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1.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(2): 99-105, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of 3D printing technology in preoperative surgery plan and intraoperative auxiliary operation for adult kyphoscoliosis deformity. METHODS: The clinical data of 12 adult patients with kyphoscoliosis deformity treated from September 2017 to January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 3 males and 9 females, aged from 21 to 63 years old with an average of (47.67±13.32) years old. Among them, 4 cases were congenital kyphoscoliosis, 2 cases were old tuberculosis thoracolumbar kyphosis ; 2 cases were idiopathic kyphoscoliosis, 4 cases were degenerative kyphoscoliosis. The CT scan data of the patient's spine was imported into Mimics17.0 software to establish the three dimensional model of the spine, and the spine model was produced by 3D printer. Using the spine model simulated operation, preoperative surgery program planning and formulated a precise surgery, and further analysed postoperative imaging parameters improvement. All the patients were followed up for more than 1 year. Before and after operation and at the last follow-up, the scoliosis Cobb angle, maximum kyphosis Cobb angle, and coronal plane balance (distance between C 7 plumbline and center sacral vertical line, C7PL-CSVL), sagittal plane balance (sagittal vertical axis, SVA), pelvic parameters and other related imaging parameters were measured to further evaluate its orthopedic effect. RESULTS: Twelve patients with spine deformity were treated with different osteotomy and internal fixation fusion methods under the guidance of a 1∶1 spine model (pedicle screw placement of 4 patients with severe deformity were assisted by pedicle screw guide plates), nail placement and osteotomy have good effects, no major tissue damage such as blood vessels, nerves and spinal cord during and after surgery, no complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leakage and infection. Preoperative Cobb angle of scoliosis was (56.5±22.5) °, Cobb angle of kyphosis was (65.2±19.5) °, C7 PL-CSVL was (45.8±16.9) mm, SVA was (48.7±25.4) mm. Postoperative at 4 weeks, Cobb angle of scoliosis was (20.8±11.5) °, and Cobb angle of kyphosis was (22.0±6.6) °, with correction rates of (65.1±9.7)% and (64.6± 10.6)%, respectively ; C7 PL-CSVL was (22.3±8.9) mm, and SVA was (23.3±13.1) mm, all of which were significantly improved compared with preoperative results. The mean follow-up time was (18.5±7.9) months in 12 patients. At the last follow-up, the Cobb angles of scoliosis and kyphosis were (22.2±10.8) ° and (23.6±7.7) °, respectively, C7 PL-CSVL was (23.5±10.8) mm, and SVA was (24.7±12.5) mm. The results were statistically significant compared preoperative (P<0.05). There was no significant difference at the postoperative at 4 weeks and the last follow-up (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The 3D print model can visually and clearly show the vertebral morphology and structure of adult kyphoscolisis and its spatial relationship with the adjacent vertebrae, blood vessels, and nerves, which provides a good and intuitive stereoscopic anatomical structure observation for the individualization of the surgical plan. Pre-simulation of operations to determine the internal fixation, fusion segment and osteotomy orthopedic way, may to provide a reference for actual clinical surgery, and can improve the accuracy and safety of surgery.


Assuntos
Cifose , Parafusos Pediculares , Escoliose , Fusão Vertebral , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Impressão Tridimensional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(2): 144-8, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the safety and effectivity of ultrasonic bone knife in osteotomy of degenerative kyphosis. METHODS: The clinical data of 32 patients with degenerative kyphosis treated from February 2014 to May 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 12 males and 20 females, aged 50 to 71 years with an average of (62.1±12.3) years. Preoperative Cobb angle was 25.3° to 36.7° with an average of (28.6±10.2) °. All patients underwent multi-segment Ponte osteotomy combined with posterior long segmental internal fixation. According to different osteotomy tools, the patients were divided into traditional tool group (group A, 18 cases) and ultrasonic bone knife group (group B, 14 cases). The operation time, laminectomy time, number of osteotomy segments, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage, hospitalization time and postoperative complications were recorded.Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to evaluate clinical outcomes before and 1 month after surgery. RESULTS: All the patients were followed up from 8 to 24 months with an average of 16.4 months. There were no significant differences in operative time and hospitalization time between two groups (P>0.05). Intraoperative single laminectomy time of group A was more than that of group B (P<0.05). The number of osteotomy segments in group A was less than that in group B (P<0.05). Intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage in group A were more than that in group B (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in VAS and ODI between two groups (P>0.05). There were no dural, nerve and spinal cord injuries in both groups, and there were no complications such as improper operation of the instrument and nonunion of the osteotomy. CONCLUSION: The use of ultrasonic bone knife for Ponte osteotomy is safe and effective. It can effectively save the time of single laminectomy while reducing the amount of intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage. The safety and clinical efficacy of ultrasonic bone knife are no less than traditional tools.


Assuntos
Cifose , Ultrassom , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/cirurgia , Laminectomia , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(2): 79-87, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899690

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional radiographic study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish the age- and sex-related normative values of whole-body sagittal alignment in asymptomatic Chinese adult population, and to investigate the changes and possible associated compensation mechanisms across age groups. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have reported normative data for sagittal spinal alignment in asymptomatic adults. However, there was a lack of comprehensive investigation on age- and sex-related normative values of whole-body sagittal alignment. METHODS: A total of 584 asymptomatic Chinese adults aged 20 to 89 years were recruited. Subjects were grouped according to age and sex. Whole-body standing radiographs were acquired for evaluating sagittal alignment from spine to lower limb. Comparisons of sagittal parameters between sex in different age groups were performed by independent t test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between each parameter. RESULTS: Mean values of each sagittal parameter were presented based on age and sex. Thoracic kyphosis showed steady increasing trend while lumbar lordosis gradual decrease in both sexes. Pelvic tilt (PT) in males is greater than in females across all age groups with age-related gradual increase. There were significant differences between males and females from 20 to 60 years in terms of KneeFlex angle (KA) and AnkleFlex angle, but the differences were not significant after 60s. T1 pelvic angle (TPA) was significantly correlated with spinal, pelvic and lower-limb alignment. The older group (≥50 years) had a stronger correlation of TPA with PT and KA, whereas the younger (<50 years) had stronger correlation with TK. CONCLUSION: This study presented a comprehensive study of whole-body sagittal alignment based on a large asymptomatic population, which could serve as an age- and sex-specific reference value for spine surgeons when planning for correction surgery. Age can influence the recruitment of compensation mechanism that involves more pelvic and lower limb mechanisms for elderly people. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Corporal Total , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Posição Ortostática , Adulto Jovem
4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e233-e240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compensatory mechanisms for cervical kyphosis are unclear. Few alignment analyses have targeted ongoing cervical kyphosis and detailed the effects of compensatory alignment changes. METHODS: We analyzed the radiographic alignment parameters of 31 patients (21 men and 10 women) with postoperative kyphotic changes after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) between 2006 and 2015. This analysis included lordotic angle of the fusion area, fusion area length, cervical lordosis angle (CL), O-C7 angle (O-C7a), and cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) as basic parameters and occipito-C2 angle (O-C2a), adjacent cranial angle, adjacent caudal angle, and T1 slope as compensatory parameters at 2 time points after surgery. RESULTS: Alignment analysis revealed that CL was significantly decreased by 5.0 ± 7.7° (P < 0.01) and O-C7a was changed by only -0.2 ± 6.8° (P = 0.75). An inverse correlation was found between ΔCL and ΔO-C2a (ρ = -0.40), with a nearly 1:1 relationship in the scatter diagram. ΔT1 slope had no direct compensatory correlation with ΔCL (P = 0.28) but was strongly correlated with ΔcSVA (ρ = 0.78). The scatter diagram of ΔcSVA and ΔT1 slope showed compensatory relevance and a shifted point to its collapse as the T1 slope lost control of cSVA; thereafter, both parameters incessantly increased, and ΔT1 and ΔcSVA became positive. CONCLUSIONS: When CL decreased after ACCF, ΔO-C2 immediately compensated for the CL loss that could lead to failure to obtain horizontal gaze. If cSVA increased, Δcaudal adjacent angle and ΔT1 slope (extension below the kyphosis) compensated for the horizontal offset translation. The noncompensatory status (ΔcSVA and ΔT1 positive) may necessitate further correction surgery in which the caudal fused level is beyond T1.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Cifose/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Fusão Vertebral , Idoso , Antropometria , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e342-e347, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to analyze the surgical effect of cervical spine sagittal alignment for patients with Hirayama disease (HD). METHODS: Forty-four subjects were retrospectively analyzed for the parameters of cervical spine sagittal alignment. The case group consisted of 23 patients with HD, whereas the control group consisted of 21 healthy adolescent subjects. Pre- and postoperative cervical spine sagittal parameters of the patients with HD were collected; the cervical sagittal parameters of the healthy adolescent subjects were also collected. Sagittal alignment parameters were compared between the patients with HD and the healthy adolescent subjects, and between the pre- and postoperative parameters for the patients with HD. RESULTS: Forty-four subjects completed the follow-up, with the average follow-up period being 18.0 months. No significant differences were detected between the HD and control groups for clinical parameters (P > 0.05). The preoperative HD group had smaller values compared with the control group in the sagittal parameters of C2-7 cervical lordosis (CL) angle, T1 slope, thoracic inlet angle (TIA), and cervical tilt angle (P < 0.05). For the patients with HD, the preoperative values were smaller compared with the postoperative HD values for the parameters of C2-7 CL angle, T1 slope, and cervical tilt angle (P < 0.05). We found no significant differences between the postoperative patients with HD and the healthy subjects, including C2-7 CL angle, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis, T1 slope, TIA, neck tilt angle, cervical tilt angle, and cranial tilt angle (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HD have sagittal imbalance of the cervical spine compared with age-matched healthy adolescent subjects, and surgical treatment could correct the sagittal imbalance.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Discotomia , Fusão Vertebral , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/etiologia , Cifose/patologia , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/etiologia , Lordose/patologia , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/complicações , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(1): 42-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several authors mentioned surgical outcome for scoliosis associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). However, no studies have summarized long-term surgical outcomes after surgical treatment of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) with NF-1. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term surgical outcome after early definitive spinal fusion for EOS in NF-1 patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review on a cohort of 11 patients diagnosed with EOS associated with NF-1 between 1990 and 2009 in our hospital. The study included 7 male and 4 female NF-1 patients with a mean age at fusion surgery of 8 years 4 months who underwent early definitive spinal fusion for EOS. We reviewed radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance images for each patient. The data collected included type of NF-1, Cobb angles, kyphotic angle, spinal length (T1-S1), and pulmonary function. We also evaluated progression of the dystrophic change through radiographs and computed tomography during the follow-up period. RESULTS: The mean follow-up duration was 14 years (5 y 10 mo to 25 y). All patients underwent anterior and posterior fusion surgeries in either 1 or 2 stages. Seven cases had subtotal tumor resection from the concave side followed by rib strut grafting. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the primary curve was corrected from 71.2 to 24.1 degrees and was maintained at the final follow-up at 23.5 degrees. Mean values for preoperative and final follow-up T1-S1 heights were 30.7 and 36.2 cm, respectively. Mean values for preoperative and final follow-up % forced vital capacity (the present/the predicted) were 75.0% and 74.4%, respectively. The dystrophic change progressed in all cases during the long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our goals for NF-1 scoliosis are to obtain deformity correction, to achieve stable instrumentation by using longer fusion levels and to attain a solid fusion mass that can tolerate continual erosion during the long-term follow-up. We achieve this by using a circumferential approach for EOS associated with NF-1. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-case series.


Assuntos
Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Escoliose/complicações , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurofibromatose 1/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
7.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1370-1378, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674249

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of pelvic parameters on the tendency of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to develop flatback deformity (thoracic hypokyphosis and lumbar hypolordosis) and its effect on quality-of-life outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a radiological study of 265 patients recruited for Boston bracing between December 2008 and December 2013. Posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were obtained before, immediately after, and two-years after completion of bracing. Measurements of coronal and sagittal Cobb angles, coronal balance, sagittal vertical axis, and pelvic parameters were made. The refined 22-item Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22r) questionnaire was recorded. Association between independent factors and outcomes of postbracing ≥ 6° kyphotic changes in the thoracic spine and ≥ 6° lordotic changes in the lumbar spine were tested using likelihood ratio chi-squared test and univariable logistic regression. Multivariable logistic regression models were then generated for both outcomes with odds ratios (ORs), and with SRS-22r scores. RESULTS: Reduced T5-12 kyphosis (mean -4.3° (sd 8.2); p < 0.001), maximum thoracic kyphosis (mean -4.3° (sd 9.3); p < 0.001), and lumbar lordosis (mean -5.6° (sd 12.0); p < 0.001) were observed after bracing treatment. Increasing prebrace maximum kyphosis (OR 1.133) and lumbar lordosis (OR 0.92) was associated with postbracing hypokyphotic change. Prebrace sagittal vertical axis (OR 0.975), prebrace sacral slope (OR 1.127), prebrace pelvic tilt (OR 0.940), and change in maximum thoracic kyphosis (OR 0.878) were predictors for lumbar hypolordotic changes. There were no relationships between coronal deformity, thoracic kyphosis, or lumbar lordosis with SRS-22r scores. CONCLUSION: Brace treatment leads to flatback deformity with thoracic hypokyphosis and lumbar hypolordosis. Changes in the thoracic spine are associated with similar changes in the lumbar spine. Increased sacral slope, reduced pelvic tilt, and pelvic incidence are associated with reduced lordosis in the lumbar spine after bracing. Nevertheless, these sagittal parameter changes do not appear to be associated with worse quality of life. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1370-1378.


Assuntos
Braquetes/efeitos adversos , Cifose/etiologia , Lordose/etiologia , Escoliose/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas
8.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(23): 1638-1646, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725686

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment results of patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis (AS) kyphosis who underwent two-level osteotomy and correction surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The best solution for the fixed kyphotic deformity of AS is corrective osteotomy. Many osteotomy options are available: pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO), Smith-Peterson osteotomy (SPO), and vertical column resection (VCR). These procedures all provide multiplanar deformity correction. Nevertheless, when the AS deformity is severe, an additional osteotomy site to get more correction, achieve more ideal, and smooth curvature of the spine than single osteotomy. METHODS: From May, 2008 to August, 2016, 19 patients of severe AS kyphosis underwent two-level spinal osteotomy and correction surgery. The patients had an average kyphosis angle greater than 90°. The radiological features and clinical evaluation, including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS), and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 components were assessed before surgery and at follow-up. The patients underwent either one-level PSO combined with one-level SPO (n = 9) or two-level PSO (n = 10). RESULTS: The height was increased after surgery in all patients (P < 0.05). The median follow-up was 24 months. The kyphosis angle improved from 92.0 ±â€Š16.6° to 30.0 ±â€Š17.2°. The chin-brow vertical angle improved from 37.6 ±â€Š19.2° to -0.6 ±â€Š2.5°. The sacral slope improved from 3.9 ±â€Š11.8° to 21.7 ±â€Š7.4°. Sagittal imbalance improved from 241.4 ±â€Š115.3 mm to 74.6 ±â€Š48.5 mm (P < 0.05). Lumbar lordosis improved from -3.9 ±â€Š20.8° to 29.4 ±â€Š14.1° (all P < 0.05). There were significant improvements in the ODI, VAS, and all components of SRS-22 (all P < 0.05). All patients with pseudarthrosis (n = 5) underwent PSO + SPO and achieved satisfactory results. Six complications were observed perioperatively, but without permanent sequelae. CONCLUSION: Two-level osteotomy and correction procedure can achieve satisfactory results in severe AS kyphosis. PSO + SPO could be a good option for patients with pseudarthrosis because of relatively easier and faster operation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilite Anquilosante/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 14(1): 290, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictive effect of lumbar lordosis minus thoracic kyphosis (LL-TK) in the surgical outcome of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) patients and explore the optimum target base on it. METHODS: The preoperative and postoperative data including radiographic image and functional evaluation (Visual Analog Scale, VAS; Oswestry Disability Index, ODI; Japanese Orthopaedic Association, JOA) of 130 patients with ADS who underwent corrective surgery was retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between sagittal parameters and surgical outcome was assessed by using the Pearson correlation analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the optimum cutoff value of LL-TK. Patients were divided into two groups based on LL-TK to compare the preoperative and postoperative status. RESULTS: LL-TK assessed soon after surgery strongly correlated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) at last follow-up. The cutoff value of LL-TK was set at 10° to determine a good clinical outcome (ODI < 20) and sagittal balance (SVA < 50 mm). Patients with LL-TK > 10° presented significantly better postoperative VAS, ODI, JOA, and SVA than patients with LL-TK < 10°. CONCLUSION: LL-TK could effectively predict postoperative HRQOL and sagittal balance for patients with ADS. Patients with LL-TK > 10° showed a better clinical outcome and sagittal balance, so LL-TK > 10° could be the optimum corrective target for these patients.


Assuntos
Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/terapia , Lordose/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6532-6538, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiological outcomes of modified closing-opening wedge osteotomy (mCOWO) for correcting kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS From April 2012 to April 2017, records of consecutive patients who underwent mCOWO were reviewed. The clinical and radiological outcomes were analyzed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the most recent follow-up. RESULTS Eleven AS patients underwent mCOWO, with a mean follow-up of 19.4 months (range, 12-45 months). The average sagittal vertical axis (SVA) was corrected from 191.9 mm preoperatively to 75.9 mm postoperatively (P<0.05) and 78.9 mm at the most recent follow-up (P<0.05). The average correction angles at the osteotomy site were 44.5° postoperatively and 45.0° at the most recent follow-up (P>0.05). Sagittal translation (ST) occurred in 2 patients, and 5 mm was the maximum. There was no neurologic damage. Solid fusion was observed at the most recent follow-up in all patients. CONCLUSIONS Modified closing-opening wedge osteotomy (mCOWO) is an effective technique for correcting kyphosis in patients with AS.


Assuntos
Cifose/complicações , Cifose/cirurgia , Osteotomia , Espondilite Anquilosante/complicações , Espondilite Anquilosante/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(8): e597-e601, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients can present with scoliosis which can be treated with serial cast correction (SCC) or with growth friendly surgery (GFS). This study's purpose was to describe the results of SCC as well as GFS for PWS patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS). METHODS: PWS patients were identified from 2 international multicenter EOS databases. Scoliosis, kyphosis, spine height (T1-S1), right/left hemithoracic heights/widths (RHTH, LHTH, RHTW, LHTW) were measured pretreatment, postoperation, and at 2-year follow-up. Complications were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 23 patients with 2-year follow-up were identified. Pretreatment; patients treated with SCC (n=10) had mean age of 1.8±0.6 years; body mass index (BMI), 16±1.5 kg/m; scoliosis, 45±18 degrees; kyphosis, 56±9 degrees; T1-S1, 22.4±2.4 cm; RHTH, 8.0±2.0 cm; LHTH, 8.5±1.7 cm; RHTW, 6.6±1.3 cm; and LHTW, 8.0±1.0 cm. Patients treated with GFS (n=13) had mean age of 5.8±2.6 years; BMI, 21±5.4 kg/m; scoliosis, 76±14 degrees; kyphosis, 59±25 degrees; T1-S1, 24.1±3.6 cm; RHTH, 10.0±1.6 cm; LHTH, 10.6±1.6 cm; RHTW, 9.4±2.5 cm; and LHTW, 8.1±2.8 cm. At 2-year follow-up, patients treated with SCC had mean scoliosis 37±11 degrees (18% correction, P=0.06); kyphosis, 42±6 degrees (NS); T1-S1, 26.4±2.1 cm (P<0.01); RHTH, 9.0±1.1 cm (13%; P=0.30); LHTH, 10.0±1.5 cm (18%, P<0.01); RHTW, 7.4±1.1 cm (12%, P<0.01); and LHTW, 8.0±1.0 cm (0%, P=0.34). At 2-year follow-up, patients treated with GFS had mean scoliosis 42±13 degrees (45% correction, P<0.000001); kyphosis, 53±13 degrees (10%, P=0.19); T1-S1, 31.5±5.4 cm (P<0.00001); RHTH, 12.0±2.4 cm (20%; P<0.01); LHTH, 12.0±1.7 cm (13%; P<0.01); RHTW, 9.8±1.3 cm (4%; P=0.27); and LHTW, 7.9±2.3 cm (3%;P=0.11). As an entire group, patients with a BMI>17 kg/m² had more device-related than disease-related complications (P=0.09). Patients treated with SCC had 0.9 complications per patient. Patients treated with GFS had 2.2 complications per patient [≤5 y more often had ≥2 complications (P=0.05)]. CONCLUSIONS: At 2-year follow-up, SCC and GFS were both effective in treating EOS in PWS patients. Patients treated with SCC had significant improvements in spine height and LHTH. Patients treated with GFS had significant improvements in scoliosis magnitude, spine height, RHTH, and LHTH. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Moldes Cirúrgicos , Cifose/terapia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Escoliose/terapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/etiologia , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
World Neurosurg ; 131: 154-158, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional failure (PJF) is a major and sometimes devastating problem following adult spinal deformity (ASD) correction surgery. Common consensus still lags on guidelines for preventing and managing these complications. Surgical treatment of scoliosis in the presence of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in the pediatric population is well described. The complication rates are unusually higher in this special subset of patients owing to poor quality of bone. There is a paucity of literature focusing on surgical techniques, strategies, and problems involved in the management of ASD associated with OI. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a 59-year-old female with type 1 OI and adult scoliosis who underwent T10-to-pelvis fusion for ASD according to the principles of adult deformity correction. At a 1-year follow-up, she presented with asymptomatic proximal junctional kyphosis of 45° and 2 weeks later had PJF along with spinal cord injury after a fall. On computed tomography scan, kyphosis was increased to 60° at T9-T10. She underwent decompression and revision deformity correction using quadruple rods, with extension of instrumentation to T2 with soft landing using rib bands. At a 4-year follow-up, she had a good functional outcome after revision surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of successful management of PJF following ASD correction in the presence of OI using this technique. Suboptimal hold of implants due to poor bone quality must be at the focus of any surgical planning for these patients. All possible strategies to prevent PJF must be considered when planning the deformity correction in adults with OI.


Assuntos
Cifose/cirurgia , Osteogênese Imperfeita/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Fixadores Internos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteogênese Imperfeita/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Reoperação , Escoliose/complicações , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fusão Vertebral
13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 384, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scoliotic braces are the standard of curve for management of moderate spinal deformities in pediatric patients. The effectiveness of this treatment method has been shown; however, the spinal and rib cage parameters, in the three anatomical planes, that are associated with bracing outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are not fully identified. METHODS: A total number of 45 right thoracic AIS patients who had received a thoraco-lumbo-scaral brace for the first time were included retrospectively. For each patient, radiographic images at three visits, pre-brace, in-brace, and at least 1 year after the first brace fit were included. Age, sex, Risser sign, and curve type at pre-brace, and thoracic and lumbar frontal and sagittal Cobb angles, thoracic and lumbar apical rotations, sagittal and frontal balances at pre-brace and in-brace were determined. Two sagittal curve types (hypothoracolumbar and normal/hyperthoracolumbar kyphosis), two rib cage types based on the costovertebral joints (drooping and horizontal), and two axial shapes of the spine (S shaped and V shaped) were used to stratify the patients. Feature selection and linear regression with regularization determined the parameters and the interaction terms that predicted the brace effectiveness significantly. RESULTS: Smaller in-brace thoracic Cobb and larger in-brace lordosis predicted brace effectiveness, p < 0.05. Impact of the out of brace lordosis on the brace success increased as the in brace kyphosis angle decreased, p = 0.046. A larger out of brace lordosis in hypothoracolumbar sagittal profile type patients improved the outcomes, p = 0.031. A smaller out of brace thoracic rotation improved the bracing outcomes in patients with horizontal ribs, p = 0.040. CONCLUSION: Both 3D patient specific parameters (lordosis, thoracic rotation, shape of the rib cage, and sagittal profile) and brace design (which allows larger in brace lordosis, better in brace Cobb correction) are important predictors of the brace effectiveness in AIS.


Assuntos
Braquetes , Imagem Tridimensional , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/terapia , Lordose/terapia , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Caixa Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(15): 1357-1365, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been many reports on the treatment of congenital kyphoscoliosis. However, congenital deformities in the cervicothoracic spine (C7-T1) have not been well described because of the rarity of these conditions. METHODS: The medical records and imaging studies of 25 children who were treated with 360° osteotomy for congenital deformities in the cervicothoracic spine (C7-T1) at a mean age of 11.4 years were reviewed. RESULTS: All 25 children presented with torticollis; 4 presented with neck pain; 10, with facial asymmetry; and 3, with preoperative neurological deficits. Twenty-three patients had congenital deformities in other regions of the spine. Six patients had a total of 8 intraspinal deformities. On average, the cervicothoracic curve was corrected from 53° preoperatively to 14° at the latest follow-up, the segmental kyphosis was corrected from 25° to 12°, and the head tilt improved from 25° to 5°. Nineteen patients had a total of 28 complications, including 1 transient cord injury together with a permanent C8 nerve root injury, 11 transient nerve root injuries, 1 transient Horner syndrome, 9 cases of decompensation of a compensatory curve, 2 implant failures, 2 cases of hemothorax, 1 dural tear, and 1 case of delayed wound-healing. CONCLUSIONS: Most congenital cervicothoracic deformities are fixed, and early surgical intervention may be needed. A 360° osteotomy is indicated for this type of rigid deformity and may provide satisfactory correction. However, 360° osteotomy in the cervicothoracic spine (C7-T1) is technically demanding with a higher risk of nerve root injuries, although most injuries tend to be transient. If the compensatory thoracic curve is severe and rigid, 1-stage or staged surgery in this region may be required. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Cifose/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/congênito , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Torcicolo/diagnóstico , Torcicolo/etiologia , Torcicolo/cirurgia
15.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(19): E1144-E1150, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261278

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To identify age-related changes in cervical sagittal parameters using standard radiographs. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical sagittal balance is important for the maintenance of neutral head posture and horizontal gaze. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine that occur with aging may alter cervical sagittal balance, which can lead to chronic neck pain and predispose to various cervical spine pathologies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 151 patients with lateral cervical spine radiographs taken at our institution between December 2017 and June 2018. Cervical sagittal parameters were measured, including C1 inclination, C2 slope, C2-C7 Cobb angle, cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA), cervical tilt, upper and lower C7 slopes, T1 slope, and T1 slope minus cervical lordosis (TS-CL). The association between age and cervical sagittal parameters was assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and a linear regression analysis. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey adjustments was then performed to identify differences in cervical sagittal parameters among patients aged 18 to 39 years, 40 to 64 years, and >64 years of age. RESULTS: There were positive correlations between age and C2-C7 Cobb angle (r = 0.231, P = 0.004), upper C7 slope (r = 0.280, P < 0.001), lower C7 slope (r = 0.283, P < 0.001), and T1 slope (r = 0.189, P = 0.020). Upper C7 slope (R = 0.079) and lower C7 slope (R = 0.074) had the strongest correlation with age in the linear regression analysis. The ANOVA found significant differences among the age subgroups in terms of C2-C7 Cobb angle (P = 0.002), upper C7 slope (P < 0.001), lower C7 slope (P < 0.001), and T1 slope (P = 0.031). Patients >64 years old had significantly higher C2-C7 Cobb angle, upper C7 slope, lower C7 slope, and T1 slope. CONCLUSION: Changes in cervical sagittal alignment with age are characterized by increased cervical lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e915-e925, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of an anterior-only approach for the correction of severe cervical kyphotic deformities. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 33 consecutive patients with severe cervical kyphosis treated with an anterior cervical operation and preoperative and intraoperative skull traction. Cobb angle, kyphosis index (KI), kyphosis level, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and T1 slope were measured. The preoperative and postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, visual analog scale (VAS) score for neck pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and cervical alignment were compared. RESULTS: The mean angle of the kyphosis was 83.2 ± 20.4°. The mean Cobb angle of the operative region was 71.7 ± 18.5° preoperation, which was reduced to 10.6 ± 5.7° postoperation (mean correction, 85.2%). The mean KI was 75.1 ± 18.2 preoperation, which was reduced to 14.4 ± 9.1 postoperation (mean correction, 80.8%). The preoperative and postoperative mean C2-7 Cobb angle was 53.8 ± 16.5° and 14.7 ± 7.6°, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean C2-7 SVA was 3.9 ± 14.5 mm and 12.8 ± 7.3 mm, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative mean T1 slope was -9.4 ± 15.7° and 7.3 ± 13.1°, respectively. The average postoperative C2-7 Cobb angle, Cobb angle of the operative region, KI, C2-7 SVA, and T1 slope changed significantly compared with preoperative values (P < 0.05). The average postoperative JOA, VAS, and NDI scores improved significantly compared with preoperative scores (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative and intraoperative skull traction combined with anterior-only cervical operation may be a safe and effective technique for treating severe cervical kyphosis. If the postoperative correction is >80%, sufficient decompression could be achieved.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cifose/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Crânio/cirurgia , Tração/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia Combinada/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/tendências , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tração/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e961-e970, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the outcomes of severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) corrected with 3D-printed individualized guiding templates. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) data of patients with severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to AS were used to reconstruct 3D models of the spine and to develop a surgical plan. An asymmetric wedge pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) was simulated using medical computer design software. Before the actual surgery, continual surgical simulations were performed until the most suitable one was obtained, and personalized guiding templates were manufactured for the anticipated PSO. During operation, the osteotomy plane and trajectories for the pedicle screws were positioned by the designed patient-specific 3D-printed guiding templates. RESULTS: In this study, we reviewed 9 patients who underwent correction of kyphoscoliosis using a 3D-printed individualized guiding template and were followed for a median of 21.4 months (range, 9-36 months). The average correction at the site of osteotomy was 65.9°. No patient experienced severe complications, such as misplaced pedicle screws or neurologic complications. At the last follow-up, no patient exhibited implant dysfunction on radiography. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative surgical simulation using 3D-printed templates is a viable technique that enables surgery to meet both patient- and surgeon-specific requirements for correction of severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis. These 3D-printed templates can guide the performance of planned PSO to provide functional restoration of severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to AS.


Assuntos
Cifose/cirurgia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Escoliose/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilite Anquilosante/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/etiologia , Masculino , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/etiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/complicações , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9868473, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183382

RESUMO

Background and Study Aim: To evaluate anterior-posterior spine curvatures and incidence of sagittal defects in children and adolescents practicing traditional Karate. Material and Methods: 152 people aged 6-16 yrs, mean age 10.5±3.03. The study group (SG), subjects attending traditional Karate classes for min one year, 60 minutes twice a week (76 people). The control group (CG) randomly selected on 1:1 basis to match SG. The anterior-posterior curvatures were measured with a gravitational inclinometer. Sauder's norms were used to assess postural defects. Body mass, height, and BMI were measured. Mann-Whitney U-test/Student's t-test for independent variables, χ 2 test, and Cramer V test were used in statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences were observed between the groups in lumbosacral inclination ALPHA1 p<0.001; karateka had significantly lower ALPHA 1 and greater thoracic inclination (GAMMA TH/L) p=0.23. In study group, lumbosacral angle flattening (ALPHA 2) (81.6%) was greater than in CG (56.6%). ALPHA 2 (43.4%) was more frequently within the norm in CG. Increased ALPHA 2 was reported only among SG (2.6%). Differences were statistically significant (χ 2 (2) = 15.23 p<0.001) and of moderate power (Cramer V=0.31). Regarding thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Traditional Karate affects pelvic tilt leading to posterior tilt; it correlates with somatic parameters: height, mass, and BMI in terms of spine curvatures. The size of the lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in karatekas is comparable to that of those not practicing sport. Frequent incidence of reduced pelvic tilt in karatekas requires implementing exercises activating anterior tilt during training session.


Assuntos
Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Lordose/diagnóstico por imagem , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Postura , Radiografia , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/fisiopatologia
19.
World Neurosurg ; 130: 30-36, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal osseous tuberculosis, or Pott's spine, although very common in endemic countries, has a lower incidence in very young children. However, the infection has the propensity to cause greater vertebral destruction in this age group, leading to severe structural kyphotic deformity and associated neurologic deficits. We report the case of a 19-month-old child with severe tubercular kyphotic deformity of the upper thoracic spine managed with posterior vertebral column resection (VCR) and nonfusion posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. CASE DESCRIPTION: This 19-month-old boy presented with 1-month history of spontaneous-onset, progressive, painful rigid kyphotic deformity of the upper back associated with spastic paraparesis with bowel and bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe destruction of bodies of D4-D7 vertebrae with cord edema and draping of the spinal cord over the internal gibbus at D4-D7. Surgery was performed with a restricted anterior fusion via single-stage posterior VCR at D4-D7 with nonfusion pedicle screw instrumentation from D1 to D9, with subsequent extension of instrumentation to D10 after 4 months. CONCLUSIONS: Multilevel posterior VCR with a restricted fusion and nonfusion pedicle screw instrumentation beyond the resection site can be safely done in young children (age <3 years) requiring rigid tubercular kyphotic deformity correction. However, these patients require regular follow-up and may need multiple surgeries.


Assuntos
Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Cifose/complicações , Masculino , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/complicações
20.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(12): e555-e567, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170097

RESUMO

Cervical spinal deformity (CSD) in adult patients is a relatively uncommon yet debilitating condition with diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations. Similar to thoracolumbar deformity, CSD can be broadly divided into scoliosis and kyphosis. Severe forms of CSD can lead to pain; neurologic deterioration, including myelopathy; and cervical spine-specific symptoms such as difficulty with horizontal gaze, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Recently, an increased interest is shown in systematically studying CSD with introduction of classification schemes and treatment algorithms. Both major and minor complications after surgical intervention have been analyzed and juxtaposed to patient-reported outcomes. An ongoing effort exists to better understand the relationship between cervical and thoracolumbar spinal alignment, most importantly in the sagittal plane.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Cifose/etiologia , Cifose/cirurgia , Escoliose/etiologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/complicações , Espondilose/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
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