplastics increases downstream in rivers and accumulates in estuaries and the lentic reaches of these rivers. Correlation and redundancy analysis were used to explore the associations between microplastic pollution and different land-use types. More microplastics and polymer types were found at areas with large amounts of commercial, industrial and transport activities. Microplastic abundances were also correlated with mean particle size. Microplastic hotspots within a coastal metropolis might be caused by a combination of natural accumulation via hydrological dynamics and contribution from increasing anthropogenic influences. Our results strongly suggest that coastal metropolis superimposed on increasing microplastic levels in waterbodies from inland areas to the estuaries and open oceans.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Austrália , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oceanos e Mares
2.
Water Res ; 168: 115139, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605832

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the most widely-used pesticide for weed control in agriculture and in urban and residential areas. This is the first study to quantify glyphosate and AMPA levels in surface water in Australia from different land uses. Glyphosate and AMPA was measured in surface water from 10 rural streams, 30 urban stormwater wetlands and 9 urban streams located in and around the city of Melbourne, Australia on five occasions between October 2017 and February 2018. Glyphosate and AMPA were present in most of the urban surface water samples. The frequency of detection of glyphosate was 77% in wetlands and 79% in urban streams, whereas it was only detected in 4% of the rural streams. Similarly, AMPA detection was 91% in wetlands and 97% in urban streams, whereas it was only present in 6% of the rural stream samples. In both urban streams and wetlands, the highest average glyphosate concentrations occurred in November (1.8 ±â€¯2.2 µg L-1). Overall, wetlands and streams associated with urban land use are vulnerable to glyphosate contamination. These results highlight the importance of screening for contaminants in urban stormwater to identify the source of pollutants that may end up in aquatic ecosystems and the risks therefrom.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Austrália , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Isoxazóis , Rios , Tetrazóis , Áreas Alagadas
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. METHODOLOGY: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). DISCUSSION: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. CONCLUSION: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190007, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the pattern of spatial distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) cases and the mortality attributed to this disease throughout the Brazilian territory, in 2005, 2016 and 2017. METHODS: This is an ecological study of spatial analysis, using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases and the Brazilian Mortality Information System. HBV detection and mortality rates were analyzed. The spatial analysis from 2005 to 2017 was held through the Global Moran's Index (I) for global data and the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) for the 5,564 municipalities of the country. RESULTS: The North region stands out with the highest HBV detection and mortality rates in the country. The Global Moran's I showed a spatial correlation of HBV cases in Brazil, and the LISA Map evidenced the presence of hotspots or spatial clusters (high-high type), mainly in the North region and also in some municipalities of Santa Catarina, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. CONCLUSION: The spatial analysis of the HBV distribution pattern in Brazil shows areas with a large concentration of cases, particularly in the North of the country and in other points distributed throughout the national territory. These data reinforce the urgency of intervention actions related to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 408-417, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596252

RESUMO

Trash is one of major pollutants in urban runoff. Some studies have been conducted to verify the different impacts of land use on trash generation in a qualitative way and focused on the performance of trash control measures. Few studies have explored the human impacts on trash generation or developed a quantitative model to describe the phenomenon. This paper examined the impact of human activity on trash generation. Spatial regimes on high trash generation areas were identified using the selected variables from best subset model regression and validated with Moran's I scatter plot and spatial analysis of variance. Bidirectional spatial lag regression with regimes was performed to develop the final model to explain the spatial distribution of trash generation and identify its major causes. The result showed that economic status and occupation of the population were correlated with trash accumulation and the dominant land use type, and the distance to rivers most affected trash generation. The effects of these indicators were different within and outside the high trash generation areas.


Assuntos
Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Resíduos de Alimentos , Humanos , Los Angeles , Eliminação de Resíduos , Rios , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109603, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586746

RESUMO

Air pollution control has become one of the top priorities of China's "Ecological Civilization" development. As a quick response to the 2013 PM2.5 episodes, the Chinese Government issued the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" as the national strategy and roadmap for air quality improvements consisting of phased quantitative targets and concrete measures. Taking this into account, this study explores the spatiotemporal variations of the five conventional pollutants-PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3-as well as the Air Quality Index and primary pollutants in 338 Chinese cities from 2013 to 2017 in order to comprehensively understand China's current air pollution situation and evaluate the effectiveness of the Action Plan. The results indicate that: (1) the overall air quality has been significantly improved, with the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 decreasing noticeably, although the still high PM level, the dramatically increasing O3 concentration, and the stagnant amounts of NO2 present further challenges, along with the intensification of regional compound air pollution problems; (2) in contrast to the three key regions under the Action Plan exhibiting significant decreases in PM and SO2, the Fen-Wei Plain (FWP) is suffering from serious compound pollution, suggesting that there is an urgent need for the development of a regional joint prevention and control mechanism in the FWP and similar areas; (3) with the exception of the common pollution hot spots mainly concentrated in the FWP as well as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and its surrounding regions, the distribution of each pollutant exhibited remarkable spatial heterogeneity due to their distinctive emission sources, a finding that strongly indicates the need for regionally differentiated management; and (4) the most frequent primary pollutant at the national level was O3, followed by PM2.5 and PM10. In the Wuhan Metropolitan Area (WHM), Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Metropolitan Area (CZT), and Sichuan-Chongqing Region (CY), PM2.5 pollution is playing the dominant role, while in the FWP, BTH, Yangtze River Delta region (YRD), and Pearl River Delta region (PRD), the synergistic control of PM2.5 and O3 pollutants is urgently needed as soon as possible, which will require that more attention be paid to emission mitigation in the transportation sector, as well as the synergistic control of NOx and VOC emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Melhoria de Qualidade
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594123

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the situation and characteristics of out-patient utilization of urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients in Jiangsu province, and to provide a reference for the formulation of relevant policies. Methods: Using a questionnaire on patients with pneumoconiosis and their influencing factors, 120 patients with pneumoconiosis were randomly selected in Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, Yancheng Vocational Defense Institute or CDC. The rate of outpatients with pneumoconiosis in urban and rural areas and the choice of out-patient hospitals were analyzed. Results: Of the 75 patients with severe pneumoconi-related symptoms such as chest tightness and dyspnea in the first two weeks of the survey, 36 (48.0%) lived in cities and 39 (52.0%) lived in rural areas. Patients with pneumoconiosis who live in urban and rural areas have different aggravating conditions within two weeks. Two weeks of aggravated symptoms in outpatient consultations accounted for36 (48.0%) . Of the 36 patients who used outpatient treatment, rural residents mainly chose 8 people from a hospital and a township health hospital, accounting for 34.8%, while 10 people from urban residents chose a nursing home or nursing home, accounting for 40.0%. The main reason why urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients did not go to the doctor is "conscious symptoms are lighter" and "feel that the doctor is useless." Conclusion: The rate of outpatients with pneumoconiosis in Jiangsu province within two weeks is lower than that of ordinary elderly residents. There may be differences in treatment behavior patterns of urban and rural pneumoconiosis patients.Economic factors have a certain influence on the outpatient treatment behavior of pneumoconiosis patients. The recognition of outpatient service is the main factor affecting the outpatient treatment of pneumoconiosis patients. It is very important to popularize the knowledge of pneumoconiosis and do a good job in propaganda of occupational diseases and health education for pneumoconiosis patients. Focusing on the outpatient treatment of pneumoconiosis patients and making targeted medical policies is very important to standardize and improve the rehabilitation of pneumoconiosis patients.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose , China , Cidades , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , População Rural , População Urbana
8.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109619, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574374

RESUMO

China is now facing the formidable tasks of saving energy and reducing emissions, so it is very important to analyze China's energy and environmental efficiency. However, previous studies have rarely paid attention to the cross-impacts that different forms of public environmental concern (PEC) have simultaneously on energy and environmental efficiency. To investigate how these two types of efficiency change along with PEC variations, this paper employs six extended programming models which are developed based upon the theory of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the directional distance function (DDF). An empirical analysis of data from 239 Chinese prefecture-level cities demonstrates the techniques. The empirical results show that PEC variations can significantly affect the environmental efficiency only if the city is experiencing unsustainable development. This work also shows that PEC about input resources may exaggerate the environmental efficiency, implying that the public may be more tolerant of resource over-consumption than of pollutant over-emission.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Cidades , Pesquisa Empírica
9.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109545, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574375

RESUMO

Rapid and large-scale industrial growth has imposed tremendous challenges to the sustainable development of cities in China. The evaluation of the environmental sustainability of industrial planning has become a top priority for improving urban sustainability. In this regard, a goal-oriented framework, called three-line environmental governance, was proposed in the latest Chinese environmental management policy. Three lines, consisting of an ecological conservation red line, an environmental quality bottom line and a resource utilization upper limit line are to be taken into account when evaluating the potential effects of an urban industrial development plan. In this paper, the fuzzy axiomatic design system was applied in the development of an evaluation process and an indicator system that can be used to evaluate industrial alternatives that are established based on the three lines requirement. In an application of this methodology, the Industrial Green Development Plan of the city of Ordos was taken as a case study to recommend an optimal alternative. The target accessibilities of five alternatives were evaluated by conducting a comprehensive comparison among the alternatives meeting the environmental sustainability objectives of all of the indicators. This research shows that the evaluation of environmental sustainability on the basis of the three-line environmental governance policy is an effective way of promoting industrial green development and integrating environmental management requirements into urban industrial planning. It proposes not only a universal process for evaluating the environmental sustainability of urban industrial alternatives, but also a feasible method of tracking and evaluating the performance of industrial green development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Cidades , Crescimento Sustentável
10.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109600, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581044

RESUMO

Information disclosure in environmental governance, or informational governance conceptualized by Arthur Mol, has been increasingly utilized as a policy instrument to incentivize environmental policy enforcement in not only democratic societies but also authoritarian regimes like China. This study uses an explicit regulation, the air pollution ranking in Chinese cities as an example to illustrate how such informational governance policy instrument has an impact on local air pollution governance. Empirical evidence is based on monthly comprehensive air quality index ranking data of 74 key monitoring cities in China from 2013 to 2018. And a regression discontinuity design is applied to explore the relationship between air pollution ranking and air quality improvement in localities. The results show that (1) air quality of the bottom ten cities in the ranking will improve in the coming month compared with their counterparts; (2) such improvement happens upon the releasing of the ranking, but would not last for more than a month; (3) while top ten cities in the ranking do not experience such change in air quality. Therefore, we argue that the air pollution ranking system in China can be a useful informational governance instrument in providing negative incentives for environmental administrations in bottom cities to strengthen air pollution control. However, as a top-down environmental information disclosure program, such ranking institution could only mobilize local air quality governance temporarily. And new institutions ought to be established to further internalized local governments' environmental externalities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1012-1017, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607047

RESUMO

Objective: Using three models too estimate excess mortality associated with influenza of Shanxi Province during 2013-2017. Methods: Mortality data and influenza surveillance data of 11 cities of Shanxi Province from the 2013-2014 through 2016-2017 were used to estimate influenza-associated all cause deaths, circulatory and respiratory deaths and respiratory deaths. Three models were used: (i) Serfling regression, (ii)Poisson regression, (iii)General line model. Results: The total reported death cases of all cause were 157 733, annual death cases of all cause were 39 433, among these cases, male cases 93 831 (59.50%), cases above 65 years old 123 931 (78.57%). Annual influenza-associated excess mortality, for all causes, circulatory and respiratory deaths, respiratory deaths were 8.62 deaths per 100 000, 6.33 deaths per 100 000 and 0.68 deaths per 100 000 estimated by Serfling model, respectively; and 21.30 deaths per 100 000, 16.89 deaths per 100 000 and 2.14 deaths per 100 000 estimated by General line model, respectively; and 21.76 deaths per 100 000, 17.03 deaths per 100 000 and 2.05 deaths per 100 000, estimated by Poisson model, respectively. Influenza-related excess mortality was higher in people over 75 years old; influenza-associated excess mortalityfor all causes, circulatory and respiratory deaths, respiratory deaths were 259.67 deaths per 100 000, 229.90 deaths per 100 000 and 32.63 deaths per 100 000, estimated by GLM model, respectively; and 269.49 deaths per 100 000, 233.69 deaths per 100 000 and 31.27 deaths per 100 000, estimated by Poisson model,respectively. Conclusion: Excess mortality associated with influenza mainly caused by A (H3N2), Influenza caused the most associated death amongold people.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Mortalidade/tendências
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1018-1021, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607048

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the current status and related factors of influenza vaccination among health care workers (HCWs) in tertiary hospitals of Xining city after the implementation of the free influenza vaccination policy. Methods: In August 2018, the cluster sampling method was used to select four medical institutions in Xining that had previously conducted investigations and interventions. All HCWs(excluding logistic staff) in each medical institution were included in the study. A total of 3 260 valid respondents were included. Questionnaires were used to collect the demographic characteristics, influenza and influenza vaccination awareness, implementation of free policy in the influenza epidemic season from 2017 to 2018, influenza vaccination status, awareness of influenza vaccination schedule and free policy. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze related factors of influenza vaccination. Results: The age of respondents was (31.41±5.00) years. The influenza vaccination rate was 6.80% (226/3 260) in 2017-2018 influenza epidemic season. After controlling for related factors, the awareness of the influenza vaccination schedule (OR=17.05, 95%CI: 5.86-49.59), vaccination frequency (OR=8.22, 95%CI: 2.98-22.61) and the free policy (OR=3.15, 95%CI: 1.49-6.67) had higher vaccination rate. Conclusion: The influenza vaccination rate of HCWs in tertiary hospitals of Xining city was low. Increasing the awareness of the vaccination schedule, frequency and free policy may promote the influenza vaccination rate of HCWs.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , China , Cidades , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinação
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1059-1062, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607056

RESUMO

Research participants were recruited at 16 elderly activity centers among three cities in Macao, Hong Kong and Guangzhou. A total of 324 people were surveyed, with women ≥ 55 years old and men ≥ 60 years old; There were 90, 100 and 134 in Macao, Hong Kong and Guangzhou respectively. The median (P(25), P(75)) score of the social support rating scale (SSRS) for the elderly was 30 (25, 38) for Macao, 24 (20, 29) for Hong Kong and 30 (26, 37) for Guangzhou respectively. The elderly in Macao and Guangzhou had a higher proportion of the SSRS in the middle and high groups (85.20%, 84.50%) when compared to the elderly in Hong Kong (62.10%) (P<0.05). The city, marital status, and personal well-being index are related to SSRS scores.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Apoio Social , Idoso , China , Cidades , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Macau , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17419, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577756

RESUMO

Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to estimate HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in first-line megacities cities (>10 million residents) in China, but few in the second-line large- or middle-size cities. This study was to investigate HIV incidence and cohort retention among MSM in a second-line city Hangzhou in eastern China.A total of 523 HIV-seronegative MSM were recruited during September 2014 to September 2015, and were followed up prospectively at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Questionnaire interviews were conducted, and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate baseline syphilis infection and HIV seroconversions. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were used to identify factors associated with cohort retention rate and syphilis prevalence.Of 523 participants, 137 (26.2%) completed 6-month follow-up, and use of Internet for recruiting study participants (vs other recruitments: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3-0.8) and being homosexual (vs heterosexual or bisexual: AOR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) were associated with lower cohort retention. The overall HIV incidence during 12 months of follow-up was 6.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 3.4-9.8/100 PY). The prevalence of syphilis at baseline was 6.5% (95% CI: 4.4%-8.6%), and disclosing sexual orientation (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) was associated with lower risk of syphilis infection.HIV is spreading rapidly among MSM in the second-line Chinese city. Effective interventions are needed to target this population in both first-line megacities and second-line large and middle-size cities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Retenção nos Cuidados , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1099-1105, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594153

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution and both hot and cold spots of incidence on Brucellosis in Gansu province from 2013 to 2018. Methods: Based on data from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information System in China, data related to space-time distribution and both hot and cold spots of Brucellosis in Gansu province from 2013 to 2018 were analyzed, by using the ArcGIS 10.5 software and GeoDa 1.6 software. Results: The trend surface analysis showed that the incidence of Brucellosis decreased gradually from the northern to southern parts with slightly higher in the west than in the east of Gansu. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the Moran's I of Brucellosis in Gansu province from 2013 to 2018 were 0.242, 0.487, 0.424, 0.460, 0.427 and 0.468 (P<0.01), suggesting that the incidence of Brucellosis had spatial clustering features in Gansu province. Local global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the number of hot spots were declining in the eastern and north-central regions while the hot spots were increasing in the Hexi area (Wuwei, Zhangye, Jinchang and Jiuquan cities). The cold spots areas were mainly seen in the eastern, southeastern and south of central regions in Gansu province. Conclusions: The incidence of Brucellosis showed obviously spatial clustering characteristics in Gansu province. The number of hot spots were decreasing in the eastern and north of central regions while the hot spots were increasing in the Hexi area, suggesting that the prevention and control measures for Brucellosis should be further strengthened in these areas.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Análise Espaço-Temporal
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1120-1124, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594157

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the dynamics and epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Shaanxi province during 2009-2018 and provide evidence for prevention and control of HFMD. Methods: Information on HFMD was collected from the Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information System in Shaanxi Province during 2009-2018 and was analyzed by descriptive, dynamic geometric series averaging and circular distribution methods. Results: The annual average incidence rate of HFMD was 140.04/100 000 in Shaanxi province during 2009-2018. The highest incidence rates were seen in age groups as 1-year olds (3 494.24/100 000), 2-year olds (2 734.79/100 000) and 3-year olds (2 608.58/100 000). The highest reported mortality rates appeared in: 1-year olds as 1.42/100 000, 2-year olds as 0.77/100 000) and 0-year olds (0.53/100 000). The incidence rate increased most rapidly in the 1-year olds and the 0-year olds groups. The top three incidence rates were reported in Xi'an (251.34/100 000), Weinan (161.21/100 000) and Xianyang (123.73/100 000) cities in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi province. In the whole province, incidence rate was on the rise, and the average increases of incidence rates were all greater than zero in these cities. The proportion of severe cases in most cities somehow declined. Results from the circular distribution method estimated that the peak incidence would appear in April 10-11 each year, and the high incidence season was from April to July. In 2018, the composition of enterviruses (EV) 71 was 26.47% (1 303/4 922). In 2014 to 2018, the proportion of Coxsackie virus A16 (Cox A16) was between 20.06%(753/3 753) and 23.08% (855/3 705). The proportions of other EVs increased from 6.09% (14/230) to 51.91% (2 555/4 922) during 2009-2018. Conclusions: The overall incidence rate of HFMD was increasing, with high risk population appeared in children under 3 year olds, in Shaanxi province during 2009-2018. However, both mortality and fatality rates were declining, with severe cases also showing a downward trend in most of the areas. Composition of pathogens was changing over time.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the infestation of the municipalities of São Paulo by the vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, characterize seasonality and analyze average temperatures and larval densities. METHODS: We used maps with information on the infestation of municipalities between 1986 and 2015. The analysis of larval density of the species by the Wilcoxon test used the Breteau index values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from the Superintendency for Endemic Diseases Control database. In the seasonal description, arithmetic means of each vector were calculated by month and year. Mean temperature analyses were presented on maps with color gradients. RESULTS: The state of São Paulo is currently almost totally infested, with co-occurrence of species in 93.64% of the municipalities. The seasonality analysis showed the first quarter as the most favorable period for larval abundance. The increase of mean temperatures in geographical areas coincided with the temporal trajectory of Ae. aegypti territorial expansion. The mean larval density found was higher for Ae. aegypti than for Ae. albopictus (p = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Initially, these Culicidae occupied distinct and opposing areas. Over time, however, co-occurrence showed how great their capacity for adaptation is, even in the face of different social and urban conjunctures. The increase of the mean temperature contributed to Ae. Aegypti 's geographic expansion, as well as to the clearly seasonal profile of both species. In general, larval infestation by Ae. aegypti prevailed, which evidenced its competitive superiority. These data provide a better understanding of the dynamics of arboviral transmission in the state of São Paulo and can be used in vector surveillance and control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovirus , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3303-3315, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621216

RESUMO

Urban greenspace, which serves as a place for residents to connect with nature and relax, provides important ecosystem services. Access to greenspace is often related to the socio-economic characteristics of residents, which received a lot attention from researchers and practitioners. Previous studies have mostly focused on single city to analyze the spatial relationship between greenspace distribution and residents' characteristics. We conducted a meta-analysis with global studies. The objectives were to classify findings from different cases and investigate the impacts from the location of research area, indicator and analytical method, and summarized major factors influen-cing the relationship between greenspace distribution and residents' characteristics. The results showed that more than half of the cases (58.2%) found that the socially advantaged population benefited more from greenspace. About a quarter cases (25.4%) revealed the opposite, that was, the disadvantaged population benefited more from greenspace. The remaining case studies (16.4%) did not find significant correlation between them. The studies reviewed here were diverse in terms of scale, indicator selection, and analytical method. Overall, we found no connection between finding and the choice of scale/indicator/analytical method. The reviewed case studies were mostly conducted in cities of western countries, which differed in their development trajectories and urban characteristics from cities in China. To understand association between urban greenspace and residents' characteristics in China, we urged to carry out more local studies, which would potentially provide scientific evidence for building sustainable cities during rapid urbanization.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3403-3410, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621226

RESUMO

Residential area, usually consisting of buildings and vegetation, is one of the dominant land use types and an important kind of habitat in the urban area. Therefore, it plays an important role in urban biodiversity conservation. Previous studies found that plant diversity abroad in urban residential areas was influenced by socioeconomic factors. However, it is not clear whether this result hold for Chinese cities which have completely different urban management regime. In this study, we investigated plant species diversity in 39 residential neighborhoods in Shanghai. Biodiversity indexes, regression analysis, and partial least square regression analysis were employed to estimate the relationships between plant diversity and socioeconomic factors of population density, house price, house age and greenspace coverage. Our results showed that socioeconomic factors did affect plant diversity in urban residential areas in Shanghai. The effects varied with plant species, population density, house price, house age, and greenspace coverage. The house age had the strongest effect on most plant taxa, then followed by population density, house price, and greenspace coverage. We tested the hypotheses of "luxury effect" and "legacy effect", and found that they only partially explained the spatial distribution of plant taxa in Shanghai. These results could provide insights for management and conservation of plant diversity, as well as urban landscape planning and design in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Plantas , China , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3563-3571, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621244

RESUMO

We monitored the type and content of airborne pollen in Haidian District, Beijing City from 2012 to 2016 by the gravity precipitation method, and analyzed the variety of pollen, peak distribution features and changes of its content, and discontinuous variation of concentration. Multiple time scale analysis was carried out for pollen concentration by the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD). The relationship between pollen concentration and meteorological factors was analyzed. The results indicated that during the research period, the main types of airborne pollen changed. Woody plants such as Cupressaceae and Salicaceae instead of herbaceous plants contributed the most content of pollen. There was no significant change of the yearly peak distribution of pollen concentration. The concentration in recent five years reduced, while the concentration of herbaceous plants (such as Scolopacjdae) increased. During the statistics period, pollen concentration showed discontinuous changes in early April, late May and early August. Pollen concentration had the change cycle of quasi 2 d, quasi 51 d and quasi 128 d. Among all meteorological factors, temperature played a dominant role in driving the concentration, which may significantly rise during 16 to 18 ℃. The impact of temperature changes on the daily concentration may be delayed and continuous; it is often highly related to the concentration 2-7 d later. Sunshine duration and wind speed had the most significant impact on daily pollen concentration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pólen , Estações do Ano
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