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1.
Eur J Protistol ; 78: 125769, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549969

RESUMO

A little-known haptorid ciliate, Helicoprorodon multinucleatum Dragesco, 1960, was found in a sandy beach at Qingdao, China. Its morphology was studied based on microscopic observations of live and protargol-stained specimens and morphometrics, and the phylogeny was analyzed using SSU rRNA gene sequences. Helicoprorodon multinucleatum is characterized by the combination of the following features: (i) a very narrowly worm-like body with a size of about 300-1500 µm × 30-60 µm in vivo, and two circles of horn-like protuberances around the head; (ii) 50-160 spherical macronuclear nodules scattered throughout the body; (iii) rod-shaped, 10-50 µm long extrusomes gathered into several bunches, which are randomly distributed beneath pellicle; and (iv) 42-88 somatic kineties, including four oralized kineties and two dorsal brush rows. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that both the family Helicoprorodontidae and the genus Helicoprorodon might be monophyletic. In addition, we provide an illustrated key to the species and the geographical distribution of the genus Helicoprorodon.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , China , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Eur J Protistol ; 78: 125768, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549970

RESUMO

In a study of marine ciliate diversity, we collected an Anteholosticha monilata-like population from Vietnam. To identify this population, we analyzed its morphology, some morphogenetic stages, and molecular phylogeny. Based on these data, we conclude that the Vietnamese population is new to science. Anteholosticha foissneri n. sp. resembles Anteholosticha monilata-like species considering (1) the number and arrangement of macronuclear nodules and micronuclei; (2) the presence of cortical granules; and (3) the saline habitat. However, the new species can be easily distinguished from these species by the arrangement, color, and shape of the cortical granules. The divisional morphogenesis commences with the de novo proliferation of basal bodies as a single longitudinal patch left of the posteriormost midventral cirral pair. This character state has not been reported before in Anteholosticha (based on check of the available data) and probably reflects a distinct clade within the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene tree.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Morfogênese , Filogenia , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108081, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549536

RESUMO

Artificial breeding of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) was recently achieved, providing a bright future for its commercial farming. In May 2019, a disease outbreak occurred among small yellow croakers in an aquaculture farm near Xiangshan Bay, charactering by white spots spotted on the surface of fish skin, gills and fins. The parasite was preliminarily identified as Cryptocaryon irritans based on morphological feature of the parasite and the symptoms on fish. However, the previously published specific primer pairs failed to confirm the existence of C. iriitans. Six nucleotides mismatches were discovered after mapping specific forward primer back to targeted gene. Therefore, an updated PCR specific primer was developed within the 9th highly variable region of 18S rRNA gene and conserved in all C. irritans sequences available in GenBank database. The specificity was verified in silico by Primer-BLAST against GenBank nucleotide. Laboratory cultured ciliates (Mesanophrys, Pseudokeronopsis and Uronema) as well as natural microbial community samples collected from sea water and river water was used as negative control to verify the specificity of the primer in situ. Besides, tank transfer method was used to evaluate the treatment of the parasite infection. By tank transfer method, 2.00 ± 0.61 out of 10 fish that already sever infected were successfully survived after 8 days treatment, meanwhile the control group died out at d 6. More loss to the treatment group during first five days was observed and may attribute to the combined effect from infection and stress the recent domesticated fish suffered during rotation. Therefore, tank transfer method was also effective to prevent small yellow croaker from further infection, however the loss of the small yellow croaker suffered from stress during rotation also needs to be carefully concerned. In conclusion, this study reported the first diagnose of C. irritans infection on small yellow croaker, provided updated specific primer to detect C. irritans infection on fish body and reported the effect of tank transfer on small yellow croaker treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/patologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Infecções por Cilióforos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/terapia , Pesqueiros , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Eur J Protistol ; 78: 125694, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500175

RESUMO

Denis Lynn (1947-2018) was an outstanding protistologist, applying multiple techniques and data sources and thus pioneering an integrative approach in order to investigate ciliate biology. For example, he recognized the importance of the ultrastructure for inferring ciliate phylogeny, based on which he developed his widely accepted classification scheme for the phylum Ciliophora. In this paper, recent findings regarding the evolution and systematics of both peritrichs and the mainly marine planktonic oligotrichean spirotrichs are discussed and compared with the concepts and hypotheses formulated by Denis Lynn. Additionally, the state of knowledge concerning the diversity of ciliates in bromeliad phytotelmata and amitosis in ciliates is reviewed.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Biodiversidade , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Classificação , Roma , Sociedades
5.
Protist ; 171(4): 125752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814281

RESUMO

The genus Psilotricha was established by Stein in 1859, with P. acuminata as the type species within the family Oxytrichidae. This species lacked a full description until it was re-discovered in 2001, showing that its morphological and morphogenetic characters confirmed the inclusion in the family Oxytrichidae. Since then, the genus Psilotricha has had a convoluted taxonomy despite the morphological evidence available. In this paper, we describe a new Psilotricha species, Psilotricha silvicola n. sp., from woodland soils in Southern England (United Kingdom). The morphology was investigated in live and protargol-impregnated specimens. Our findings show that P. silvicola n. sp. shares morphological characteristics with P. acuminata, including the distinctive cell shape and the long and sparse cirri. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene places this new species within the family Oxytrichidae, nested apart from the family Psilotrichidae (which includes the genera Urospinula, Psilotrichides and Hemiholosticha), in a clade containing species of the family Oxytrichidae. Furthermore, the morphology of another Psilotricha species, P. viridis, found in a freshwater pond in the same woodland area, is also here described, bringing additional insight into the taxonomy of the genus. Our findings provide further evidence for inclusion of the genus Psilotricha within the oxytrichids.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Solo/parasitologia , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Florestas , Água Doce , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Reino Unido
6.
Protist ; 171(4): 125755, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858402

RESUMO

The systematics of Hypotricha is one of the most puzzling problems in ciliate biology, having spanned numerous conflicting hypotheses with unstable relationships at various levels in molecular trees, for which the constant addition of newly discovered species has only increased the confusion. The hypotrichs comprise a remarkable morphologically diversified group of ciliates, and the phylogenetic potential of morphological traits is generally recognized. However, such characters were rarely used in phylogenetic reconstructions, and congruence with molecular data never assessed from simultaneous analyses. To properly reconciliate morphological and molecular information, maximum-likelihood and parsimony analyses of 79 morphological characters and 18S rDNA sequences were performed for 130 ingroup terminals, broadly sampled to represent the known hypotrich diversity. As result, well-supported and relatively stable clades were recovered, based on which the redefined Hypotricha comprises at least six higher taxa: The "arcuseriids", Holostichida, Parabirojimida, and the "amphisiellids", plus the two large clades Kentrurostylida nov. tax. (Hispidotergida nov. tax. and Simplicitergida nov. tax.) and Diatirostomata nov. tax. ("bistichellids", "kahliellids", Gonostomatida and Dorsomarginalia [Postoralida nov. tax. and Uroleptida]). Each taxon was circumscribed by synapomorphies, of which most were homoplastic, as the natural history of hypotrichs is portrayed by an outstanding quantity of convergences and reversions.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 86, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although phylogenomic analyses are increasingly used to reveal evolutionary relationships among ciliates, relatively few nuclear protein-coding gene markers have been tested for their suitability as candidates for inferring phylogenies within this group. In this study, we investigate the utility of the heat-shock protein 90 gene (Hsp90) as a marker for inferring phylogenetic relationships among hypotrich ciliates. RESULTS: A total of 87 novel Hsp90 gene sequences of 10 hypotrich species were generated. Of these, 85 were distinct sequences. Phylogenetic analyses based on these data showed that: (1) the Hsp90 gene amino acid trees are comparable to the small subunit rDNA tree for recovering phylogenetic relationships at the rank of class, but lack sufficient phylogenetic signal for inferring evolutionary relationships at the genus level; (2) Hsp90 gene paralogs are recent and therefore unlikely to pose a significant problem for recovering hypotrich clades; (3) definitions of some hypotrich orders and families need to be revised as their monophylies are not supported by various gene markers; (4) The order Sporadotrichida is paraphyletic, but the monophyly of the "core" Urostylida is supported; (5) both the subfamily Oxytrichinae and the genus Urosoma seem to be non-monophyletic, but monophyly of Urosoma is not rejected by AU tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our results for the first time demonstrate that the Hsp90 gene is comparable to SSU rDNA for recovering phylogenetic relationships at the rank of class, and its paralogs are unlikely to pose a significant problem for recovering hypotrich clades. This study shows the value of careful gene marker selection for phylogenomic analyses of ciliates.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cilióforos/classificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Filogenia
8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 92, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotrichia are a group with the most complex morphology and morphogenesis within the ciliated protists. The classification of Gastrostyla-like species, a taxonomically difficult group of hypotrichs with a common ventral cirral pattern but various dorsal and ontogenetic patterns, is poorly understood. Hence, systematic relationships within this group and with other taxa in the subclass Hypotrichia remain unresolved. RESULTS: 18S rRNA gene sequence of a new Gastrostyla-like taxon was obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 18S rRNA gene sequences indicate that this ciliate represents a new genus that is closely related to Heterourosomoida and Kleinstyla within the oxytrichid clade of the Hypotrichia. However, the position of this cluster remains unresolved. All three genera deviate from the typical oxytrichids by their incomplete (or lack of) dorsal kinety fragmentation during morphogenesis. Morphology and morphogenesis of this newly discovered form, Heterogastrostyla salina nov. gen., nov. spec., are described. Heterogastrostyla nov. gen., is characterised as follows: more than 18 fronto-ventral-transverse cirri, cirral anlagen V and VI develop pretransverse cirri, and dorsal ciliature in Urosomoida-like pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to the CEUU-hypothesis about convergent evolution of urostylids and uroleptids, we speculate that the shared ventral cirral patterns of Gastrostyla-like taxa might have resulted from convergent evolution.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Classificação , Salinidade , Solo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hypotrichida/classificação , Hypotrichida/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Morfogênese/genética , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 227-230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592544

RESUMO

A total of 578 specimens of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eight the most significant and larger cyprinid aquaculture facilities in Macedonia (fish farms and cage culture systems) were examined for parasitological investigation. Protozoa Apiosoma piscicola was found in cage culture system on Globochica reservoir. In this fish farm, a total of 127 fish samples were examined for parasitological investigation, in which parasite infestation with A. piscicola was found on fins and gills in 79 specimens of common carp, in winter season. The prevalence of A. piscicola in common carp was 62.20%, while the mean intensity was 17.58. Our findings of A. piscicola in common carp (C. carpio) are first recorded in Macedonia. At the same time, common carp represent new host for A. piscicola in Macedonian waters.


Assuntos
Carpas , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Aquicultura , Carpas/parasitologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia
10.
Protist ; 171(3): 125740, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544844

RESUMO

We report the discovery of three new species of freshwater metopid ciliates, Pileometopus lynni gen. et sp. nov., Castula flexibilis gen. et sp. nov., and Longitaenia australis gen. et sp. nov. Based on morphologic features and the 18S rRNA gene phylogeny, we transfer two known species of Metopus to the new genus Castula, as C. fusca (Kahl, 1927) comb. nov. and C. setosa (Kahl, 1927) comb. nov. and another known species is herein transferred to the new genus Longitaenia, as L. gibba (Kahl, 1927) comb. nov. Pileometopus is characterized by a turbinate body shape, a dorsal field of densely spaced dikinetids, a bipartite paroral membrane, and long caudal cilia. A distinctive morphologic feature of Castula species is long setae arising over the posterior third of the body (as opposed to a terminal tuft). Longitaenia spp. are characterized by an equatorial cytostome and long perizonal ciliary stripe relative to the cell length. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences, we identify and briefly discuss strongly supported clades and intraspecific genetic polymorphism within the order Metopida.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
11.
Protist ; 171(3): 125739, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535352

RESUMO

'Flagship' ciliates were investigated from soil samples collected in Florida, USA. This was undertaken to determine if species thought to be restricted to a given world region could be uncovered from similar habitats in a novel location, e.g. another continent. Two species of Condylostomides were discovered, and recorded from the North American continent for the first time. Condylostomides etoschensis was known only from Africa, but was found to be thriving in a Florida study site. An 18S rDNA sequence for this species was determined for the first time. Also discovered from the same study site was the ciliate Condylostomides coeruleus, previously known only from Central and South America. These two 'flagship' ciliates were found in the same habitat, from a continent well outside of their previously recorded biogeographies. Molecular sequencing and microscopy investigations were conducted to form the baseline for future work within this genus. Soil ciliates can obtain large population numbers and form cysts and are therefore likely able to disperse globally. These new records provide additional evidence that large distances, even between continents, do not hinder microbes from thriving globally. The absence of these conspicuously-colored gold and blue ciliates from previous studies is likely due to undersampling, rather than to any physical barriers.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Cistos , Florida , América do Norte , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1861-1872, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448959

RESUMO

In addition to a wide variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, camel rumen also harbors a diverse of eukaryotic organisms. In the present study, the eukaryotic communities of camel rumen were characterized using 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Metagenomic DNA was isolated from rumen samples of fourteen adult Bikaneri and Kachchhi breeds of camel fed different diets containing Jowar, Bajra, Maize, and Guar. Illumina sequencing generated 27,161,904 number of reads corresponding to 1543 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Taxonomic classification of community metagenome sequences from all the samples revealed the presence of 92 genera belonging to 16 different divisions, out of which Ciliophora (73%), Fungi (13%) and Streptophyta (9%) were found to be the most dominant. Notably, the abundance of Ciliophora was significantly higher in the case of Guar feed, while Fungi was significantly higher in the case of Maize feed, indicating the influence of cellulose and hemicellulose content of feedstuff on the composition of eukaryotes. The results suggest that the camel rumen eukaryotes are highly dynamic and depend on the type of diet given to the animal. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested the ciliate protozoa and fungi were negatively correlated with each other. To the best of our knowledge, this is first systematic study to characterize camel rumen eukaryotes, which has provided newer information regarding eukaryotic diversity patterns amongst camel fed on different diets.


Assuntos
Camelus/microbiologia , Camelus/parasitologia , Cilióforos , Dieta , Fungos , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Animais , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenoma , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3939-3952, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441613

RESUMO

The spirotrichean ciliate Stylonychia notophora has previously been recorded in India although the descriptions are lacking in detail. It has been suggested several times that the Indian population, S. notophora sensu Sapra and Dass, 1970 collected along the Delhi stretch of the River Yamuna, is identical to Tetmemena pustulata, but this has never been confirmed due to insufficient data for the former. The present study includes detailed descriptions (classical and molecular) of populations of Tetmemena isolated from six locations along the River Yamuna, India. These include four from the Delhi stretch including that from which Sapra and Dass, 1970 isolated their population of S. notophora. Due to the lack of a sufficiently detailed description, the taxonomic status of S. notophora sensu Sapra and Dass, 1970 was not clear. Comparisons among the populations isolated in the present study with previous descriptions of T. pustulata and S. notophora sensu Sapra and Dass, 1970 show only minor differences in morphometry, morphogenesis and in 18S rDNA sequences. The 18S rDNA sequences of all six populations had 99% similarity to both T. pustulata and S. notophora. These findings support the contention that S. notophora sensu Sapra and Dass, 1970 was misidentified and is a population of T. pustulata. This study supports the need for adopting an integrative approach based on morphological, morphogenetic and molecular data in order to understand species delimitation in ciliated protists.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Índia , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2515-2530, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118526

RESUMO

Two poorly known tintinnine ciliates collected from the coastal waters of PR China, viz., Codonellopsis mobilis Wang, 1936 and Tintinnopsis chinglanensis Nie & Ch'eng, 1947, were redescribed and neotypified using live observation, protargol staining and SSU rRNA gene sequencing. Ciliature information and SSU rRNA gene sequence data of both species were revealed for the first time and improved diagnoses were given based on the original descriptions and data from the present study. Further phylogenetic analyses inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences and morphological data suggested that the genus Tintinnopsis is polyphyletic and that the genus Codonellopsis is non-monophyletic. The approximately unbiased test, however, does not reject the possibility that Codonellopsis is monophyletic.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar , Composição de Bases , China , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas de Prata
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3763, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111909

RESUMO

An integrated approach considering both morphologic and molecular data is now required to improve biodiversity estimations and provide more robust systematics interpretations in hypotrichs, a highly differentiated group of ciliates. In present study, we document a new hypotrich species, Lamtostyla gui n. sp., collected from Chongming wetland, Shanghai, China, based on investigations using living observation, protargol staining, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and gene sequencing. The new species is mainly recognized by having a short amphisiellid median cirral row composed of four cirri, three frontoventral cirri, three dorsal kinetids, four to eight macronuclear nodules, and small colorless cortical granules distributed as rosettes around dorsal bristles. Transmission electron microscope observation finds the associated microtubules of cirri and pharyngeal discs of L. gui are distinct from those in other hypotrichs. Morphogenesis of this species indicates that parental adoral membranelles retained intact or partial renewed is a potential feature to separate Lamtostyla granulifera-group and Lamtostyla lamottei-group. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shows that this molecular marker is not useful to resolve phylogenetic relationships of the genus Lamtostyla, as well as many other hypotrichous taxa. We additionally characterize the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region and the almost complete large subunit rRNA, which will be essential for future studies aimed at solving phylogenetic problems of Lamtostyla, or even the family Amphisiellidae. As a final remark, the critical screening of GenBank using ITS genes of our organism allows us to recognize a large amount of hypotrichous sequences have been misclassified as fungi. This observation suggests that hypotrichs could be frequently found in fungi-rich environment and overlooked by fungal specialists.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Cilióforos/ultraestrutura
16.
Eur J Protistol ; 74: 125692, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199082

RESUMO

The morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of two soil hypotrich ciliates, Australocirrus australis and A. aspoecki, collected from Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China, were investigated using protargol preparation. The main features of morphogenesis of A. australis are as follows: (1) the parental adoral zone of membranelles is retained completely in the proter; (2) parental cirri and the undulating membranes are involved in the formation of six primordial streaks; (3) multiple fragmentation of the third dorsal kinety anlage; (4) more than three dorsomarginal kineties are formed. An early divider of A. aspoecki was also found, and its morphogenetic events resemble those of other Australocirrus species. Furthermore, the SSU rDNA sequence of the Shaanxi populations of A. australis and A. aspoecki was provided. The molecular phylogeny indicates that A. aspoecki clusters together with A. rubrus and two populations of A. australis with full support, which are separated from the clade comprising the two populations of A. shii.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Filogenia , Solo/parasitologia , Cilióforos/citologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética
17.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 37, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various ecological groups of earthworms very likely constitute sharply isolated niches that might permit speciation of their symbiotic ciliates, even though no distinct morphological features appear to be recognizable among ciliates originating from different host groups. The nuclear highly variable ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene have proven to be useful tools for the delimitation of species boundaries in closely related free-living ciliate taxa. In the present study, the power of these molecular markers as well as of the secondary structure of the ITS2 molecule were tested for the first time in order to discriminate the species of endosymbiotic ciliates that were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of three ecologically different groups of lumbricid earthworms. RESULTS: Nineteen new ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2-28S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from five astome species (Anoplophrya lumbrici, A. vulgaris, Metaradiophrya lumbrici, M. varians, and Subanoplophrya nodulata comb. n.), which were living in the digestive tube of three ecological groups of earthworms. Phylogenetic analyses of the rRNA locus and secondary structure analyses of the ITS2 molecule robustly resolved their phylogenetic relationships and supported the distinctness of all five species, although previous multivariate morphometric analyses were not able to separate congeners in the genera Anoplophrya and Metaradiophrya. The occurrence of all five taxa, as delimited by molecular analyses, was perfectly correlated with the ecological groups of their host earthworms. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that morphology-based taxonomy of astome ciliates needs to be tested in the light of molecular and ecological data as well. The use of morphological identification alone is likely to miss species that are well delimited based on molecular markers and ecological traits and can lead to the underestimation of diversity and overestimation of host range. An integrative approach along with distinctly increased taxon sampling would be helpful to assess the consistency of the eco-evolutionary trend in astome ciliates.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Oligoquetos/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Animais , Cilióforos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Ecologia , Genes de RNAr/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Oligoquetos/classificação , Oligoquetos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Protist ; 171(2): 125716, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086115

RESUMO

The genus Parablepharisma Jankowski, 2007 at present includes five species, most of which have not been studied in detail, therefore phylogenetic affinities remained uninvestigated up to now. Parablepharisma is traditionally placed within Heterotrichea based on insufficient existing morphological data, and there are no available Parablepharisma gene sequences in molecular databases to support this placement. This work presents an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny of P. bacteriophora (Kahl, 1932) Jankowski, 2007 and P. brasiliensis sp. nov. We also provide a redescription of P. bacteriophora and P. chlamydophorum (Kahl, 1932) Jankowski, 2007 based on live morphological observations combined with silver impregnation and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. According to characters such as macro- and micronucleus number, the position of the ectosymbiotic bacteria, and the presence/absence of caudal cilia, two new species are described, i.e. P. granulata sp. nov. and P. brasiliensis sp. nov. In addition, we establish Kahlium gen. nov. to include P. chlamydophorum, which has a segmented anterior paroral portion and a twisted posterior paroral section as diagnostic features. To include Parablepharisma and Kahlium gen. nov., we propose Parablepharismidae fam. nov. According to our phylogenetic analyses, Parablepharisma belongs to SAL (Spirotrichea, Armophorea, Litostomatea), being a sister group of Cariacotrichea.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Filogenia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e018319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049149

RESUMO

Scuticociliatosis, caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema spp., parasitizing ten species of marine reef fish at an ornamental fish wholesaler: Blue green damselfish (Chromis viridis), Vanderbilt's Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti), Pennant coralfish (Heniochus acuminatus), Threespot angelfish (Apolemichthys trimaculatus), Goldspotted angelfish (Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus), Sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis), Orchid dottyback (Pseudochromis fridmani), Threadfin butterflyfish (Chaetodon auriga), Vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus), and Bluecheek butterflyfish (Chaetodon semilarvatus). Diseased fish showed disorders such as hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis of the muscle, liver, gut, kidney, spleen, gills, and stomach revealed hemorrhages and degeneration of muscle fiber, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocyte, inflammatory process and granuloma in the liver, atrophy of intestinal villi, inflammatory process and granuloma in the kidney, melanomacrophage centers, as well as inflammatory process in the spleen, epithelial cells hyperplasia and granuloma formation in the gills, and vacuolar degeneration and eosinophils in the stomach. Due to the severity of the disease, it is necessary to implement biosecurity measures with rapid and accurate diagnosis to minimize the risk of economic losses caused by Uronema spp.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Cilióforos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia
20.
Eur J Protistol ; 73: 125669, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931380

RESUMO

In a study on ciliate diversity, we discovered the new hypotrich species, Gonostomum jangbogoensis n. sp., in freshwater from Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, southeast Antarctica. We describe its morphology and morphogenesis using standard methods, and the SSU rRNA gene phylogeny is provided as well. Morphology of Gonostomum jangbogoensis n. sp. is characterized as follows: slender to elongated body shape; grayish under low magnification; cortical granules present; 32-41 adoral membranelles; 3 enlarged frontal cirri; 1 buccal cirrus; 2 frontoterminal cirri; 3 or 4 frontoventral cirral pairs, 2 pretransverse cirri, 6-7 transverse cirri; 13-19 left and 18-26 right marginal cirri; 17-23 paroral kinetids; 3 dorsal kineties; 3 caudal cirri; 2 macronuclear nodules with 1-3 micronuclei. The morphogenesis of the new species confirms that it has at least seven frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlagen, which is also reported in Gonostomum sp. 1 sensu Shin from Korea. Even though these two populations occur very far from each other, the morphometric data prove that this character state, the seven cirral anlagen, is a stable feature across these populations and might be an apomorphy. The phylogenetic analyses show that the genus Gonostomum is non-monophyletic and that the new species is a sister to G. bromelicola.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Morfogênese , Filogenia , Regiões Antárticas , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Água Doce , Especificidade da Espécie
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