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1.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 194-200, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135590

RESUMO

Objective: To survey the children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China for a better understanding of the current situation of childhood stunting. Methods: According to a stratified cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional survey on children under 7 years of age was carried out in 9 cities (Beijing, Harbin and Xi'an in northern China; Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan in central China; and Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming in southern China) from June to November in 2016. A total of 110 499 children were recruited. Height of children was evaluated using the growth standards for Chinese children (2009 edition) .Children with height less than the 3rd percentile of the growth standards were considered as stunting, and children with height between the 3rd and 10th percentiles of the growth standards were considered as relatively short stature. Chi-square test was used for comparison between data of boys and girls, urban and suburban, as well as among different ages and regions. Results: Totally 113 084 children under 7 years of age should be investigated and actually 110 499 children were investigated, with a rate of 97.7%. The prevalence of stunting was 1.9% (2 141/110 499) among all the children. The prevalence of stunting in urban children (1.6%, 904/55 524) was lower than that in suburban children (2.3%, 1 237/54 975, χ(2)=56.246, P<0.01). The gender difference in stunting prevalence was not statistically significant (1.9% (1 121/57 921) in boys and 1.9% (1 020/52 578) in girls, χ(2)=0.003, P=0.965). The prevalence of stunting decreased with age for children younger than 3 years, from 1.8% (312/17 080) in 0-<1 year of age group to 1.2% (168/13 740) in 2-<3 years of age group, but increased to 2.2% (240/11 073) at 6-<7 years group. Comparison among different regions showed that the stunting prevalence in southern region was higher than those in the central and northern regions (0.9% (193/20 374) in northern urban, 0.8% (154/18 486) in central urban, and 3.3% (557/16 664) in southern urban children), showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=437.736, P<0.01); 1.1% (241/21 924) in northern suburban, 1.4% (227/16 775) in central suburban and 4.7% (769/16 276) in southern suburban children, showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=646.533, P<0.01). In urban areas, the difference between the central and northern regions showed no statistical significance (χ(2)=1.429, P=0.232) and the stunting prevalence of central Chinese children was slightly higher than that of northern Chinese children in suburban areas (χ(2)=5.130, P=0.024). Among the nine cities, the stunting prevalence of Guangzhou (6.1%, 613/10 019) was higher than those of other cities (χ(2)=1 559.64, P<0.01). Among the stunting children, 78.4% (1 679/2 141) were classified as borderline or mild and only 7.2% (154/2 141) were classified as severe. The prevalence of relatively short stature was 5.2% (5 721/110 499). Conclusions: The prevalence of stunting among children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China is low and most of the stunting children were classified as mild; the prevalence of stunting in suburban children is higher than that in urban children; the gender difference show no statistical significance; and the prevalence of stunting in southern Chinese children is higher than those in central and northern Chinese children.


Assuntos
Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Pequim , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMJ ; 368: m108, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess short term mortality risks and excess mortality associated with exposure to ozone in several cities worldwide. DESIGN: Two stage time series analysis. SETTING: 406 cities in 20 countries, with overlapping periods between 1985 and 2015, collected from the database of Multi-City Multi-Country Collaborative Research Network. POPULATION: Deaths for all causes or for external causes only registered in each city within the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily total mortality (all or non-external causes only). RESULTS: A total of 45 165 171 deaths were analysed in the 406 cities. On average, a 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone during the current and previous day was associated with an overall relative risk of mortality of 1.0018 (95% confidence interval 1.0012 to 1.0024). Some heterogeneity was found across countries, with estimates ranging from greater than 1.0020 in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Estonia, and Canada to less than 1.0008 in Mexico and Spain. Short term excess mortality in association with exposure to ozone higher than maximum background levels (70 µg/m3) was 0.26% (95% confidence interval 0.24% to 0.28%), corresponding to 8203 annual excess deaths (95% confidence interval 3525 to 12 840) across the 406 cities studied. The excess remained at 0.20% (0.18% to 0.22%) when restricting to days above the WHO guideline (100 µg/m3), corresponding to 6262 annual excess deaths (1413 to 11 065). Above more lenient thresholds for air quality standards in Europe, America, and China, excess mortality was 0.14%, 0.09%, and 0.05%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that ozone related mortality could be potentially reduced under stricter air quality standards. These findings have relevance for the implementation of efficient clean air interventions and mitigation strategies designed within national and international climate policies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
3.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S64-S71, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the associations of cognitive and structural social capital with subjective well-being (SWB) and mental health among internal migrants in five cities in China. METHODS: We conducted healthy cities surveys from June 2017 to April 2018. In total, 3038 migrants submitted surveys. Generalized linear regressions for SWB and logistic regressions for mental health were used to examine the associations of social capital, SWB and mental health after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: The median level of SWB was 75.7 (interquartile range 62.9-85.7). Self-rated health and physical activity were positively associated with SWB. The SWB level among migrants who perceived high individual social cohesion was much higher than that of their counterparts (unstandardized coefficients, ß=7.01 [95% confidence interval {CI} 5.82 to 8.21]). The prevalence of poor mental health was 10.0%. High social cohesion (odds ratio [OR] 0.32 [95% CI 0.24 to 0.44]) and high social participation (OR 0.77 [95% CI 0.57 to 0.97]) were significantly associated with a low ratio of poor mental health when compared with their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive social capital is positively associated with SWB, while both cognitive and structural social capitals were negatively associated with poor mental health. It is beneficial to migrants' mental health and SWB to promote social participation and social cohesion.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S24-S32, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2017 China National Education Development Statistics Bulletin, there were 14.07 million rural-urban migrant children in the compulsory education stage. The mental health of migrant children in China has drawn increasing attention in research. The objective of this study was to compare subjective well-being, self-esteem, prosocial behaviour and family functioning of migrant children vs local children in Shanghai and to explore their relationship. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 2229 students (9-17 y of age; male 52.0%, female 48.0%) and their parents from grades 4 to 8 in four primary schools and four middle schools in Shanghai in 2016. The sample consisted of 1333 migrant children and 896 urban children in three migrant schools and five public schools. A total of 959 rural-urban migrant children and 374 urban hukou migrant children were recruited. The questionnaire for students included the Personal Well-Being Index - School Children (PWI-SC), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Family APGAR Index and prosocial behaviour domain of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In the questionnaire for parents, the Personal Well-Being Index and Social Support Rating Scale were used in addition to the sociodemographic characteristics. These data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Rural-urban migrant children reported significantly lower PWI-SC, SWLS, positive affect, prosocial behaviour, self-esteem and Family APGAR Index scores and reported higher negative affect scores than local children (p<0.01). The prevalence rate of abnormal prosocial behaviour among rural-urban migrant children was 10%, which was higher than that of local children (5.9%; p<0.001). Compared with rural-urban migrant children in public schools, the SWLS, prosocial behaviour and Family APGAR Index scores of the children in migrant schools were higher and the prevalence rate of abnormal prosocial behaviour was lower (p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the self-esteem and Family APGAR Index had predictive effects on subjective well-being and prosocial behaviour scores of rural-urban migrant children. CONCLUSIONS: Rural-urban migrant children are susceptible to mental health problems. Additional public policy and interventions by practitioners are needed to support rural-urban migrant children.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S14-S23, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are very few close-up sociological or anthropological data informing epidemiological and psychiatric research design and/or contributing to our understanding of the relationship between mental health and specific forms of urban life. Furthermore, research on the relationships between urbanicity and mental disorder has paid little attention to the global diversity of urban experience, such as in cities in China, India and Brazil. METHODS: Two innovative methods can be employed to unveil the diversified urban experience of migrants in China, i.e. an ethnography-informed sociological deep surveying instrument and an ecological momentary assessment with a smartphone app. This article introduces the design and pilot survey of these new instruments towards a 'mechanism-rich' epidemiology. RESULTS: The ethnography-informed survey instrument enabled us to include some of the issues from the ethnography and successfully 'dig deeper' into respondents' social experience. The pilot of the smartphone app serves as 'proof of principle' that we can recruit respondents in Shanghai, and that we can receive and use the data. CONCLUSIONS: Both of these pilots have demonstrated good feasibility for studying mobility, urban life and mental health. Our next steps will be to extend the Shanghai sample, to use the app in Sao Paulo and Toronto and then hopefully in India and Africa.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicativos Móveis , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropologia Cultural , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1490-1500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631794

RESUMO

In 2014, the chikungunya virus reached Colombia for the first time, resulting in a nationwide epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of suspected chikungunya cases. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 548 patients where included in the study. Of these patients, 295 were positive for antibodies against chikungunya (53.8%), and 27.6% (151/295) were symptomatic for chikungunya infection, with a symptomatic:asymptomatic ratio of 1.04:1. Factors associated with infection included low income and low socio-economic strata (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-3.2, p = 0.003 and OR: 2.1; CI: 1.3-3.4, p = 0.002, respectively). Confirmed symptomatic cases were associated with symmetric arthritis (OR: 11.7; CI: 6.0-23.0, p < 0.001) of ankles (OR: 8.5; CI: 3.5-20.9, p < 0.001), hands (OR: 8.5; CI: 3.5-20.9, p < 0.001), feet (OR: 6.5; CI: 2.8-15.3, p < 0.001), and wrists (OR: 17.3; CI: 2.3-130.5, p < 0.001). Our study showed that poverty is associated with chikungunya infection. Public health strategies to prevent and control chikungunya should focus on poorer communities that are more vulnerable to infection. The rate of asymptomatic infections among confirmed cases was 48.8%. However, those with symptoms displayed a characteristic rheumatic clinical picture, which could help differentiate chikungunya infection from other endemic viral diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623353

RESUMO

Quantitative analysis on decoupling between economic output, carbon emission, and the driving factors behind decoupling states can serve to make the economy grow without increasing carbon emission in China's transport sector. In this work, we investigate the decoupling states and driving factors of decoupling states in the transport sector of China's four municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing) through combining the Tapio decoupling approach with the decomposition technique. The results show that (i) the decoupling state of Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin improved; Beijing stabilized in weak decoupling; Shanghai and Tianjin appeared to have strong decoupling, but the decoupling state of Chongqing deteriorated from decoupling to negative decoupling. (ii) The energy-saving effect was the primary contributor to decoupling in these four municipalities, promoting transport's economic growth strongly decouple from carbon emission. The economic scale effect was not optimized enough in Chongqing, facilitating expansive coupling, and expansive negative decoupling emerged. But it had a rather positive impact on decoupling process in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, promoting economic growth to weakly decouple from carbon emission. (iii) The carbon-reduction effect promoted strong decoupling, which emerged in Shanghai's transport sector, more so than in the other three municipalities, in which weak decoupling emerged. Finally, several relevant policy recommendations were offered to promote the decoupling of carbon emission from economic growth and low-carbon transport.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização/tendências , Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Humanos
8.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 184, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The healthcare system can be understood as the dynamic result of the interaction of hospitals, patients, providers, and government configuring a complex network of reciprocal influences. In order to better understand such a complex system, the analysis must include characteristics that are feasible to be studied in order to redesign its functioning. The analysis of the emergent patterns of pregnant women flows crossing municipal borders for birth-related hospitalizations in a region of São Paulo, Brazil, allowed to examine the functionality of the regional division in the state using a complex systems approach and to propose answers to the dilemma of concentration vs. distribution of maternal care regional services in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: Cross-sectional research of the areas of influence of hospitals using spatial interaction methods, recording the points of origin and destination of the patients and exploring the emergent patterns of displacement. RESULTS: The resulting functional region is broader than the limits established in the legal provisions, verifying that 85% of patients move to hospitals with high technology to perform normal deliveries and cesarean sections. The region has high independence rates and behaves as a "service exporter." Patients going to centrally located hospitals travel twice as long as patients who receive care in other municipalities even when the patients' conditions do not demand technologically sophisticated services. The effects of regulation and the agents' preferences reinforce the tendency to refer patients to centrally located hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Displacement of patients during delivery may affect indicators of maternal and perinatal health. The emergent pattern of movements allowed examining the contradiction between wider deployments of services versus concentration of highly specialized resources in a few places. The study shows the potential of this type of analysis applied to other type of patients' flows, such as cancer or specialized surgery, as tools to guide the regionalization of the Brazilian Health System.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Gravidez , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sistemas , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3517-3528, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508769

RESUMO

The relevance of breast cancer for women has driven research about mortality of this disease. However, these studies are affected by problems generated by deaths due to ill-defined causes (IDC). To highlight distortions caused by IDC in studies that evaluate mortality, we calculated the age-standardized mortality rates of breast cancer, with and without adjustment for IDC for the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. Then, panel data regression models were estimated and enabled us to identify that the adjustment for IDC: has elevated breast cancer mortality rate of Brazilian municipalities by 9% in the period considered; has drawn mortality rates of the South, Southeast, Northeast and North regions closer; has reduced the increasing trend of mortality by almost 60%, mainly in the Southeast and South regions; has increased, more sharply, the mortality in cities with less than 5 thousand inhabitants; has curbed the significance of most factors associated with breast cancer; has revealed that the effect of longevity and the public health expenditure may be overestimated. These results highlight the importance of adjustment for IDC in producing reliable mortality indicators.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos
10.
AIDS Behav ; 23(12): 3306-3314, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512066

RESUMO

Monitoring distributive syringe sharing (DSS) and syringe services program (SSP) use among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is important for HIV prevention. PWID aged ≥ 18 in 20 US cities were recruited for National HIV Behavioral Surveillance in 2015 using respondent-driven sampling, interviewed and offered HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariable analyses via log-linked Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations were conducted to examine associations between demographic and behavioral variables and DSS. Effect of SSP use on DSS by HIV sero-status was assessed by including an interaction between SSP and sero-status. Analyses were adjusted for sampling design. Among 10,402 PWID, 42% reported DSS. DSS was less likely to be reported among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative PWID (aPR = 0.51, CI 0.45-0.60), and among those who primarily obtained syringes from SSPs versus those who did not (aPR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.88). After adjustment, those who primarily used SSPs were less likely to report DSS than those who did not among both HIV-negative PWID (aPR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.78-0.90) and HIV-positive PWID (aPR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.75). Findings support expansion of SSPs, and referrals to SSPs by providers working with PWID.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Seringas/provisão & distribução , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 96-104, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478619

RESUMO

Big cities have thrived on all continents, so have domestic and industrial wastes not to mention the often irrational use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) detrimental to plants and animals. One hundred and eighty million tons of fertilizers and 2.4 million tons of pesticides are spread every year worldwide. Such pollutions, whether urban or rural, have a significant impact on the biology of mosquitoes. Today some urban spaces have properly become a land of plenty for mosquitoes. The combined use of fertilizer and pesticides in the country, quite paradoxically also favor their proliferation. Ironically the very reasons that account for the multitudes of mosquitoes are the exact reasons responsible for the depletion of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Int J Public Health ; 64(9): 1335-1344, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine adolescent-reported visibility of smoking in different public and private spaces in Europe and associations between smoking visibility and beliefs about the benefits of smoking. METHODS: We used SILNE-R cross-sectional survey data (2016/2017) of 10,798 14-16-year-old students from 55 secondary schools in seven European cities. Respondents reported for private and public spaces whether they had seen others smoke there in the last 6 months. Beliefs about the benefits of smoking were measured on a 7-item scale; higher scores indicated more positive beliefs. Multilevel linear regression analyses determined associations while controlling for potential confounders and stratifying by smoking status. RESULTS: Most students reported observing others smoke in public spaces, especially at train/bus stations (84%). Positive beliefs about smoking of never smokers were positively associated with seeing others smoke in train/bus stations and leisure/sports facilities, but not at home, a friend's home, restaurants or bars, when fully adjusted. Associations were of similar magnitude for ever smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking in several public places is highly visible to adolescents. Reducing this visibility might weaken positive beliefs that adolescents have about smoking.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416292

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to examine the associations between health-related outcomes and the built environment (BE) characteristics of compact metropolitan cities in Korea using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework. Searching the three Korean academic databases and PubMed, two independent reviewers identified 27 empirical articles published between 2011 and 2016. Data extracted for review included the study characteristics, the variables and measurement methods related to the BE and health-related outcomes, and the findings on the associations between the BE characteristics and health-related outcomes. Vote counting was used to assess the consistency of associations and the direction of associations between the BE characteristics and health-related outcomes. All of the reviewed studies used cross-sectional designs. The objective BE qualities were commonly examined. The BE characteristics associated with health-related outcomes in the reviewed articles included land use, street environment, transportation infrastructure, green and open spaces, and neighborhood facilities. Street environment, transportation infrastructure, and green and open spaces had consistent positive associations with physical health. Mixed land use and neighborhood facilities, however, had inconsistent associations with physical health. Generally, insufficient findings were reported in the association between the BE characteristics and mental and social health. The accessibility of the BE in a compact urban environment was the prominent attribute related to health promotion, health challenges, and health equity. An international comparative analysis of compact cities with different urban contexts and scale is required. Interdisciplinary urban health strategies are recommended based on the associations between the BE characteristics and health-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , República da Coreia
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 84: 80-96, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284919

RESUMO

Central Plains region of China, represented by Henan Province, is facing serious air pollution problems. Vehicular exhaust emissions had adverse impacts on the atmospheric environment. The first comprehensive and novel vehicle emission inventory for Henan Province using vehicle kilometers traveled, localized emission factors, and activity data at city-level was developed. Furthermore, 3 km × 3 km gridded emission and temporal variations were determined by using localized information. Results show that the total emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particular matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10), aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), VOCs-evaporation and ammonia in 2015 were 9.1, 533.4, 1190.7, 23.7, 21.6, 150.8, 31.5 and 10.4 Gg, respectively, and the emission intensities of the above pollutants were 0.05, 2.7, 6.0, 0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 g/km, respectively. Vehicles meeting the Primary China 1, China 3 and China 4 contributed 89.1%, 82.7%, 75.3%, 75.5%, 75.5%, 68.2%, 68.4% and 82.3% for SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, VOCs-evaporation and ammonia emissions, respectively. Zhengzhou, Zhoukou, Nanyang, Luoyang, Shangqiu and Xinyang showed relatively higher emissions and contributed more than 50% of each pollutant. The spatial distribution indicated obvious characteristics of the road network, and high-level emission was concentrated in the downtown areas. Additionally, the ozone formation potential (OFP) based on the estimated speciated VOC emissions was 569.6 Gg in Henan Province. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were the main species of VOCs, whereas olefins contributed the largest proportion of OFP, with 42.2%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319540

RESUMO

Using the case of Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, and Darkhan cities from Mongolia, the study aimed to assess the contamination level and health risk assessment of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn) in urban soil. A total of 78 samples was collected from a variety of functional areas. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and integrated pollution index (IPI) were used in pollution assessment, while the health risk was scored using a hazard quotient (HQ) and health index (HI) for non-carcinogenic heavy metals, as well as a lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for carcinogenic heavy metals. The results show that the concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples taken from Darkhan city, which presented "uncontaminated" values in terms of Igeo for all metals, was relatively lower than other cities within the contamination assessment. Furthermore, the Igeo value signified "uncontimated to heavily contaminated" soil in the Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet cities. Typically, as for the IPI that observed similar trends with Igeo, the mean IPI values in Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, and Darkhan were 1.33 (moderate level of pollution), 1.83 (moderate level of pollution), and 0.94 (low level of pollution), respectively. In terms of the assessment of potential health risk, there was a particular or different level of ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation exposure pathway for human health. Among these three different pathways, the ingestion was estimated by the main contributor for health risk. Each value of HQ and HI indicated that soil heavy metals of studied cities were at a safe level (<1) or had the absence of a significant health risk there. In addition, the potential health risk for children was greater than for adults, where heavy metal values of HI for children had a high value compared to adults. We estimated carcinogenic risks through the inhalation exposure, and as a result, there were no significant risks for human health in the studied cities from three elements (As, Cr, and Ni).


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , Criança , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mongólia , Medição de Risco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323997

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to explore the association between proximity to open space and adult renal function. This was a cross-sectional study. Adult residents of Taipei metropolis were recruited in the analysis. The proximity of each subject to open space was measured using the Geographic Information System. Residents were divided into two groups: with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). We made univariable comparisons between the two groups. The logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio of CKD. Forest plot was used to examine the effect of interaction between distance to open space and subgroup variable on CKD. A total number of 21,656 subjects with mean age 53.6 years were enrolled in the study. Of the subjects, 2226 (10.28%) had CKD. The mean and standard deviation of distance to open space were 117.23 m and 80.19 m, respectively. Every 100 m distance to open space was associated with an odds ratio of 1.071 for CKD. Subgroup analysis revealed that residents of female, without hypertension, or without impaired fasting glucose (IFG) living more than 200 m from open spaces have greater odds of CKD than those living less than 200 m. Conclusions: Proximity to open space was associated with a lower prevalence of CKD among adults in Taiwan. Such association was enhanced among females and healthy adults without hypertension or impaired fasting glucose (IFG).


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819865274, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331188

RESUMO

The population size and projected demographics of Vietnam's 2 largest cities, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi, will change dramatically over the next decade. Demographic changes in an aging population coupled with income growth and changes in lifestyle will result in a very different distribution of common cancers in the future. The study aimed to project the number of cancer incidence in the 2 largest populated cities in Vietnam for the year 2025. Cancer incidence data from 2004 to 2013 collected from population-based cancer registries in these 2 cities were provided by Vietnam National Cancer Institute. Incidence cases in 2013 and the previous decades average annual percent changes of age-standardized cancer incidence rates combined with expected population growth were modeled to project cancer incidence for each cancer site by gender to 2025. A substantial double in cancer incidence from 2013 to 2025 resulted from a growing and aging population in HCMC and Hanoi. Lung, colorectum, breast, thyroid, and liver cancers, which represent 67% of the overall cancer burden, are projected to become the leading cancer diagnoses by 2025 regardless of genders. For men, the leading cancer sites in 2025 are predicted to be lung, colorectum, esophagus, liver, and pharynx cancer, and among women, they are expected to be breast, thyroid, colorectum, lung, and cervical cancer. We projected an epidemiological transition from infectious-associated cancers to a high burden of cancers that have mainly been attributed to lifestyle in both cities. We predicted that with 16.9% growth in the overall population and dramatic aging with these 2 urban centers, the burdens of cancer incidence will increase sharply in both cities over the next decades. Data on projections of cancer incidence in both cities provide useful insights for directing appropriate policies and cancer control programs in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Previsões , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26472-26487, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290043

RESUMO

Environmental regulations affect employment through productivity output and factor substitution. This paper employs a difference-in-differences (DID) method to investigate the effect of China's Two Control Zones (TCZ) policy on the urban employment in 287 cities from 1994 to 2009. We apply the DID method to two time points: 1998 for policy issuance and 2000 for the policy implementation. From the results of analyses on full-sample cities, the TCZ policy did not contribute to increasing total urban employment. Moreover, a negative impact on employment resulted from sulfur dioxide and acid rain controls in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively. In the acid rain control zone, the TCZ policy increased the average wage of urban workers. Negative effects on employment were observed in larger cities. The policy triggered labor migration from larger to smaller cities, resulting in significant increases in primary and tertiary industry employment in smaller cities, although the effects on mid-size cities were insignificant. This study provides important empirical evidence and insight into the impact of the TCZ policy on urban employment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Humanos
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 1-7, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228635

RESUMO

Shared-bicycle use has skyrocketed in urban China, but little is known about the safety of bicycle users. The Chinese popular media reports multiple risky riding behaviors among shared bicycle riders, but scientific research on the topic is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective WeChat-based online survey to examine how often shared bicycle riders report engaging in risky cycling behaviors in urban China. Eight unsafe shared bicycle riding behaviors were assessed: not wearing helmets, running red lights, cycling against the traffic flow, riding in lanes designed for motor vehicles, riding in lanes designed for pedestrians, carrying passengers on bicycles, using cell phones while riding, and eating while riding. In total, 1960 valid questionnaires were collected. The proportion of participants who reported always or often having unsafe riding behavior in the past month, ranged from 1.1% for carrying passengers on the bicycles to 97.6% for failing to wear a helmet. Demographic characteristics were associated with unsafe behaviors through multivariate logistic regression, with male riders and riders aged 25 years or younger more likely to ride while using cell phones than females (AOR = 2.94) and those 36 years or older (AOR = 3.57). Cyclists with undergraduate education were more likely to wear helmets than those with postgraduate education or higher (AOR = 0.21). Compared to riders from central municipalities governed directly by the central government, riders from provincial capitals, deputy provincial cities, and smaller cities were at higher risks of riding in lanes for pedestrians, respectively (AOR = 1.59, 2.82 and 1.61). Riders who rode over 5 h a week and who rode on weekends were more likely to carry passengers than those who rode less than 1 h a week (AOR = 4.72) and those who rode only on weekdays (AOR = 3.93). We conclude that shared-bicycle riders frequently engage in some unsafe riding behaviors in urban China. Younger age, lower level of education, and longer hours of riding each week are associated with greater risks of some unsafe riding behaviors. Shared bicycles offer substantial benefit to societal health and transportation, but evidence-based interventions should be considered to reduce risks from unsafe shared bicycle riding behaviors. A well-designed road infrastructure with dedicated on-road bicycle lanes and readily-accessible comfortable, low-cost, and safe helmets may also reduce unsafe riding behaviors and unwanted crashes and injuries for shared bicycle riders.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212731

RESUMO

After decades of accumulation of lead aerosols in cities from additives in gasoline, in 1975 catalytic converters (which are ruined by lead) became mandatory on all new cars. By 1 January 1986 the rapid phase-down banned most lead additives. The study objective is to review temporal changes of environmental lead and children's blood lead in communities of metropolitan New Orleans. In 2001, a soil lead survey of 287 census tracts of metropolitan New Orleans was completed. In August-September 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita storm surges flooded parts of the city with sediment-loaded water. In April-June 2006, 46/287 (16%) of the original census tracts were selected for resurvey. A third survey of 44/46 (15%) census tracts was completed in 2017. The census tract median soil lead and children's median blood lead decreased across surveys in both flooded and unflooded areas. By curtailing a major urban source of lead aerosols, children's lead exposure diminished, lead loading of soil decreased, and topsoil lead declined. Curtailing lead aerosols is essential for primary prevention. For the sake of children's and ultimately societal health and welfare, the long-term habitability of cities requires terminating all remaining lead aerosols and cleanup of legacy-lead that persists in older inner-city communities.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Aerossóis/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nova Orleans
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