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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130576, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348222

RESUMO

Cinnamon oil is obtained by steam distillation from cinnamon leaves and is usually considered highly cost-effective compared to bark oil, however, which results in tons of waste cinnamon leaves (WCL) discarded annually. By using MS/MS molecular networking (MN) assisted profiling, six main chemical diversities including flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids, lactones, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids and flavanols were rapid revealed from WCL aqueous extract. 101 compounds were tentatively identified by assigning their MS/MS fragments within typical pathways under ESI-MS/MS dissociation. The featured phenolic acids, terpenoids and their glycosides in cinnamon species were recognized as the main constituents of WCL. The hydrophilic lactones, lignans and flavanols were reported for the first time in cinnamon leaves. Furthermore, ABTS and FRAP assays integrated with MN analysis were conducted to uncover an antioxidant fraction, from which 40 potential antioxidant compounds were rapidly annotated. This fundamental information will help expand the utilization of WCL from cinnamon oil industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Cromatografia Líquida , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 27(6): 485-498, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487460

RESUMO

The optimal conditions for elaborating oil/water nanoemulsions of lemongrass (LG), cinnamon bark (CB) and cinnamon leaves (CL) essential oils and their antimicrobial activity against Zygosaccharomyces bailii at pH 4.00 were studied. The effect of the emulsification methodology on the physical stability and antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions were also evaluated. Furthermore, the sensory impact of nanoemulsions added to an apple juice was tested. LG and CL nanoemulsions were elaborated by ultrasonication and CB nanoemulsion, by high-speed homogenization. They were stable for at least 120 days at 25 °C. They exhibited antimicrobial activity against Z. bailii being CB the most effective since it showed the smallest MIC value (156.3 mg/l), followed by LG (468.8 mg/l) and CL (1250.0 mg/l). A slight increase in growth rate was observed due to ultrasonication. An additive interaction in relation to the inhibitory effect between LG and CB nanoemulsions against Z. bailii was observed. While nanoemulsions obtained would be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food and beverage products, only LG nanoemulsion at MIC concentration diluted was acceptable in juice showing the sensory impact of essential oils on foods.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon , Óleos Voláteis , Zygosaccharomyces , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Emulsões , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Saccharomycetales
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e009221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495124

RESUMO

This study aimed to chemically characterize the essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia) and evaluate their acaricidal activity, together with that of their major compounds and cinnamyl acetate derivative, against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oil compounds were identified through gas chromatography. The larval packet test (LPT) at concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 10.0 mg/mL and the adult immersion test (AIT) at concentrations between 2.5 and 60.0 mg/mL were performed. (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol were the major compounds in cinnamon (86.93%) and candeia (78.41%) EOs, respectively. In the LPT, the EOs of cinnamon and candeia and the compounds (E)-cinnamaldehyde, α-bisabolol and cinnamyl acetate resulted in 100% mortality at concentrations of 2.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 10.0 mg/mL respectively. In the AIT, percentage control values > 95% were observed for cinnamon and candeia EOs, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol at the concentrations of 5.0, 60.0, 20.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, respectively, whereas cinnamyl acetate showed low activity. We conclude that EOs and their compounds showed high acaricidal activity, whereas the acetylated derivative of (E)-cinnamaldehyde presented less acaricidal activity on R. microplus engorged females.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Cinamatos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474871

RESUMO

This study aimed to fabricate cinnamon essential oil (CO)-laden 45S5 bioactive glass (BG)/soy protein (SP) scaffolds exhibiting antioxidant and antibacterial activity. In this regard, 45S5 BG-based scaffolds were produced by the foam replica method, and subsequently the scaffolds were coated with various concentrations of CO (2.5, 5 and 7 (v/v) %) incorporated SP solution. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the CO-laden SP effectively attached to the 45S5 BG scaffold struts. The presence of 45S5 BG, SP and CO was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive strength results indicated that SP based coatings improved the scaffolds' mechanical properties compared to uncoated BG scaffolds. The loading efficiency and releasing behaviour of the different CO concentrations were tested by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that CO incorporated scaffolds have controlled releasing behaviour over seven days. Furthermore, the coating on the scaffold surfaces slightly retarded, but it did not inhibit, the in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. Moreover, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of CO was studied. The free radical scavenging activity measured by DPPH was 5 ± 1, 41 ± 3, 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 % for BGSP, CO2.5, CO5 and CO7, respectively. The antioxidant activity was thus enhanced by incorporating CO. Agar diffusion and colony counting results indicated that the incorporation of CO increased the antibacterial activity of scaffolds against S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was investigated using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. The results showed that the BG-SP scaffold was non-toxic under the investigated conditions, whereas dose-dependent toxicity was observed in CO-laden scaffolds. Considered together, the developed phytotherapeutic agent laden 45S5 BG-based scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering exhibiting capability to combat bone infections and to protect against oxidative stress damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cerâmica , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Escherichia coli , Vidro , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Soja , Staphylococcus aureus , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
5.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153703, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive-like behaviors are related to inflammatory immune activation. Cinnamomum verum (CV) has anti-inflammatory effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects after immunological activation still remain elusive. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CV in improving depressive-like behavior and explore its underlying mechanism in T lymphocytes. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into Control, LPS, LPS plus fluoxetine, LPS plus CV, and LPS plus MCA groups. Behavior was evaluated using forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The experimental group mice were exposed to LPS to induce depressive-like behavior. Cell viability was measured upon treating splenic T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells with CV. Cytokine activity was measured using ELISA and RT-qPCR. The components of CV were analyzed by HPLC. NFAT expression was evaluated by western blotting, immunofluorescence, and luciferase assay. To verify the half-life of NFAT mRNA, Jurkat cells were treated with actinomycin D for 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h. RESULTS: CV effectively prevents inflammation-induced depressive-like behaviors. CV dose-dependently decreased protein and mRNA levels of TNFα and IL-2. Inhibition of TNFα and IL-2 production involves an MCA-mediated decrease in NFAT mRNA level, rather than inhibition of nuclear translocation. This mechanism was independent of NFAT transcription inducer p38 MAPK; it can be attributed to the promotion of NFAT mRNA decay. CONCLUSION: Overall, MCA might be an alternative or adjuvant to existing NFAT-targeting immunosuppressants for clinical prophylaxis or therapy in the context of inflammation-induced depressive disorder or other T-cell-associated inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Depressão , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Estabilidade de RNA , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361746

RESUMO

New agricultural strategies aim to reduce the use of pesticides due to their damage to the environment and humans, and the caused resistance to pathogens. Therefore, alternative sources of antifungal compounds from plants are under investigation lately. Extracts from plants have a wide composition of chemical compounds which may complicate the development of pathogen resistance. Botrytis cinerea, causing grey mould, is an important horticultural and ornamental pathogen, responsible for the relevant yield and quality losses. B. cinerea isolated from a different plant host may differ in the sensitivity to antifungal substances from plants. Assessing the importance of research covering a wide range of pathogens for the rapid development of biopesticides, this study aims to determine the sensitivity of the B. cinerea isolate complex (10 strains) to plant extracts, describe morphological changes caused by the extract treatment, and detect differences between the sensitivity of different plant host isolates. The results showed the highest sensitivity of the B. cinerea isolates complex to cinnamon extract, and the lowest to laurel extract. In contrast, laurel extract caused the most changes of morphological attributes in the isolates. Five B. cinerea isolates from plant hosts of raspberry, cabbage, apple, bell pepper, and rose were grouped statistically according to their sensitivity to laurel extract. Meanwhile, the bell pepper isolate separated from the isolate complex based on its sensitivity to clove extract, and the strawberry and apple isolates based on their sensitivity to cinnamon extract.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/isolamento & purificação , Brassica/microbiologia , Capsicum/microbiologia , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Fragaria/microbiologia , Humanos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/isolamento & purificação , Malus/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Syzygium/química , Vitis/microbiologia
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110491, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399487

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan edible coating containing 0.15% oregano essential oil (OEO) or 0.60% cinnamon essential oil (CEO) on the quality characteristics and dynamic changes in the bacterial community of roast duck slices under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 30% CO2/70% N2) during 21 days of storage at 2 ± 2 °C. The results showed that the application of chitosan coating (CH) alone inhibited the growth of microorganisms and prevented lipid oxidation throughout storage. Moreover, the storage stability was further improved by including OEO or CEO, which lowered (P < 0.05) values for total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N). Based on the microbiological results, the shelf-life of CH-OEO and CH-CEO treated roast duck slices was prolonged by at least 7 days compared to that of the control. In addition, packaging types applied in this study played a major role in the bacterial community development. Notably, Vibrio spp. were the most predominant bacteria in all samples, when TVC values approached the shelf-life threshold, suggesting that this bacterium may be the main contributor to the spoilage of roast duck. The growth inhibition of Vibrio spp. in the CH-OEO and CH-CEO treatments during the early period of chilled storage might be the reason for the extension of the shelf life. Taken together, CH incorporated with OEO or CEO could be developed as prospective edible packaging materials to preserve roast duck meat.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Animais , Atmosfera , Bactérias , Quitosana/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Patos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Carne , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Food Chem ; 365: 130466, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247048

RESUMO

Organic food consumption has increased significantly over time. This contributes to the increased demand and price of this kind of food. Among the organic products, cinnamon stands out for its characteristic flavor and bioactive compounds. Thus, the work aimed to verify the potentials of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) coupled with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) for evaluation of cinnamon organic samples. As result, the proposal is feasible in the differentiation of organic cinnamon powder, in which ATR-FT-MIR coupled with PARAFAC showed the differentiation of organic from non-organic ones on the scores mode, the precision at repeatability level on one loading mode, and the spectral region, on the other loading mode, above 2600 cm-1 was related to the differentiation of the organic and non-organic samples.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Paladar , Análise de Fourier , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 191-195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279839

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic and acute respiratory disease. Every day, all around the world, researchers are endeavoring to find effective or potential adjuvant therapies. Studies illustrate that essential oils from cinnamon and derivatives such as cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid possess numerous biological activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the possible mechanisms of cinnamon on the inflammatory cascade as a potential alternative therapy to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , COVID-19 , Óleos Voláteis , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Food Chem ; 363: 130306, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134074

RESUMO

Antimicrobial biocomposite films were prepared using agar (AG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as polymer matrix materials and cinnamon bark oil (CBO) as antimicrobial agent. AG and PVA were blended with different mixing ratios. The addition of AG improved the overall water resistance properties of the composite films. To evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the release kinetics of CBO from films, CBO release kinetics were analyzed under the 9 combinations of temperature and RH. Then, mathematical modeling of obtained data was conducted using Peleg, Ritger-Peppas, and Peppas-Sahlin models to investigate the release mechanisms of CBO. Consequently, the CBO release rate proportionally increased with the temperature and RH, with the RH being the main factor affecting the release behavior of CBO. In vitro antimicrobial activity tests against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed that the developed composite films have high applicability as an antimicrobial food packaging material.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Umidade , Casca de Planta , Álcool de Polivinil , Temperatura
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 574-583, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146564

RESUMO

The edible films were mainly made from oxidized hydroxypropyl cassava starch incorporated with cinnamon essential oil (CEO). The effects of CEO amount on the physical and mechanical properties of films were studied, and the structures of films with and without CEO were characterized. The results showed that the elongation at break, water resistance, water vapor transmission coefficient, as well as oxygen and ultraviolet barrier properties of the films (p < 0.05) significantly increased with addition of CEO, while the tensile strength of the films decreased. The field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) images and infrared (IR) spectra showed that the CEO had good compatibility with other components and could be evenly dispersed in the film, which was conducive to the stable release of the active components. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the addition of CEO increased the crystallinity of the film, indicating that the compatibility and structural stability of the crystal structure of the film were improved. The thermogravimetric analysis results showed that CEO was beneficial to improve the thermal stability of the films. This study provided a potential to develop edible films from modified cassava starch with CEO.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Manihot/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Amido/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Filmes Comestíveis , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Vegetais/química , Solubilidade , Resistência à Tração , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
12.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 204: 111830, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984610

RESUMO

Chitosan/gelatin-based functional films were fabricated by incorporating cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and rutin for active packaging application. The functional fillers were evenly distributed in the polymer matrix and formed a film compatible with the chitosan/gelatin polymer matrix. However, the functional material did not affect the physical properties such as mechanical, thermal, and water vapor barrier properties of the film but exhibited high light transmittance with enhanced UV blocking properties. The rutin release from the composite film was evaluated using various food simulant solutions and found that rutin was released faster in acidic and alcoholic solutions. The chitosan/gelatin-based composite film showed potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In addition, the combined use of CEO and rutin showed a synergistic effect of functional properties. The CEO and rutin-added chitosan/gelatin-based films with improved physical and functional properties can be used for active food packaging applications.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Óleos Voláteis , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Embalagem de Alimentos , Gelatina , Rutina
13.
J Food Biochem ; 45(6): e13750, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954990

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals need special attention as preventive molecules to create a natural barrier against various dreadful diseases like cancer and to regulate metabolism. In the present study, two spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Cinnamomum verum, been identified as excellent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPases) sources that play significant role in the regulation of cell signal transduction and developmental processes in plants as well as animals, being lucrative and potential targets for pharmacological modulation. PTPases from both cases were partially purified into 0%-40% and 40%-80% fractions based on ammonium sulfate saturation levels. Fraction (40%-80%) exhibited a purification level of 4.44-fold and 2.86-fold with specific activity of 44.06 and 23.33 U/mg for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. PTPases being found to be thermally stable up to 70°C imply their industrial significance. Kinetic studies showed Km values to be 7.14 and 8.33 mM, whereas the activation energy (Ea ) values were 25.89 and 29.13 kJ/mol, respectively. Divalent cations: Cu2+ , Zn2+ , and Mn2+ acted as inhibitors of PTPases, from both sources. The Ki values of inhibitors varied from 0.014-0.125 mM in the descending order Cu2+  > Zn2+  > Mn2+ and Mn2+  > Cu2+  > Zn2+ for PTPases from T. ammi and C. verum, respectively. The inhibitory effect of sodium metavanadate aligns with prominent PTPase characteristics. In addition to these properties, the thermostability of PTPases from two spices enhances their significance in industries with therapeutically vital products. Although the source of PTPases is culinary spices, further studies are required to establish the utilization of PTPases as nutraceuticals and in therapeutic formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: For a healthy lifestyle, awareness needs to be created by humankind towards food habits to minimize illnesses. Numerous studies have explored the consumption of nutraceutical products acts as a natural barrier and immune booster for various human ailments including SARS-COV-2. PTPases play important roles in regulating intracellular signaling and, ultimately, biological function along with their structural features. The importance of PTPases and their inhibitors has been implicated in various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Further investigations need to be undertaken to explore the therapeutic properties of PTPases in both in vivo and in vitro for their clinical significance.


Assuntos
Ammi , COVID-19 , Ammi/metabolismo , Animais , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Cinética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Especiarias
14.
Food Chem ; 359: 129963, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951609

RESUMO

This research studies the application of a specific nanoemulsion as anti-Escherichia coli agent. The specific mixture was generated by a simplex-centroid design. Physicochemical parameters such as droplet average diameter, pH, viscosity, density, turbidity, whitening index, refractive index, stability (thermal, physical, and osmotic stability), and antibacterial activity kinetic, have been assessed. The mixture nanoemulsions had droplet diameters significantly smaller than those of clove or cinnamon nanoemulsions. Individual and mixture essential oils nanoemulsion exhibited appropriate stability under pH, thermal, and ionic stress as well as after mid-term storage. Antibacterial activity kinetic revealed the fast and pronounced efficacy of mixture nanoemulsions on E. coli (reach 98% of growth inhibition), especially for the nanoemulsion composed of 50% essential oil in the dispersed phase upon 20 days of storage. All data considered, the actual work evidences the promising advantages of using specific nanoemulsions as delivery systems of antibacterial agents in the beverage and food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Syzygium/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249884, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886593

RESUMO

Excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural practices have demonstrated a significant impact on microbial diversity and community in soil by altering soil physical and chemical properties, thereby leading to a certain degree of soil salinization and nutritional imbalances. As an organic amendment, maize straw has been widely used to improve soil quality; however, its effect on the soil bacterial community remains limited in Calcarie-Fluvie Cambisols soil in semi-humid arid plateau of North China. In the present experiment, we investigated the effects of continuous straw utilization and fertilization on bacterial communities in Shouyang, Shanxi province, China. Soil samples were collected from 5 different straw utilization and fertilization modes in the following ways: straw mulching (SM), straw crushing (SC), cattle manure (CM), in which way straw is firstly used as silage and then organic fertilizer, control with no straw return (NSR), and control without fertilizers (CK), same amount of N+P fertilizer was applied to the regimes except CK. High-throughput sequencing approaches were applied to the V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA for analysis of the bacterial abundance and community structures. Different long-term straw returning regimes significantly altered the physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of soil, among which CM had the most significant effects on soil fertility and bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes were consistently dominant in all soil samples, and Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed significant association of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and available potassium (AK) with alternation of the bacterial community. Cattle manure had the most beneficial effects on soil fertility and bacterial diversity among different straw utilization and fertilization modes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Esterco/microbiologia , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Zea mays/química , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , China , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Fertilizantes/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Zea mays/metabolismo
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 136, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) is a contagious pathogen of bovine mastitis. It has financial implications for the dairy cattle industry in certain areas of the world. Since antimicrobial resistance increases in dairy farms, natural antimicrobials from herbal origins and nanoparticles have been given more attention as an alternative therapy. Hence, this study reported the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potentials of cinnamon oil, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and their combination against multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. agalactiae recovered from clinical bovine mastitis in Egypt. RESULTS: Our findings revealed that 73% (146/200) of the examined milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis were infected with Streptococci species. Of these, 9.59% (14/146) were identified as S. agalactiae and categorized as MDR. S. agalactiae isolates expressed four virulence genes (Hyl, cylE, scpB, and lmb) and demonstrated an ability to produce biofilms. Cinnamon oil showed high antimicrobial (MICs ≤0.063 µg /mL) and antibiofilm (MBIC50 = 4 µg/mL) potentials against planktonic and biofilms of S. agalactiae isolates, respectively. However, AgNPs showed reasonable antimicrobial (MICs ≤16 µg/mL) and relatively low antibiofilm (MBIC50 = 64 µg/mL) activities against screened isolates. Synergistic antimicrobial or additive antibiofilm interactions of cinnamon oil combined with AgNPs were reported for the first time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that biofilms of S. agalactiae isolates treated with cinnamon oil were more seriously damaged than observed in AgNPs cinnamon oil combination. Moreover, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that cinnamon oil exerted a remarkable down-regulation of pili biosynthesis genes (pilA and pilB) and their regulator (rogB) against S. agalactiae biofilms, meanwhile the AgNPs cinnamon oil combination demonstrated a lower efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: This is an in vitro preliminary approach that documented the antibiofilm potential of cinnamon oil and the inhibitory activity of cinnamon oil and its combination with AgNPs against MDR S. agalactiae recovered from clinical mastitis. Further in vivo studies should be carried out in animal models to provide evidence of concept for implementing these alternative candidates in the treatment of dairy farms infected by streptococcal mastitis in the future.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Egito , Feminino , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Fatores de Virulência/genética
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(12): e0009221, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837020

RESUMO

Land use types with different disturbance gradients show many variations in soil properties, but the effects of different land use types on soil nitrifying communities and their ecological implications remain poorly understood. Using 13CO2-DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP), we examined the relative importance and active community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in soils under three land use types, forest, cropland, and greenhouse vegetable soil, representing three interference gradients. Soil net nitrification rate was in the order forest soil > cropland soil > greenhouse vegetable soil. DNA-SIP showed that active AOA outcompeted AOB in the forest soil, whereas AOB outperformed AOA in the cropland and greenhouse vegetable soils. Cropland soil was richer in NOB than in AOA and AOB. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ammonia oxidation in the forest soil was predominantly catalyzed by the AOA Nitrosocosmicus franklandus cluster within the group 1.1b lineage. The 13C-labeled AOB were overwhelmingly dominated by Nitrosospira cluster 3 in the cropland soil. The active AOB Nitrosococcus watsonii lineage was observed in the greenhouse vegetable soil, and it played an important role in nitrification. Active NOB communities were closely affiliated with Nitrospira in the forest and cropland soils, and with Nitrolancea and Nitrococcus in the greenhouse vegetable soil. Canonical correlation analysis showed that soil pH and organic matter content significantly affected the active nitrifier community composition. These results suggest that land use types with different disturbance gradients alter the distribution of active nitrifier communities by affecting soil physicochemical properties. IMPORTANCE Nitrification plays an important role in the soil N cycle, and land use management has a profound effect on soil nitrifiers. It is unclear how different gradients of land use affect active ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Our research is significant because we determined the response of nitrifiers to human disturbance, which will greatly improve our understanding of the niche of nitrifiers and the differences in their physiology.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Amônia/metabolismo , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Florestas , Nitrificação , Nitritos/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Processos Autotróficos , Bactérias/genética , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , DNA Arqueal/análise , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Food Chem ; 356: 129704, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831827

RESUMO

The postharvest senescence accompanied by yellowing limited the shelf-life of broccoli. In this study, we developed a novel W/O/W double emulsion co-delivering brassinolide and cinnamon essential oil and applied it to broccoli for preservation. Results showed that double emulsion prepared by whey protein concentrate-high methoxyl pectin (1:3) exhibited best storage stability with largest particle size (581.30 nm), lowest PDI (0.23) and zeta potential (-40.31 mV). This double emulsion also exhibited highest encapsulation efficiency of brassinolide (92%) and cinnamon essential oil (88%). The broccoli coated with double emulsion maintained higher chlorophyll contents and activities of chlorophyllase and magnesium-dechelatase were reduced by 9% and 24%, respectively. The energy metabolic enzymes (SDH, CCO, H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase) were also activated, inducing higher level of ATP and energy charge. These results demonstrated W/O/W double emulsion co-delivering brassinolide and cinnamon essential delayed the senescence of broccoli via regulating chlorophyll degradation and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Emulsões/química , Metabolismo Energético , Óleos Voláteis/química , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/metabolismo , Emulsões/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Viscosidade
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(3): 2583-2589, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796990

RESUMO

As there are little data about the antimicrobial effects of the cinnamon essential oils (EO) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella species, this study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum EO against the clinical MDR Shigella isolates. Totally 50 MDR Shigella isolates including 17 (34%) S. flexneri, 20 (40%) S. sonnei, and 13 (26%) S. boydii were collected. The isolates were identified by standard phenotypic and molecular methods. The MDR phenotypes were determined as resistant to three antibiotic classes using disc diffusion. The C. zeylanicum EO was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon EO was evaluated by microtiter broth dilution. The most Shigella isolates 38% (n = 19) were resistant to six antibiotics. The ampicillin-amikacin-cefotaxime-erythromycin-ciprofloxacin-cotrimoxazole resistotype was the most prevalent pattern detected in five S. sonnei, four S. boydii, and three S. flexneri isolates. The result of GC/MS revealed the cinnamaldehyde (84.8%) as the main ingredient of C. zeylanycum EO. The most susceptible strain to the C. zeylanycum EO was S. boydii (MIC range = 0.15-0.62 µl/ml) followed by S. flexneri (MIC range = 0.07-1.25 µl/ml), and S. sonnei (MIC range = 0.15-1.25 µl/ml). The observed ranges of MIC and MBC values of cinnamon EO against Shigella spp. were 0.07-1.25 µl/ml and 0.31-1.25 µl/ml, respectively. The antibacterial effects of cinnamon EO in this study may increase the hope of finding suitable plant compounds to treat infections caused by MDR Shigella isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916710

RESUMO

A wide range of analytical techniques are reported for the determination of cinnamaldehyde (CCHO) and eugenol (EOH) in plant extracts and herbal formulations either alone or in combination. Nevertheless, sustainable/green analytical techniques for the estimation of CCHO and EOH either alone or in combination are scarce in the literature. Accordingly, the present research was carried out to establish a rapid, highly sensitive, and sustainable high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique for the simultaneous estimation of CCHO and EOH in the traditional and ultrasound-assisted methanolic extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia and their essential oils. The simultaneous estimation of CCHO and EOH was performed through NP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC plates. The cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (90:10, v v-1) solvent system was optimized as the mobile phase for the simultaneous estimation of CCHO and EOH. The greenness score of the HPTLC technique was predicted using AGREE software. The entire analysis was carried out at a detection wavelength of 296 nm for CCHO and EOH. The sustainable HPTLC technique was observed as linear in the range 10-2000 ng band-1 for CCHO and EOH. The proposed technique was found to be highly sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise, and robust for the simultaneous estimation of CCHO and EOH. The content of CCHO in traditional methanolic extracts of C. zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia was found to be 96.36, 118.49, and 114.18 mg g-1, respectively. However, the content of CCHO in ultrasound-assisted methanolic extracts of C. zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia was found to be 111.57, 134.39, and 129.07 mg g-1, respectively. The content of CCHO in essential oils of C. zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia was found to be 191.20, 214.24, and 202.09 mg g-1, respectively. The content of EOH in traditional methanolic extracts of C. zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia was found to be 73.38, 165.41, and 109.10 mg g-1, respectively. However, the content of EOH in ultrasound-assisted methanolic extracts of C. zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia was found to be 87.20, 218.09, and 121.85 mg g-1, respectively. The content of EOH in essential oils of C. zeylanicum,C. burmannii, and C. cassia was found to be 61.26, 79.21, and 69.02 mg g-1, respectively. The amounts of CCHO and EOH were found to be significantly higher in ultrasound-assisted extracts of all species compared to its traditional extraction and hence ultrasound extraction has been proposed as a superior technique for the extraction of CCHO and EOH. The AGREE analytical score of the present analytical technique was predicted as 0.75, suggesting excellent greenness profile of the proposed analytical technique. Based on all these observations and results, the proposed sustainable HPTLC technique can be successfully used for the simultaneous estimation of CCHO and EOH in different plant extracts and herbal products.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Eugenol/análise , Química Verde , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom , Acroleína/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
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