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1.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 20, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At 10 a.m. on January 23, 2020 Wuhan, China imposed a 76-day travel lockdown on its 11 million residents in order to stop the spread of COVID-19. This lockdown represented the largest quarantine in the history of public health and provides us with an opportunity to critically examine the relationship between a city lockdown on human mobility and controlling the spread of a viral epidemic, in this case COVID-19. This study aims to assess the causal impact of the Wuhan lockdown on population movement and the increase of newly confirmed COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Based on the daily panel data from 279 Chinese cities, our research is the first to apply the synthetic control approach to empirically analyze the causal relationship between the Wuhan lockdown of its population mobility and the progression of newly confirmed COVID-19 cases. By using a weighted average of available control cities to reproduce the counterfactual outcome trajectory that the treated city would have experienced in the absence of the lockdown, the synthetic control approach overcomes the sample selection bias and policy endogeneity problems that can arise from previous empirical methods in selecting control units. RESULTS: In our example, the lockdown of Wuhan reduced mobility inflow by approximately 60 % and outflow by about 50 %. A significant reduction of new cases was observed within four days of the lockdown. The increase in new cases declined by around 50% during this period. However, the suppression effect became less discernible after this initial period of time. A 2.25-fold surge was found for the increase in new cases on the fifth day following the lockdown, after which it died down rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided urgently needed and reliable causal evidence that city lockdown can be an effective short-term tool in containing and delaying the spread of a viral epidemic. Further, the city lockdown strategy can buy time during which countries can mobilize an effective response in order to better prepare. Therefore, in spite of initial widespread skepticism, lockdowns are likely to be added to the response toolkit used for any future pandemic outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Cidades , Humanos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The preventive measures to be taken in the face of a new epidemic require knowledge of the number of infected and which groups are most vulnerable. To know the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in the city of Madrid and its 21 districts in the first 4 months of the epidemic and its relationship with some socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional ecological study (39,270 cases). The 39,270 cases diagnosed from the beginning of the pandemic until June 26, 2020, published by the Comunidad de Madrid in were studied. In the districts, the distribution of gross and fair incidence is related to the ones of the independent variables (Municipal Statistics and Estudio de Salud 2018, Madrid Salud). The Incidence and the r and r2 coefficients, obtained with the factors and the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model, are studied. RESULTS: The city of Madrid presents a cumulative incidence of COVID-19, which is double the national one (100), with a Standardized Cumulative Incidence Ratio (RIAE) of 204.59 per 100. The districts with the most RIAE were those in the southeast, all>240 per 100. In the districts, the per capita household rate, the per capita income, and the mortality rate from infectious diseases in men reached high and inverse correlations with RIAE (all r>-0.3). The RLM model with these 3 indicators predicts 30% of the RIAES. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between material wealth and the risk of COVID-19 infection is inverse. The knowledge in the districts of per capita income, household rate and mortality rate due to infectious diseases in men reduces the uncertainty about the accumulated incidence by 30%.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Deescalation began in May 2020 increases social interaction, which has an influence on COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was the characterization of COVID-19 cases detected during this period. METHODS: We analyzed certain variables of interest coming from the epidemiological surveys carried out in an area of Madrid during May 2020, and stratified the results depending on its temporal relation with the deescalation. Prevalence for each category of response and average duration in minutes of the telephonic call were calculated. Confidence intervals were estimated at 95%. RESULTS: We included 167 cases, being 30.5% of them incident and 49.1% prevalent. The main source of infection was home (38.0%; CI 95% 31.4-46.2). Regarding healthcare and social care workers, the main source of infection was workplace (93.0%; 85.4-100). Average number of close contacts per case was 2.0 (1.8-2.2), being 1.5 (1.0-2.0) among pre-deescalation incident cases and 2.4 (1.8-3.0) among those post-deescalation. Average duration of each survey was 35.9 minutes (32.2-38.9), being 32.1 (24.4-39.8) among pre-deescalation incident cases and 37.0 (29.6-44.4) among those post-deescalation. Most of the contacts were household, both before and after beginning of deescalation. CONCLUSIONS: Home is the most prevalent place for the acquisition of the infection among general population, while workplace is the most prevalent among healthcare and social care workers. The initial phase of deescalation do not represents a change regarding sources of infection, but it may increase the number of close contacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 601592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222164

RESUMO

Containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is a daunting challenge globally. China, as well as a handful of other countries, has, for the most part, contained it by implementing strict policies. Wuhan's citywide virus-testing program presents a way forward in preventing and controlling the uncertainty, anxiety, instability and complexity it faces over the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. Inarguably, the health crisis requires time-tested strategies and tactics for coordinating governments' and social entities' response to the health crisis, with a goal toward having and ensuring sustained effectiveness. Because of a possible recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, the Prevention and Control Headquarters of Wuhan on COVID-19 launched a massive virus testing of Wuhan's 11 million residents; it was completed within 10 days. In light of this unprecedented mass testing, this study applies the situational crisis communication theory to analyze this massive virus-testing process and the mechanisms involved to contain SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan. While many countries still have partial lockdowns, the second outbreak in Wuhan was an indication of what awaited all SARS-CoV-2-stricken countries post-lockdowns and after community restrictions had been lifted. Therefore, the recently implemented Wuhan control mechanism (in cities, districts and townships) may become a hortatory guide to other world regions as they contend with and consider appropriate measures to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and to ensure public safety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Surtos de Doenças , Governo , Humanos
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 472, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226970

RESUMO

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of vegetation on land surface temperature (LST) in different land uses and covers in Vilnius district in 1999 and 2019. To that end, in addition to mono-window and split-window algorithms that help estimate the LST, the variables digital elevation model (DEM), slope, heat load index (HLI), distances from the road and the water, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the normalized difference water index (NDWI) affecting the surface temperature were used. Furthermore, the random forest regression (RFR) method was applied to evaluate the effect of the mentioned variables on the LST. The performance model was also assessed by using the mean absolute (MAE), mean squared (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the results, NDVI and NDWI indexes had the greatest impact on the temperature of Vilnius city, respectively. The study area images were categorized as built-up area, cropland, semi-forest land, dense forest land, water bodies, pastures, and green urban areas. It was found that the pastures in 1999 and the built-up class in 2019 received the highest temperature from the land surface and that the classes characterized by natural land cover such as forest land and agricultural and water bodies had a relatively low surface temperature. NDVI response curves in both 1999 and 2019 indicated that the higher the density of vegetation on the land surface, the lower the surface temperature. A lower rate of urbanization, a higher density of vegetation and consequently, a lower the temperature of the land surface were recorded for 1999 in comparison with 2019. Therefore, urbanization was demonstrated to play a significant role in changes in LULC and the increase in LST.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 26-38, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210437

RESUMO

To investigate the air quality change during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed spatiotemporal variations of six criteria pollutants in nine typical urban agglomerations in China using ground-based data and examined meteorological influences through correlation analysis and backward trajectory analysis under different responses. Concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2 and CO in urban agglomerations respectively decreased by 18%-45% (30%-62%), 17%-53% (22%-39%), 47%-64% (14%-41%), 9%-34% (0%-53%) and 16%-52% (23%-56%) during Lockdown (Post-lockdown) period relative to Pre-lockdown period. PM2.5 pollution events occurred during Lockdown in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebe (BTH) and Middle and South Liaoning (MSL), and daily O3 concentration rose to grade Ⅱ standard in Post-lockdown period. Distinct from the nationwide slump of NO2 during Lockdown period, a rebound (∼40%) in Post-lockdown period was observed in Cheng-Yu (CY), Yangtze River Middle-Reach (YRMR), Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Pearl River Delta (PRD). With slightly higher wind speed compared with 2019, the reduction of PM2.5 (51%-62%) in Post-lockdown period is more than 2019 (15%-46%) in HC (Harbin-Changchun), MSL, BTH, CP (Central Plain) and SP (Shandong-Peninsula), suggesting lockdown measures are effective to PM2.5 alleviation. Although O3 concentrations generally increased during the lockdown, its increment rate declined compared with 2019 under similar sunlight duration and temperature. Additionally, unlike HC, MSL and BTH, which suffered from additional (> 30%) air masses from surrounding areas after the lockdown, the polluted air masses reaching YRD and PRD mostly originated from the long-distance transport, highlighting the importance of joint regional governance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 97-104, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210443

RESUMO

The world's top ranked mega city Delhi is known for deteriorated air quality. However, the analysis of air pollution data of 5 years (2014-2018) reveals that years 2016 and 2017, which were marked by an unusual delayed withdrawal of monsoon, witnessed an unprecedented extreme levels of toxic PM2.5 particles (≤2.5 µm in diameter) touching a peak level of ∼760 µg/m3 (24 hr average), immediately after the monsoon retreat, surpassing WHO standards by ∼30 time and Indian national standards by ∼12 times, jeopardising lives of its citizens. However, the normal monsoon withdrawal years do not show such extreme levels of pollution. The high resolution WRF-Chem model along with meteorological data are used in this work to understand that how the delayed monsoon withdrawal and associated vagarious anti-cyclonic circulation resulted in trapping externally generated pollutants ceaselessly under colder conditions, leading to historic air quality crisis in landlocked mega city in these selected years. The sensitivity analysis confirmed that when WRF-chem model forced the climatology of normal monsoon year (2015) to simulate the pollution scenario of 2016 and 2017 for the above time period, the crisis subsided. Present findings suggest that such unusual monsoon patterns are on the hook to spur extreme pollution events in recent time.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2158-2168, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212622

RESUMO

The research on spatial pattern and optimization of regional ecological carrying capacity is especially necessary to promote the overall development of economic transformation, upgrading and ecological protection and restoration. This study chose the natural, social and economic complex ecosystem of Jiangsu coastal area as subject. The concept model of pressure-state-potential (PSP) of ecological carrying capacity was established. A total of 15 indices were used to represent the interaction of three level states. With the support of GIS and other space technologies, the magnitude, spatial variation of regional ecological carrying capacity were examined through comprehensive evaluation of multiple indices and analysis of single index. Results showed that the spatial pattern of the suitability of single factor ecological carrying capacity in Jiangsu coastal area showed a variety of trends. There were significant differences in the area, proportion and layout of the same index across different cities and counties. The spatial differentiation of pressure and state superposition index showed that low pressure suitable bearing, low pressure generally suitable bearing, low pressure unsuitable bearing, high pressure suitable bearing, high pressure generally suitable bearing, bearing high pressure unsuitable bearing area was 3971.42, 6885.21, 3705.23, 4597.03, 6853.26, and 6403.97 km2, accounting for 12.3%, 21.2%, 11.4%, 14.2%, 21.1% and 19.8% of the total area, respectively. The results of spatial differentiation of superposition index of state and potential showed that the area integral of low potential suitable bearing, low potential general sui-table bearing, low potential unsuitable bearing, high potential suitable bearing, high potential general sui-table bearing and high potential unsuitable bearing was 3030.79, 6545.30, 5874.31, 3253.31, 7614.38, and 6097.83 km2, accounting for 9.4%, 20.2%, 18.1%, 10.0%, 23.5% and 18.8% of the total area, respectively. Most areas showed distribution characteristics of low pressure bearing area corresponding to high potential bearing area and high pressure bearing area corresponding to low potential bearing area in spatial pattern. There was an interaction of mutual influence, mutual promotion and collaborative promotion between pressure and state superposition index and state and potential superposition index.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2169-2179, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212623

RESUMO

Using the four periods of land use data and socio-economic statistics of Lanzhou City in 1995, 2005, 2015 and 2018, we examined the evolution characteristics and driving forces of urban land use in Lanzhou, with expansion intensity index, Logistic regression, and principal component analysis method. Based on the multi-agent model, the expansion of urban land use in Lanzhou under multiple scenarios in 2025 was simulated using Netlogo software. The results showed that the intensity and scale of urban land expansion in Lanzhou City from 1995 to 2018 showed an increasing trend, with a total of 307 km2 of cultivated land and water area. The expansion of urban land in Lanzhou City was significantly related to regional GDP, social fixed asset investment, population density, population, policy, and terrain. The multi-agent model on the Netlogo software could simulate the expansion trend of urban land in Lanzhou, which provided a reliable simulation method for the expansion of valley-type cities. From 2020 to 2025, urban land use under the comprehensive development scenario, natural expansion development scenario, ecological and farmland protection development scenario all showed an increasing trend. The scale of expansion would range between 42.6-134.3 km2. The expansion mode would mainly be infilled expansion. Our results could provide decision support for the land space planning and ecological environment layout optimization for Lanzhou City.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Simulação por Computador
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 457, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213656

RESUMO

After the concept of ecological efficiency (eco-efficiency) was put forward and constantly supplemented, it generally refers to the maximization of economic benefits with minimum energy consumption and environmental damage. In a new eco-efficiency model proposed by this paper, the input indexes take into account the consumption of capital, human, resources and energy, and the environmental load caused by them. The output indexes take into account GDP, income, and tax revenue. An optimal weighted cross-evaluation efficiency (OWCE) model based on data standardization is proposed, by improving the traditional data envelopment models of CCR and BCC. The OWCE model not only objectively weights but also unifies the comparison scale, and facilitates the establishment of the super-efficiency decomposition model, which is conducive to further exploring the reasons for the difference of eco-efficiency in various regions. Empirically, the eco-efficiencies of 11 provinces (municipalities) along the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) were analyzed based on the data from 2008 to 2019. The results show that there has been a serious imbalance in the 11 provinces, showing a trend of high in the east and low in the west, although the eco-efficiency has been improving continuously in the past 10 years. Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, which are located in the traditional Yangtze River lower delta region, are the top in terms of eco-efficiency, among which Shanghai ranks the first place with absolute advantage, and also is far ahead in sub-efficiencies of basic input, energy consumption, capital and human input, and environmental cost. Geographical location, especially whether it is close to the ocean, and the length of river flow have a certain positive impact on eco-efficiency. Through in-depth analysis, high-energy consumption, high pollution, and low economic output are the main reasons for low eco-efficiency in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1373, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged initially in China in December 2019 causing the COVID-19 disease, which quickly spread worldwide. Iran was one of the first countries outside China to be affected in a major way and is now under the spell of a fourth wave. This study aims to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases in north-eastern Iran through mapping the spatiotemporal trend of the disease. METHODS: The study comprises data of 4000 patients diagnosed by laboratory assays or clinical investigation from the beginning of the disease on Feb 14, 2020, until May 11, 2020. Epidemiological features and spatiotemporal trends of the disease in the study area were explored by classical statistical approaches and Geographic Information Systems. RESULTS: Most common symptoms were dyspnoea (69.4%), cough (59.4%), fever (54.4%) and weakness (19.5%). Approximately 82% of those who did not survive suffered from dyspnoea. The highest Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was related to those with cardiovascular disease (27.9%) and/or diabetes (18.1%). Old age (≥60 years) was associated with an almost five-fold increased CFR. Odds Ratio (OR) showed malignancy (3.8), nervous diseases (2.2), and respiratory diseases (2.2) to be significantly associated with increased CFR with developments, such as hospitalization at the ICU (2.9) and LOS (1.1) also having high correlations. Furthermore, spatial analyses revealed a geographical pattern in terms of both incidence and mortality rates, with COVID-19 first being observed in suburban areas from where the disease swiftly spread into downtown reaching a peak between 25 February to 06 March (4 incidences per km2). Mortality peaked 3 weeks later after which the infection gradually decreased. Out of patients investigated by the spatiotemporal approach (n = 727), 205 (28.2%) did not survive and 66.8% of them were men. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults and people with severe co-morbidities were at higher risk for developing serious complications due to COVID-19. Applying spatiotemporal methods to identify the transmission trends and high-risk areas can rapidly be documented, thereby assisting policymakers in designing and implementing tailored interventions to control and prevent not only COVID-19 but also other rapidly spreading epidemics/pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 683683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249847

RESUMO

Background: During the lockdown for COVID-19, a massive decrease in hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and a drop in air pollution were both detected in Italy. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between these two events at the Province of Terni, one of the most polluted urban and industrial area in Central Italy. Methods: We analyzed data of daily 24-h urban air concentrations of particulate matter (PM)10 and PM2.5 from fixed station monitoring network located in the main city centers of the Terni province, and accesses for ACS at the catheterization laboratory of the Cardiological Hub Center of the Terni University Hospital during lockdown. A comparison was made with data corresponding to the same lockdown time period of years 2019, 2018, and 2017. Results: Invasive procedures for ACS decreased in 2020 (n = 49) as compared with previous years (n = 93 in 2019, n = 109 in 2018, and n = 89 in 2017, p < 0.001). Conversely, reductions in average PM10 (20.7 µg/m3) and PM2.5 (14.7 µg/m3) in 2020 were consistent with a long-term decreasing trend, being comparable to those recorded in 2019 and 2018 (all p > 0.05) and slightly lower than 2017 (p < 0.05). The Granger-causality test demonstrated the lack of association between time-varying changes in air pollution and the number of procedures for ACS. Conclusions: Our results did not support the hypothesis that reduction in invasive procedures for ACS during lockdown was linked to an air cleaning effect. Reasons other than reduced air pollution should be sought to explain the observed decrease in ACS procedures.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(5): 3416, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241134

RESUMO

The lockdown measures in Spain due to COVID-19 social measures showed a wide decrease in the urban noise levels observed. This paper presents an analysis of the noise levels in Girona, a 100 000 citizen city in the North-East of Catalonia (Spain). We present the LAeq levels in four different locations from January 2020 to June 2020, including all the stages of the lockdown. Several comparisons are conducted with the monitoring data available from the previous years (2019, 2018, and 2017, when available). This analysis is part of the project "Sons al Balcó," which aims to draw the soundscape of Catalonia during the lockdown. The results of the analysis in Girona show drastic LAeq changes especially in nightlife areas of the city, moderate LAeq changes in commercial and restaurants areas, and low LAeq changes in dense traffic areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(6): 3902, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241433

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly modified the behavior of societies. The application of isolation measures during the crisis resulted in changes in the acoustic environment. The aim of this work was to characterize the perception of the acoustic environment during the COVID-19 lockdown of people residing in Argentina in 2020. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational study was carried out. A virtual survey was conducted from April 14 to 26, 2020, and was answered mainly by social network users. During this period, Argentina was in a strict lockdown. The sample was finally composed of 1371 people between 18 and 79 years old. It was observed that most of the participants preferred the new acoustic environment. Mainly in the larger cities, before the isolation, mechanical sounds predominated, accompanied by the perception of irritation. Confinement brought a decrease in mechanical sounds and an increase in biological sounds, associated with feelings of tranquility and happiness. The time window opened by the lockdown offered an interesting scenario to assess the effect of anthropogenic noise pollution on the urban environment. This result offers a subjective approach, which contributes to understanding the link between individuals and communities with the environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Acústica , Argentina , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282802

RESUMO

The management and collection of household waste often represents a demanding task for elderly or impaired people. In particular, the increasing generation of plastic waste at home may pose a problem for these groups, as this type of waste accumulates very rapidly and occupies a considerable amount of space. This paper proposes a collaborative infrastructure to monitor household plastic waste. It consists of simple smart bins using a weight scale and a smart application that forecasts the amount of plastic generated for each bin at different time horizons out of the data provided by the smart bins. The application generates optimal routes for the waste-pickers collaborating in the system through a route-planning algorithm. This algorithm takes into account the predicted amount of plastic of each bin and the waste-picker's location and means of transport. This proposal has been evaluated by means of a simulated scenario in Quezon City, Philippines, where severe problems with plastic waste have been identified. A set of 176 experiments have been performed to collect data that allow representing different user behaviors when generating plastic waste. The results show that our proposal enables waste-pickers to collect more than the 80% of the household plastic-waste bins before they are completely full.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Idoso , Cidades , Humanos , Filipinas , Plásticos
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283100

RESUMO

Traffic cameras are a widely available source of open data that offer tremendous value to public authorities by providing real-time statistics to understand and monitor the activity levels of local populations and their responses to policy interventions such as those seen during the COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This paper presents an end-to-end solution based on the Google Cloud Platform with scalable processing capability to deal with large volumes of traffic camera data across the UK in a cost-efficient manner. It describes a deep learning pipeline to detect pedestrians and vehicles and to generate mobility statistics from these. It includes novel methods for data cleaning and post-processing using a Structure SImilarity Measure (SSIM)-based static mask that improves reliability and accuracy in classifying people and vehicles from traffic camera images. The solution resulted in statistics describing trends in the 'busyness' of various towns and cities in the UK. We validated time series against Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras across North East England, showing a close correlation between our statistical output and the ANPR source. Trends were also favorably compared against traffic flow statistics from the UK's Department of Transport. The results of this work have been adopted as an experimental faster indicator of the impact of COVID-19 on the UK economy and society by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Segurança
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283140

RESUMO

The sparse data in PM2.5 air quality monitoring systems is frequently happened on large-scale smart city sensing applications, which is collected via massive sensors. Moreover, it could be affected by inefficient node deployment, insufficient communication, and fragmented records, which is the main challenge of the high-resolution prediction system. In addition, data privacy in the existing centralized air quality prediction system cannot be ensured because the data which are mined from end sensory nodes constantly exposed to the network. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel edge computing framework, named Federated Compressed Learning (FCL), which provides efficient data generation while ensuring data privacy for PM2.5 predictions in the application of smart city sensing. The proposed scheme inherits the basic ideas of the compression technique, regional joint learning, and considers a secure data exchange. Thus, it could reduce the data quantity while preserving data privacy. This study would like to develop a green energy-based wireless sensing network system by using FCL edge computing framework. It is also one of key technologies of software and hardware co-design for reconfigurable and customized sensing devices application. Consequently, the prototypes are developed in order to validate the performances of the proposed framework. The results show that the data consumption is reduced by more than 95% with an error rate below 5%. Finally, the prediction results based on the FCL will generate slightly lower accuracy compared with centralized training. However, the data could be heavily compacted and securely transmitted in WSNs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Privacidade , Cidades , Material Particulado , Software
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 225-233, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286522

RESUMO

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Caramujos
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 262-266, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological features and diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the management of imported malaria in the province. METHODS: The data of malaria cases reported in Zhejiang Province were captured from the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention from 2017 to 2020, and the temporal, spatial and human distribution, and initial and definitive diagnosis of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 593 malaria cases were reported in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and all were overseas imported cases, including 532 men and 61 women, with a mean age of 41 years. There were 93.93% of the malaria cases from African countries, and the malaria parasites infecting these cases included Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed infections, with P. falciparum as the predominant species (76.73%, 455/593). All malaria cases received totally correct initial diagnoses in county- and city-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) and entry-exit inspection and quarantine sectors, and the proportion of malaria cases with confirmation at the day of initial diagnosis was 41.48% (207/499) in medical institutions and 66.18% (45/68) in CDC (χ2 = 14.779, P < 0.001). In addition, the median interval [M (QR)] of malaria cases was 1 (2) d from onset to initial diagnosis and 1 (2) d from initial diagnosis to confirmation in Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2020, and the median interval [M (QR)] of severe malaria cases was significantly longer than that of non-severe cases [2 (3) d vs. 1 (2) d; Z = -3.002, P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: Zhejiang Province faces great challenges of malaria control, and post-elimination surveillance of malaria still requires to be reinforced. Meanwhile, the awareness of seeking medical services requires to be improved among returners from malaria-endemic regions and the diagnostic capability of malaria requires to be improved among medical professionals.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax , Malária , Adulto , África , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 308-310, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To increase the awareness of malaria prevention and control among people going abroad and returners, so as to prevent the local retransmission of oversea imported malaria. METHODS: Health education interventions for malaria control were given to people going abroad and returners in communities, and the changes of malaria prevention and control knowledge and medical-seeking behaviors were observed among the target populations. RESULTS: There were 367 people going abroad and oversea returners from malaria-endemic areas in Zhangjiagang City from July 2018 to December 2019, and 18 imported malaria cases were found. Following the implementation of community health education, the awareness of malaria prevention and control knowledge increased significantly from 35.09% to 93.08% among the target populations (χ2 = 78.130, P < 0.01), and the proportions of carrying anti-malarial drugs and administration of anti-malarial drugs for emergency treatment increased from 12.14% and 11.46% to 26.79% and 26.79% (χ2 = 8.793 and 9.834, P < 0.05), respectively. In addition, the mean duration from malaria onset to the definitive diagnosis reduced from (5.86 ± 4.45) days to (3.11 ± 1.28) days (U = 64.000, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Community health education based on the precision community administration is an effective approach for malaria control in current era.


Assuntos
Malária , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle
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