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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4285, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608603

RESUMO

On January 30, 2020, India recorded its first COVID-19 positive case in Kerala, which was followed by a nationwide lockdown extended in four different phases from 25th March to 31st May, 2020, and an unlock period thereafter. The lockdown has led to colossal economic loss to India; however, it has come as a respite to the environment. Utilizing the air quality index (AQI) data recorded during this adverse time, the present study is undertaken to assess the impact of lockdown on the air quality of Ankleshwar and Vapi, Gujarat, India. The AQI data obtained from the Central Pollution Control Board was assessed for four lockdown phases. We compared air quality data for the unlock phase with a coinciding period in 2019 to determine the changes in pollutant concentrations during the lockdown, analyzing daily AQI data for six pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, O3, and SO2). A meta-analysis of continuous data was performed to determine the mean and standard deviation of each lockdown phase, and their differences were computed in percentage in comparison to 2019; along with the linear correlation analysis and linear regression analysis to determine the relationship among the air pollutants and their trend for the lockdown days. The results revealed different patterns of gradual to a rapid reduction in most of the pollutant concentrations (PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2), and an increment in ozone concentration was observed due to a drastic reduction in NO2 by 80.18%. Later, increases in other pollutants were also observed as the restrictions were eased during phase-4 and unlock 1. The comparison between the two cities found that factors like distance from the Arabian coast and different industrial setups played a vital role in different emission trends.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , /transmissão , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias/normas , Material Particulado/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626074

RESUMO

This article investigates the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on electoral participation. We study the French municipal elections that took place at the very beginning of the ongoing pandemic and held in over 9,000 municipalities on March 15, 2020. In addition to the simple note that turnout rates decreased to a historically low level, we establish a robust relationship between the depressed turnout rate and the disease. Using various estimation strategies and employing a large number of potential confounding factors, we find that the participation rate decreases with city proximity to COVID-19 clusters. Furthermore, the proximity has conditioned impacts according to the proportion of elderly -who are the most threatened- within the city. Cities with higher population density, where the risk of infection is higher, and cities where only one list ran at the election, which dramatically reduces competitiveness, experienced differentiated effects of distance.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Política , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Demográfica , /patogenicidade
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 24, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a major health problem in Russia. We aimed to assess HIV prevalence in different population groups and to compare the characteristics of 4th generation immunoassays from Abbott, Bio-Rad, Vector-Best, Diagnostic Systems, and Medical Biological Unit. METHODS: The study included 4452 individuals from the general population (GP), 391 subjects at high risk of HIV infection (HR) and 699 with potentially interfering conditions. HIV positivity was confirmed by immunoblot and by HIV RNA, seroconversion and virus diversity panels were also used. HIV avidity was employed to assess recent infections. RESULTS: The prevalence in GP was 0.40%, higher in males (0.62%) and in people aged < 40 years (0.58%). Patients attending dermo-venereal centers and drug users had a high prevalence (34.1 and 58.8%). Recent infections were diagnosed in 20% of GP and in 4.2% of HR. Assay sensitivity was 100% except for one false negative (99,54%, MBU). Specificity was 99.58-99.89% overall, but as low as 93.26% on HR (Vector-Best). Small differences on early seroconversion were recorded. Only the Abbott assay detected all samples on the viral diversity panel. CONCLUSION: HIV infection rate in the high-risk groups suggests that awareness and screening campaigns should be enhanced. Fourth generation assays are adequate but performance differences must be considered.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362224

RESUMO

The growing importance of maturity smart cities is currently observed worldwide. The vast majority of smart city models focus on hard domains such as communication and technology infrastructure. Scientists emphasize the need to take into account social capital and the knowledge of residents. The smart cities invest in enhanced openness and transparency data. Mature smart cities use real-time evidences and information to citizens, businesses and visitors. The smart cities are characterized by bottom-down management and civil government. The paper aims to assess the urban smartness of selected European cities based on the ISO 37120 standard. Several research methods including the Multidimensional Statistical Analysis (MSA) were applied. Using the statistical analysis of European smart cities with the implemented ISO 37120 standard, the author tried to fill gaps in the knowledge and to evaluate maturity smart cities. The results of the research have shown that the smart city concept is a viable strategy which contributes to the urban sustainability. The author also found out that urban sustainability frameworks contain a large number of indicators measuring environmental sustainability, the smart city frameworks lack environmental indicators while highlighting social and economic aspects.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo Local , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Análise Multivariada
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321908

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the level of technical efficiency of companies that perform the integrated management of basic sanitation in Brazilian municipalities. A Multiple Data Envelopment Analysis (M-DEA) model was applied to estimate the performance of water supply and sewage services in 1628 municipalities covering more than 56% of the Brazilian population, identifying the factors that most influence the efficiency of the sector in the years 2008 and 2016. The M-DEA methodology is an extension of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with multiple DEA executions considering all combinations of inputs and outputs to calculate efficiency scores. The methodology reduces possible biases in the selection of resources and products of the model, ability to support decision-making in favor of improvements in the sector's efficiency based on national regulatory framework. The analyses show that the companies analyzed can increase their operating results and attendance coverage by more than 60%, given the current levels of infrastructure, human and financial resources in the sector. Based on the simulation of potential efficiency gains in Brazilian basic sanitation companies, the estimates show that the coverage of the population with access to sanitary sewage would go from the current 59.9% to 76.5%. The evidence found provides indications to subsidize sanitation management in the country at the micro-analytical level, enabling a better competitive position in the sector for the integrated management of basic sanitation and its universalization in Brazil.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Brasil , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saneamento/normas , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317150

RESUMO

In Russia, initiatives for healthy ageing have been growing over the last two decades; however, none use an evidence-based (EB) approach. It is proposed that Kazan, a city with a population of over a million in the European part of Russia, has good chances of moving towards age-friendliness and contributing to raising awareness about healthy ageing through Cochrane evidence. One of the eight essential features of age-friendly cities by the World Health Organisation (WHO) directly points to health services. This exploratory study assesses the health information needs of the ageing population of Kazan and the challenges people face in improving their health and longevity. Survey data were used from 134 participants, patients, caregivers and healthcare providers of the Interregional Clinical Diagnostic Centre (ICDC), aged from 30 to over 80 years, and potential associations of the studied parameters with age, gender, quality of life and other characteristics were analysed. Older people (60+) were less positive about their quality of life, took medicines more often on a daily basis (10/16 compared to 29/117 of people under 60), encountered problems with ageing (9/16 compared to 21/117 of people under 60) and rated their quality of life as unsatisfactory (4/14 compared to 9/107 of people under 60). Awareness of EB approaches and Cochrane was higher within health professions (evidence-based medicine: 42/86 vs. 13/48; Cochrane: 32/86 vs. 2/48), and health information needs did not differ between age or gender groups or people with a satisfactory and unsatisfactory quality of life. The minority (10%-13/134) were aware of ageism without age or gender differences. The low awareness calls for the need of Cochrane intervention both for consumers and those in the health profession to raise awareness to contribute to Kazan moving towards an age-friendly city.


Assuntos
Atitude , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317152

RESUMO

Differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates depending on municipal socioeconomic status (SES) in Japan have not been revealed over the last 20 years. This study exposes the difference in 1999 and 2019 using the Vital Statistics. All of the municipalities were grouped into five quintiles based on their SES, and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of each municipal quintile compared with all of Japan was calculated for all-cause mortality and representative cause of deaths. As a result, although SMR for all-cause mortality for women tended to be lower in low SES quintiles in 1999, the reverse phenomenon was observed in 2019. Additionally, although SMR for all-cause of mortality for men was the lowest in the highest SES quintiles already in 1999, the difference in the SMR for all-cause mortality rates between the lowest and highest SES quintiles increased in 2019. The improvement of the SMR in the highest SES quintile and the deterioration in the lowest was also observed in representative types of cancer, heart disease, stroke, pneumonia, liver disease, and renal failure for men and women. Therefore, this study indicates a disparity in mortality depending on municipal SES enlarged in the last 20 years.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Causas de Morte , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias , Classe Social
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMO

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Math Biosci ; 330: 108484, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039365

RESUMO

In order to investigate the effectiveness of lockdown and social distancing restrictions, which have been widely carried out as policy choice to curb the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic around the world, we formulate and discuss a staged and weighted network system based on a classical SEAIR epidemiological model. Five stages have been taken into consideration according to four-tier response to Public Health Crisis, which comes from the National Contingency Plan in China. Staggered basic reproduction number has been derived and we evaluate the effectiveness of lockdown and social distancing policies under different scenarios among 19 cities/regions in mainland China. Further, we estimate the infection risk associated with the sequential release based on population mobility between cities and the intensity of some non-pharmaceutical interventions. Our results reveal that Level I public health emergency response is necessary for high-risk cities, which can flatten the COVID-19 curve effectively and quickly. Moreover, properly designed staggered-release policies are extremely significant for the prevention and control of COVID-19, furthermore, beneficial to economic activities and social stability and development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Bioestatística , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Quarentena/métodos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970775

RESUMO

The association between alcohol outlets and violence has long been recognised, and is commonly used to inform policing and licensing policies (such as staggered closing times and zoning). Less investigated, however, is the association between violent crime and other urban points of interest, which while associated with the city centre alcohol consumption economy, are not explicitly alcohol outlets. Here, machine learning (specifically, LASSO regression) is used to model the distribution of violent crime for the central 9 km2 of ten large UK cities. Densities of 620 different Point of Interest types (sourced from Ordnance Survey) are used as predictors, with the 10 most explanatory variables being automatically selected for each city. Cross validation is used to test generalisability of each model. Results show that the inclusion of additional point of interest types produces a more accurate model, with significant increases in performance over a baseline univariate alcohol-outlet only model. Analysis of chosen variables for city-specific models shows potential candidates for new strategies on a per-city basis, with combined-model variables showing the general trend in POI/violence association across the UK. Although alcohol outlets remain the best individual predictor of violence, other points of interest should also be considered when modelling the distribution of violence in city centres. The presented method could be used to develop targeted, city-specific initiatives that go beyond alcohol outlets and also consider other locations.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/classificação , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Reino Unido
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4631, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934205

RESUMO

The knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of human population is vital for the study of cities, disaster risk management or planning of infrastructure. However, information on the distribution of population is often based on place-of-residence statistics from official sources, thus ignoring the changing population densities resulting from human mobility. Existing assessments of spatio-temporal population are limited in their detail and geographical coverage, and the promising mobile-phone records are hindered by issues concerning availability and consistency. Here, we present a multi-layered dasymetric approach that combines official statistics with geospatial data from emerging sources to produce and validate a European Union-wide dataset of population grids taking into account intraday and monthly population variations at 1 km2 resolution. The results reproduce and systematically quantify known insights concerning the spatio-temporal population density structure of large European cities, whose daytime population we estimate to be, on average, 1.9 times higher than night time in city centers.


Assuntos
Densidade Demográfica , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 409-413, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between blood test parameters and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum infections among imported falciparum malaria cases in Tianjin City from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into the early diagnosis of imported P. falciparum malaria. METHODS: The epidemiological data of 37 imported cases with confirmed diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria in Tianjin City from 2015 to 2019 were collected, and the epidemiological features and clinical manifestations were retrospectively analyzed. In addition, the association between blood test parameters and intensity of P. falciparum infections was evaluated among the imported P. falciparum malaria cases. RESULTS: Among the 31 imported P. falciparum malaria cases, there were 31 cases (83.8%) with a reduction in platelet (PLT) counts, 16 cases (43.2%) with a reduction in red blood cell (RBC) counts, 16 cases (43.2%) with a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, 23 cases (62.2%) with a rise in neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), 32 cases (86.5%) with a rise in total bilirubin (TBIL) concentrations, 29 cases (78.4%) with a rise in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations, 28 cases (75.7%) with a rise in aspartate transaminase (AST) concentrations, and 23 cases (62.2%) with a rise in gamma-glutamyl transpetidase (GGT) concentrations. The PLT count and Hb concentration correlated negatively with the intensity of P. falciparum infections (Goodman-Kruskal γ = -0.568 and -0.521, both P values < 0.05) and the TBIL concentration and NEUT% correlated positively with the intensity of P. falciparum infections (Goodman-Kruskal γ = 0.496 and 0.610, both P values < 0.05) among imported falciparum malaria cases; however, there were no associations of ALT, AST, GGT levels or RBC count with the intensity of P. falciparum infections among the imported falciparum malaria cases (Goodman-Kruskal γ = 0.370, 0.497, 0.314 and -0.434, all P values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PLT, Hb, TBIL and NEUT% may serve as markers for early auxiliary diagnosis of imported P. falciparum malaria, and PLT and TBIL may provide valuable information for the diagnosis of severe imported P. falciparum malaria.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos , Malária Falciparum , Carga Parasitária , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Hematológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841247

RESUMO

Rabies is a lethal viral disease and dogs are the major disease reservoir in the Philippines. Spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors are known to affect disease dynamics. Some rabies-affected countries considered investigating the role of weather components in driving rabies cases and it has helped them to strategize their control efforts. In this study, cointegration analysis was conducted between the monthly reported rabies cases and the weather components, such as temperature and precipitation, to verify the effect of weather components on rabies incidence in Davao City, Philippines. With the Engle-Granger cointegration tests, we found that rabies cases are cointegrated into each of the weather components. It was further validated, using the Granger causality test, that each weather component predicts the rabies cases and not vice versa. Moreover, we performed the Johansen cointegration test to show that the weather components simultaneously affect the number of rabies cases, which allowed us to estimate a vector-error correction model for rabies incidence as a function of temperature and precipitation. Our analyses showed that canine rabies in Davao City was weather-sensitive, which implies that rabies incidence could be projected using established long-run relationship among reported rabies cases, temperature, and precipitation. This study also provides empirical evidence that can guide local health officials in formulating preventive strategies for rabies control and eradication based on weather patterns.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães/virologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Causalidade , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764785

RESUMO

This study's objective was to estimate the temporal trends of leprosy according to sex and age groups, as well as to estimate and predict the progression of the disease in a hyperendemic city located in the northeast of Brazil. This ecological time-series study was conducted in Imperatriz, Maranhão, Brazil. Leprosy cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were included. Detection rates stratified by sex and age groups were estimated. The study of temporal trends was accomplished using the Seasonal-Trend Decomposition method and temporal modeling of detection rates using linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model according to Box and Jenkins method. Trend forecasts were performed for the 2017-2020 period. A total of 3,212 cases of leprosy were identified, the average incidence among men aged between 30 and 59 years old was 201.55/100,000 inhabitants and among women in the same age group was 135.28/100,000 inhabitants. Detection rates in total and by sex presented a downward trend, though rates stratified according to sex and age presented a growing trend among men aged less than 15 years old and among women aged 60 years old or over. The final models selected in the time-series analysis show the forecasts of total detection rates and rates for men and women presented a downward trend for the 2017-2020 period. Even though the forecasts show a downward trend in Imperatriz, the city is unlikely to meet a significant decrease of the disease burden by 2020.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853258

RESUMO

The benefits of involving patients as partners in research across diverse medical and psychiatric settings are well established in the literature. However, researchers continue to struggle to access, engage and retain participants from hard-to-reach populations. The main objective of this study was to co-create pet therapy activities with patients admitted for serious and complex mental illness to a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Informed by the principles of participatory action research methodology, we conducted focus group discussions with 38 inpatients in seven different clinical units. An experienced volunteer handler and a certified therapy dog helped facilitate our discussions. Participating researchers, recreational therapists, volunteer handlers and our participants all reported that the presence of a certified therapy dog at each of our discussions was integral to their success. Certified therapy dogs increased the motivation to participate in our study, helped to build rapport with participants and created connections in our discussions that enriched our data. To our knowledge our study is the first to demonstrate the value of using a therapy dog as a participatory research tool in a healthcare setting. The authors believe that therapy dogs are a low-tech intervention that could be used effectively to engage hard-to-reach populations in research about their treatment and care in a diverse range of medical settings. These findings support the creation of a pilot study to test the value of including therapy dogs in patient-centered research with vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 37(1): 45-48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842089

RESUMO

For populations experiencing the preexisting conditions of poverty and all its related social inequalities, the COVID-19 pandemic further complicates the delivery of healthcare. Two members of the American College of Healthcare Executives-Tim Egan, president and CEO of Roseland Community Hospital on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, and Lynette Bonar, RN, FACHE, CEO of Tuba City Regional Health Care Corporation on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in Arizona-deal with those complications daily. Presented here together, their perspectives show resilience, cultural sensitivity, and commitment to protect the well-being of their diverse communities.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Arizona , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Chicago , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , População Urbana
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current international physical activity guidelines for health recommend children to engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. Yet, accurate prevalence estimates of physical activity levels of children are unavailable in many African countries due to the dearth of accelerometer-measured physical activity data. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of accelerometer-measured physical activity among school-going children in Kampala city, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to recruit a sample of 10-12 years old school-going children (n = 256) from 7 primary schools (3 public schools and 4 private schools) in Kampala city, Uganda. Sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+ [Pensacola, Florida, USA]) over a seven-day period. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by a parent/guardian questionnaire. Weight status was generated from objectively measured height and weight and computed as body mass index (BMI). Multi-level logistic regressions identified socio-demographic factors that were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. RESULTS: Children's sedentary time was 9.8±2.1 hours/day and MVPA was 56±25.7 minutes/day. Only 36.3% of the children (38.9% boys, 34.3% girls) met the physical activity guidelines. Boys, thin/normal weight and public school children had significantly higher mean daily MVPA levels. Socio-demographic factors associated with odds of meeting physical activity guidelines were younger age (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.55-0.84), thin/normal weight status (OR = 4.08; 95% CI = 1.42-11.76), and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as lower maternal level of education (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.84-3.21) and no family car (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.17-0.55). CONCLUSION: Children spent a substantial amount of time sedentary and in LPA and less time in MVPA. Few children met the physical activity guidelines. Lower weight status, lower maternal education level and no family car were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. Effective interventions and policies to increase physical activity among school-going children in Kampala, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 526, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, understanding the basic epidemiological parameter values of COVID-19 from real-world data in mega-cities is essential for disease prevention and control. METHODS: To investigate the epidemiological parameters in SARS-CoV-2 infected cases in Beijing, we studied all confirmed cases and close contacts in Beijing from Jan 1st to Apr 3rd 2020. The epidemiological and virological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 602 cases were positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 585 confirmed patients and 17 asymptomatic infections. The imported cases were mainly from Wuhan initially and then from abroad. Among 585 confirmed case-patients, the median age was 39 years old. The mean incubation period was 6.3 days. The secondary attack rate among households was higher than social contacts (15.6 vs 4.6%). The secondary attack rate of healthcare workers (HCWs) was higher than non-HCWs' (7.3 vs 4.2%). The basic reproduction number was 2.0, and the average serial interval was 7.6 days. No significant genetic variant was identified. CONCLUSIONS: The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was relatively high, especially among households and from HCWs, which draws specific public health attention. So far, no evidence of widespread circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in communities in Beijing was found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
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