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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1463, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674590

RESUMO

Kinesin-1 is a processive motor protein that uses ATP-derived energy to transport a variety of intracellular cargoes toward the cell periphery. The ability to visualize and monitor kinesin transport in live cells is critical to study the myriad of functions associated with cargo trafficking. Herein we report the discovery of a fluorogenic small molecule substrate (QPD-OTf) for kinesin-1 that yields a precipitating dye along its walking path on microtubules (MTs). QPD-OTf enables to monitor native kinesin-1 transport activity in cellulo without external modifications. In vitro assays show that kinesin-1 and MTs are sufficient to yield fluorescent crystals; in cells, kinesin-1 specific transport of cargo from the Golgi appears as trails of fluorescence over time. These findings are further supported by docking studies, which suggest the binding of the activity-based substrate in the nucleotide binding site of kinesin-1.


Assuntos
Cinesina/química , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Camundongos , Paclitaxel , Transporte Proteico , Células RAW 264.7
2.
Virulence ; 12(1): 615-629, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538234

RESUMO

It is now clear that the intercellular transport on microtubules by dynein and kinesin-1 motors has an important role in the replication and spread of many viruses. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus of the Coronavirus family, which can infect swine of all ages and cause severe economic losses in the swine industry. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the intercellular transport of PEDV through microtubule, dynein and kinesin-1 will be crucial for understanding its pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule, dynein, and kinesin-1 are involved in PEDV infection and can influence PEDV fusion and accumulation in the perinuclear region but cannot affect PEDV attachment or internalization. Furthermore, we adopted a single-virus tracking technique to dynamically observe PEDV intracellular transport with five different types: unidirectional movement toward microtubule plus ends; unidirectional movement toward microtubule minus ends; bidirectional movement along the same microtubule; bidirectional movement along different microtubules and motionless state. Among these types, the functions of dynein and kinesin-1 in PEDV intercellular transport were further analyzed by single-virus tracking and found that dynein and kinesin-1 mainly transport PEDV to the minus and plus ends of the microtubules, respectively; meanwhile, they also can transport PEDV to the opposite ends of the microtubules different from their conventional transport directions and also coordinate the bidirectional movement of PEDV along the same or different microtubules through their cooperation. These results provided deep insights and references to understand the pathogenesis of PEDV as well as to develop vaccines and treatments.


Assuntos
Dineínas/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Dineínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinesina/genética , Fusão de Membrana , Microscopia de Fluorescência , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Células Vero
3.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 153-161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518654

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the pivotal genes or lncRNAs involved in the progression of atrial fibrillation (AF) -valvular heart disease (VHD). The mRNA profiling GSE113013 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (DElncRNAs) was performed. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were carried out for DEGs. Then, the construction of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was conducted. An lncRNA-miRNA-target ceRNA network was constructed after obtaining microRNAs (miRNA) related to DElncRNAs. Ultimately, key disease-related genes were screened. A total of 399 DEGs and 145 DElncRNAs were obtained. There were 283 nodes and 588 interaction pairs in the PPI network, and synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) had higher degrees (degree = 22) in the PPI network. There were 65 interaction pairs in the ceRNA network. Here, Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5 (BIRC5) was regulated by hsa-miR-1285-3p, which was regulated by lncRNA NPHP3-AS1. Gap Junction Protein Alpha 5 (GAJ5) was regulated by hsa-miR-4505, hsa-miR-1972, and hsa-miR-1199-5p. In particular, GAJ5 was enriched in the function of ion transmembrane transport regulation, whereas BIRC5 was enriched in the function of apoptosis-multiple species pathway. Similarly, Potassium Inwardly Rectifying Channel Subfamily J Member 6 (KCNJ6) was enriched in the function of an ion channel complex. VENN analysis identified BIRC5 and GJA5 as key AF-related genes. KCNJ6, SNAP25, GJA5, BIRC5, hsa-miR-1285-3p, and lncRNA NPHP3-AS1 were likely to be associated with AF-VHD development.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conexinas/genética , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/genética , Cinesina/genética , Survivina/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
4.
J Mol Biol ; 433(5): 166765, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484719

RESUMO

Human PEX14 plays a dual role as docking protein in peroxisomal protein import and as peroxisomal anchor for microtubules (MT), which relates to peroxisome motility. For docking, the conserved N-terminal domain of PEX14 (PEX14-NTD) binds amphipathic alpha-helical ligands, typically comprising one or two aromatic residues, of which human PEX5 possesses eight. Here, we show that the PEX14-NTD also binds to microtubular filaments in vitro with a dissociation constant in nanomolar range. PEX14 interacts with two motifs in the C-terminal region of human ß-tubulin. At least one of the binding motifs is in spatial proximity to the binding site of microtubules (MT) for kinesin. Both PEX14 and kinesin can bind to MT simultaneously. Notably, binding of PEX14 to tubulin can be prevented by its association with PEX5. The data suggest that PEX5 competes peroxisome anchoring to MT by occupying the ß-tubulin-binding site of PEX14. The competitive correlation of matrix protein import and motility may facilitate the homogeneous dispersion of peroxisomes in mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/química , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/química , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Competitiva , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/genética , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transdução de Sinais , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
5.
Nature ; 590(7846): 486-491, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505028

RESUMO

Selective targeting of aneuploid cells is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment1. However, it is unclear whether aneuploidy generates any clinically relevant vulnerabilities in cancer cells. Here we mapped the aneuploidy landscapes of about 1,000 human cancer cell lines, and analysed genetic and chemical perturbation screens2-9 to identify cellular vulnerabilities associated with aneuploidy. We found that aneuploid cancer cells show increased sensitivity to genetic perturbation of core components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during mitosis10. Unexpectedly, we also found that aneuploid cancer cells were less sensitive than diploid cells to short-term exposure to multiple SAC inhibitors. Indeed, aneuploid cancer cells became increasingly sensitive to inhibition of SAC over time. Aneuploid cells exhibited aberrant spindle geometry and dynamics, and kept dividing when the SAC was inhibited, resulting in the accumulation of mitotic defects, and in unstable and less-fit karyotypes. Therefore, although aneuploid cancer cells could overcome inhibition of SAC more readily than diploid cells, their long-term proliferation was jeopardized. We identified a specific mitotic kinesin, KIF18A, whose activity was perturbed in aneuploid cancer cells. Aneuploid cancer cells were particularly vulnerable to depletion of KIF18A, and KIF18A overexpression restored their response to SAC inhibition. Our results identify a therapeutically relevant, synthetic lethal interaction between aneuploidy and the SAC.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Cariótipo Anormal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Segregação de Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diploide , Genes Letais , Humanos , Cinesina/deficiência , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Fuso Acromático/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutações Sintéticas Letais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutações Sintéticas Letais/genética , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Nature ; 590(7846): 492-497, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505027

RESUMO

Whole-genome doubling (WGD) is common in human cancers, occurring early in tumorigenesis and generating genetically unstable tetraploid cells that fuel tumour development1,2. Cells that undergo WGD (WGD+ cells) must adapt to accommodate their abnormal tetraploid state; however, the nature of these adaptations, and whether they confer vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically, is unclear. Here, using sequencing data from roughly 10,000 primary human cancer samples and essentiality data from approximately 600 cancer cell lines, we show that WGD gives rise to common genetic traits that are accompanied by unique vulnerabilities. We reveal that WGD+ cells are more dependent than WGD- cells on signalling from the spindle-assembly checkpoint, DNA-replication factors and proteasome function. We also identify KIF18A, which encodes a mitotic kinesin protein, as being specifically required for the viability of WGD+ cells. Although KIF18A is largely dispensable for accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis in WGD- cells, its loss induces notable mitotic errors in WGD+ cells, ultimately impairing cell viability. Collectively, our results suggest new strategies for specifically targeting WGD+ cancer cells while sparing the normal, non-transformed WGD- cells that comprise human tissue.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Tetraploidia , Cariótipo Anormal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Genes Letais/genética , Humanos , Cinesina/deficiência , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mitose/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fuso Acromático/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(2): e9173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331418

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the correlation of kinesin family member 2A (KIF2A) expression with disease risk, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and investigate the effect of KIF2A knockdown on AML cell activities in vitro. Bone marrow samples were collected from 176 AML patients and 40 healthy donors, and KIF2A expression was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment response, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed in AML patients. In vitro, KIF2A expression in AML cell lines and CD34+ cells (from healthy donors) was measured, and the effect of KIF2A knockdown on AML cell proliferation and apoptosis in HL-60 and KG-1 cells was detected. KIF2A expression was greater in AML patients compared to healthy donors, and receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that KIF2A expression predicted increased AML risk (area under curve: 0.793 (95%CI: 0.724-0.826)). In AML patients, KIF2A expression positively correlated with white blood cells, monosomal karyotype, and high risk stratification. Furthermore, no correlation of KIF2A expression with complete remission or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was found. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that KIF2A expression was negatively correlated with EFS and OS. In vitro experiments showed that KIF2A was overexpressed in AML cell lines (KG-1, HL-60, ME-1, and HT-93) compared to CD34+ cells, moreover, cell proliferation was reduced but apoptosis was increased by KIF2A knockdown in HL-60 and KG-1 cells. In conclusion, KIF2A showed potential to be a biomarker and treatment target in AML.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022024

RESUMO

Detecting the ultrastructure of brain tissue in human archaeological remains is a rare event that can offer unique insights into the structure of the ancient central nervous system (CNS). Yet ancient brains reported in the literature show only poor preservation of neuronal structures. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and advanced image processing tools, we describe the direct visualization of neuronal tissue in vitrified brain and spinal cord remains which we discovered in a male victim of the AD 79 eruption in Herculaneum. We show exceptionally well preserved ancient neurons from different regions of the human CNS at unprecedented resolution. This tissue typically consists of organic matter, as detected using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. By means of a self-developed neural image processing network, we also show specific details of the neuronal nanomorphology, like the typical myelin periodicity evidenced in the brain axons. The perfect state of preservation of these structures is due to the unique process of vitrification which occurred at Herculaneum. The discovery of proteins whose genes are expressed in the different region of the human adult brain further agree with the neuronal origin of the unusual archaeological find. The conversion of human tissue into glass is the result of sudden exposure to scorching volcanic ash and the concomitant rapid drop in temperature. The eruptive-induced process of natural vitrification, locking the cellular structure of the CNS, allowed us to study possibly the best known example in archaeology of extraordinarily well-preserved human neuronal tissue from the brain and spinal cord.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/anatomia & histologia , Erupções Vulcânicas , Arqueologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectrometria por Raios X , Medula Espinal/anatomia & histologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Preservação de Tecido , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4092, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796837

RESUMO

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding kinesin family member 3A, KIF3A, have been associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. We find that KIF3A SNP rs11740584 and rs2299007 risk alleles create cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites, which are highly methylated and result in lower KIF3A expression, and this methylation is associated with increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in risk allele carriers. Kif3aK14∆/∆ mice have increased TEWL, disrupted junctional proteins, and increased susceptibility to develop AD. Thus, KIF3A is required for skin barrier homeostasis whereby decreased KIF3A skin expression causes disrupted skin barrier function and promotes development of AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 290, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spastic paraplegia type 30 (SPG30) caused by KIF1A mutations was first reported in 2011 and was initially considered a very rare autosomal recessive (AR) form. In the last years, thanks to the development of massive parallel sequencing, SPG30 proved to be a rather common autosomal dominant (AD) form of familial or sporadic spastic paraplegia (SPG),, with a wide range of phenotypes: pure and complicated. The aim of our study is to detect AD SPG30 cases and to examine their molecular and clinical characteristics for the first time in the Russian population. METHODS: Clinical, genealogical and molecular methods were used. Molecular methods included massive parallel sequencing (MPS) of custom panel 'spastic paraplegias' with 62 target genes complemented by familial Sanger sequencing. One case was detected by the whole -exome sequencing. RESULTS: AD SPG30 was detected in 10 unrelated families, making it the 3rd (8.4%) most common SPG form in the cohort of 118 families. No AR SPG30 cases were detected. In total, 9 heterozygous KIF1A mutations were detected, with 4 novel and 5 known mutations. All the mutations were located within KIF1A motor domain. Six cases had pure phenotypes, of which 5 were familial, where 2 familial cases demonstrated incomplete penetrance, early onset and slow relatively benign SPG course. All 4 complicated cases were caused by novel mutations without familial history. The phenotypes varied from severe in two patients (e.g. lack of walking, pronounced mental retardation) to relatively mild non-disabling symptoms in two others. CONCLUSION: AD SPG30 is one of the most common forms of SPG in Russia, the disorder has pronounced clinical variability while pure familial cases represent a significant part.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Paraplegia/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paraplegia/genética , Fenótipo , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Gene ; 760: 144989, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717307

RESUMO

Kinesin 14 family member KIFC1 is a mitotic kinesin which contains a C-terminal motor domain and plays a vital role for clustering the amplified centrosomes. Overexpression of KIFC1 in prostate cancer (PCa) cells showed resistance to docetaxel (DTX). The present study revealed that small KIFC1 inhibitor AZ82 suppresed the transcription and translation of KIFC1 significantly in PCa cells. AZ82 inhibited the KIFC1 expression both in the cytoplasm and nucleus of PCa cells. Inhibition of KIFC1 by AZ82 caused multipolar mitosis in PCa cells via de-clustering the amplified centrosomes and decreased the rate of cancer cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, depletion of KIFC1 reduced cells entering the cell cycle and caused PCa cells death through apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax and Cytochrome C. Thereby, KIFC1 silencing and inhibition decreased the PCa cells survival by inducing multipolar mitosis as well as apoptosis, suggesting inhibition of KIFC1 using AZ82 might be a strategy to treat PCa by controlling the cancer cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Centrossomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Alanina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Dineínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Miosinas/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3200, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581239

RESUMO

mTOR activation is essential and sufficient to cause polycystic kidneys in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and other genetic disorders. In disease models, a sharp increase of proliferation and cyst formation correlates with a dramatic loss of oriented cell division (OCD). We find that OCD distortion is intrinsically due to S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) activation. The concomitant loss of S6K1 in Tsc1-mutant mice restores OCD but does not decrease hyperproliferation, leading to non-cystic harmonious hyper growth of kidneys. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics for S6K1 substrates revealed Afadin, a known component of cell-cell junctions required to couple intercellular adhesions and cortical cues to spindle orientation. Afadin is directly phosphorylated by S6K1 and abnormally decorates the apical surface of Tsc1-mutant cells with E-cadherin and α-catenin. Our data reveal that S6K1 hyperactivity alters centrosome positioning in mitotic cells, affecting oriented cell division and promoting kidney cysts in conditions of mTOR hyperactivity.


Assuntos
Divisão Celular , Cinesina/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Doenças Renais Policísticas/patologia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cinesina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Miosinas/genética , Fosforilação , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Esclerose Tuberosa/patologia , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008597, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511265

RESUMO

During infection of neurons by alphaherpesviruses including Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) viral nucleocapsids assemble in the cell nucleus, become enveloped in the cell body then traffic into and down axons to nerve termini for spread to adjacent epithelia. The viral membrane protein US9p and the membrane glycoprotein heterodimer gE/gI play critical roles in anterograde spread of both HSV-1 and PRV, and several models exist to explain their function. Biochemical studies suggest that PRV US9p associates with the kinesin-3 motor KIF1A in a gE/gI-stimulated manner, and the gE/gI-US9p complex has been proposed to recruit KIF1A to PRV for microtubule-mediated anterograde trafficking into or along the axon. However, as loss of gE/gI-US9p essentially abolishes delivery of alphaherpesviruses to the axon it is difficult to determine the microtubule-dependent trafficking properties and motor-composition of Δ(gE/gI-US9p) particles. Alternatively, studies in HSV-1 have suggested that gE/gI and US9p are required for the appearance of virions in the axon because they act upstream, to help assemble enveloped virions in the cell body. We prepared Δ(gE/gI-US9p) mutant, and control parental PRV particles from differentiated cultured neuronal or porcine kidney epithelial cells and quantitated the efficiency of virion assembly, the properties of microtubule-dependent transport and the ability of viral particles to recruit kinesin motors. We find that loss of gE/gI-US9p has no significant effect upon PRV particle assembly but leads to greatly diminished plus end-directed traffic, and enhanced minus end-directed and bidirectional movement along microtubules. PRV particles prepared from infected differentiated mouse CAD neurons were found to be associated with either kinesin KIF1A or kinesin KIF5C, but not both. Loss of gE/gI-US9p resulted in failure to recruit KIF1A and KF5C, but did not affect dynein binding. Unexpectedly, while KIF5C was expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated CAD neurons it was only found associated with PRV particles prepared from differentiated cells.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Cinesina/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pseudorraiva , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Proteínas Virais , Liberação de Vírus , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Linhagem Celular , Deleção de Genes , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/genética , Microtúbulos/virologia , Pseudorraiva/genética , Pseudorraiva/metabolismo , Pseudorraiva/patologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 754: 144848, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522697

RESUMO

The TGF-beta superfamily is widely involved in cell events such as cell division and differentiation, while bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to one of the subgroups. Their functions in crustacean spermatogenesis are still unknown. In this study, we first identified the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2) from Eriocheir sinensis (E. sinensis) testis. The es-BMP2 shows high expression in E. sinensis testis. We found that es-BMP2 is expressed in spermatids. The successfully knockdown of es-BMP2 through in vivo RNAi are used for functional analysis. Compared with the control group, the proportion of abnormal nuclear cup morphology in mature spermatozoa increased significantly after es-bmp2 RNAi, suggesting that es-BMP2 plays an important role in mature sperm morphogenesis. Immunofluorescence results confirm this finding. In order to study the specific mechanism of es-BMP2 involved in spermiogenesis, we tested kinesin-14 KIFC1, which functions in the nucleus formation of spermatozoa in E. sinensis. The results showed that knockdown of es-BMP2 caused a significant decrease of es-KIFC1 expression. We further performed es-bmp2 knockdown in vitro in primary cultured testis cells. es-KIFC1 expression was significantly reduced after es-bmp2 RNAi. The above results indicate that es-BMP2 participates in maintaining the spermiogenesis of E. sinensis by regulating es-KIFC1 expression.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/citologia , Cinesina/metabolismo , Espermatogênese , Testículo/citologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Braquiúros , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Testículo/metabolismo
15.
Hum Cell ; 33(4): 1218-1228, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578050

RESUMO

A number of kinesin proteins (KIFs) have been implicated in the development of multiple cancers. However, little is known about the expression and function of KIF15 in human breast cancer. Herein, we detected KIF15 expression in breast cancer tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the correlation of KIF15 expression with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated statistically. The role of KIF15 in cell proliferation, migration, tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo, and we explored potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of KIF15 in breast cancer through western blot analysis. The results revealed that increased KIF15 expression in breast cancer tissues were positively related with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage, and higher KIF15 expression predicts a worse prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, KIF15 knockdown markedly attenuated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, and silenced KIF15 expression significantly inhibited the expression of phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated JNK, and cyclin D1, while both p53 and p21 protein expressions were strongly enhanced. These results suggest that KIF15 is a potential oncogene in human breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Cinesina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Células MCF-7 , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3123, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561740

RESUMO

Intracellular trafficking of organelles, driven by kinesin-1 stepping along microtubules, underpins essential cellular processes. In absence of other proteins on the microtubule surface, kinesin-1 performs micron-long runs. Under crowding conditions, however, kinesin-1 motility is drastically impeded. It is thus unclear how kinesin-1 acts as an efficient transporter in intracellular environments. Here, we demonstrate that TRAK1 (Milton), an adaptor protein essential for mitochondrial trafficking, activates kinesin-1 and increases robustness of kinesin-1 stepping on crowded microtubule surfaces. Interaction with TRAK1 i) facilitates kinesin-1 navigation around obstacles, ii) increases the probability of kinesin-1 passing through cohesive islands of tau and iii) increases the run length of kinesin-1 in cell lysate. We explain the enhanced motility by the observed direct interaction of TRAK1 with microtubules, providing an additional anchor for the kinesin-1-TRAK1 complex. Furthermore, TRAK1 enables mitochondrial transport in vitro. We propose adaptor-mediated tethering as a mechanism regulating kinesin-1 motility in various cellular environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética , Cinesina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 893-904, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386558

RESUMO

Kinesin-2 enables ciliary assembly and maintenance as an anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) motor. Molecular motor activity is driven by a heterotrimeric complex comprised of KIF3A and KIF3B or KIF3C plus one non-motor subunit, KIFAP3. Using exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous KIF3B variants in two unrelated families with hallmark ciliopathy phenotypes. In the first family, the proband presents with hepatic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and postaxial polydactyly; he harbors a de novo c.748G>C (p.Glu250Gln) variant affecting the kinesin motor domain encoded by KIF3B. The second family is a six-generation pedigree affected predominantly by retinitis pigmentosa. Affected individuals carry a heterozygous c.1568T>C (p.Leu523Pro) KIF3B variant segregating in an autosomal-dominant pattern. We observed a significant increase in primary cilia length in vitro in the context of either of the two mutations while variant KIF3B proteins retained stability indistinguishable from wild type. Furthermore, we tested the effects of KIF3B mutant mRNA expression in the developing zebrafish retina. In the presence of either missense variant, rhodopsin was sequestered to the photoreceptor rod inner segment layer with a concomitant increase in photoreceptor cilia length. Notably, impaired rhodopsin trafficking is also characteristic of recessive KIF3B models as exemplified by an early-onset, autosomal-recessive, progressive retinal degeneration in Bengal cats; we identified a c.1000G>A (p.Ala334Thr) KIF3B variant by genome-wide association study and whole-genome sequencing. Together, our genetic, cell-based, and in vivo modeling data delineate an autosomal-dominant syndromic retinal ciliopathy in humans and suggest that multiple KIF3B pathomechanisms can impair kinesin-driven ciliary transport in the photoreceptor.


Assuntos
Ciliopatias/genética , Ciliopatias/patologia , Genes Dominantes/genética , Cinesina/genética , Mutação , Retina/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Gatos , Pré-Escolar , Cílios/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Cinesina/química , Cinesina/metabolismo , Larva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Retina/citologia , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retina/metabolismo , Rodopsina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 748-763, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442411

RESUMO

The identification of causal variants and mechanisms underlying complex disease traits in humans is important for the progress of human disease genetics; this requires finding strategies to detect functional regulatory variants in disease-relevant cell types. To achieve this, we collected genetic and transcriptomic data from the aortic endothelial cells of up to 157 donors and four epigenomic phenotypes in up to 44 human donors representing individuals of both sexes and three major ancestries. We found thousands of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) at all ranges of effect sizes not detected by the Gene-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) in human tissues, showing that novel biological relationships unique to endothelial cells (ECs) are enriched in this dataset. Epigenetic profiling enabled discovery of over 3,000 regulatory elements whose activity is modulated by genetic variants that most frequently mutated ETS, AP-1, and NF-kB binding motifs, implicating these motifs as governors of EC regulation. Using CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), allele-specific reporter assays, and chromatin conformation capture, we validated candidate enhancer variants located up to 750 kb from their target genes, VEGFC, FGD6, and KIF26B. Regulatory SNPs identified were enriched in coronary artery disease (CAD) loci, and this result has specific implications for PECAM-1, FES, and AXL. We also found significant roles for EC regulatory variants in modifying the traits pulse pressure, blood protein levels, and monocyte count. Lastly, we present two unlinked SNPs in the promoter of MFAP2 that exhibit pleiotropic effects on human disease traits. Together, this supports the possibility that genetic predisposition for complex disease is manifested through the endothelium.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Alelos , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Mutação , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-ets-1/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2565, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444784

RESUMO

Within the mitotic spindle, kinesin motors cross-link and slide overlapping microtubules. Some of these motors exhibit off-axis power strokes, but their impact on motility and force generation in microtubule overlaps has not been investigated. Here, we develop and utilize a three-dimensional in vitro motility assay to explore kinesin-14, Ncd, driven sliding of cross-linked microtubules. We observe that free microtubules, sliding on suspended microtubules, not only rotate around their own axis but also move around the suspended microtubules with right-handed helical trajectories. Importantly, the associated torque is large enough to cause microtubule twisting and coiling. Further, our technique allows us to measure the in situ spatial extension of the motors between cross-linked microtubules to be about 20 nm. We argue that the capability of microtubule-crosslinking kinesins to cause helical motion of overlapping microtubules around each other allows for flexible filament organization, roadblock circumvention and torque generation in the mitotic spindle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/química , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Cinesina/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
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