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1.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101678, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147825

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a multisystemic fatal disease, briefly named as distemper, in domestic and wild animals. Molecular characterization studies serve to identify local strains, accordingly, helps to determine the scope of vaccination in prevention of distemper. We aimed with this study to update the molecular status of CDV in domestic dogs in Turkey. Sequence analysis of the H gene revealed that novel Turkish sequences formed a separated clade in Arctic-like lineage. Italian clade which mainly included strains originated from wild canid or non-canid localized nearly to novel Turkish clade. Codons 530th and 549th determining the affinity of domestic or wild animals to distemper were Asparagine and Tyrosine, respectively. This report presented the presence of CDV strains belonging to Arctic-like lineage for the first time in domestic dogs in Turkey. The findings pave the way for the reassessment of the circulation and geographical shifting of Arctic-like lineages of CDV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cães , Filogenia , Turquia/epidemiologia
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 196-200, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171543

RESUMO

We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) among stone martens (Martes foina) in Italy. After being rescued in Northern Italy between April and June 2018, six subjects were kept in a wildlife and exotic animal rescue center in Bologna province. Subjects have been monitored for 15 months in captivity. Within this time-lapse, two subjects died, while among the remaining four, only one showed clinical symptoms referable to distemper. Surviving subjects have been regularly tested for CDV by means of reverse transcriptase-PCR from conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs for eleven months. The identified viruses belonged to the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the end of the eleven months, when all subjects tested reverse transcriptase-PCR negative. Our findings confirm the circulation of the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup (Europe 1/South America 1 lineage) within the Italian wildlife, and improve knowledge on viral infection in stone martens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Mustelidae , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Cinomose/imunologia , Cinomose/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
3.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 264-272, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822142

RESUMO

As part of the national recovery effort, endangered black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) were reintroduced to the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota, US in 2000. Despite an encouraging start, numbers of ferrets at the site have declined. In an effort to determine possible causes of the population decline, we undertook a pathogen survey in 2012 to detect exposure to West Nile virus (WNV), canine distemper virus (CDV), plague (Yersinia pestis), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), and heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) using coyotes (Canis latrans) as a sentinel animal. The highest seroprevalence was for WNV with 71% (20/28) of coyotes testing antibody-positive. Seroprevalence of CDV and plague were lower, 27% and 13%, respectively. No evidence of active infection with tularemia or heartworm was seen in the coyotes sampled. As this study did not sample black-footed ferrets themselves, the definitive cause for the decline of this population cannot be determined. However, the presence of coyotes seropositive for two diseases, plague and CDV, lethal to black-footed ferrets, indicated the potential for exposure and infection. The high seroprevalence of WNV in the coyotes indicated a wide exposure to the virus; therefore, exposure of black-footed ferrets to the virus is also likely. Due to the ability of WNV to cause fatal disease in other species, studies may be useful to elucidate the impact that WNV could have on the success of reintroduced black-footed ferrets as well as factors influencing the spread and incidence of the disease in a prairie ecosystem.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Coiotes/sangue , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Furões , Peste/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/sangue , Cinomose/sangue , Cinomose/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Feminino , Masculino , Peste/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Yersinia pestis
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649227

RESUMO

The population structure of social species has important consequences for both their demography and transmission of their pathogens. We develop a metapopulation model that tracks two key components of a species' social system: average group size and number of groups within a population. While the model is general, we parameterize it to mimic the dynamics of the Yellowstone wolf population and two associated pathogens: sarcoptic mange and canine distemper. In the initial absence of disease, we show that group size is mainly determined by the birth and death rates and the rates at which groups fission to form new groups. The total number of groups is determined by rates of fission and fusion, as well as environmental resources and rates of intergroup aggression. Incorporating pathogens into the models reduces the size of the host population, predominantly by reducing the number of social groups. Average group size responds in more subtle ways: infected groups decrease in size, but uninfected groups may increase when disease reduces the number of groups and thereby reduces intraspecific aggression. Our modeling approach allows for easy calculation of prevalence at multiple scales (within group, across groups, and population level), illustrating that aggregate population-level prevalence can be misleading for group-living species. The model structure is general, can be applied to other social species, and allows for a dynamic assessment of how pathogens can affect social structure and vice versa.


Assuntos
Cinomose , Modelos Biológicos , Escabiose , Lobos , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/transmissão , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/transmissão , Escabiose/veterinária
5.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578722

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly lethal contagious viral pathogen mainly found in domestic and wild canids and mustelids. Although, in Italy, circulating strains of Europe 1, Europe wildlife and Arctic type are reported, data relating to Latium and Tuscany regions are limited. In view of this, through passive surveillance, we investigated the presence of CDV and which strains were circulating in these Regions. From March 2017 to October 2019, a group of 122 subjects were tested for CDV using a PCR protocol described in the literature, with 12 detected positive; analyses were carried out on a set of target samples (brain and lung, conjunctival, nasal and rectal swabs, urine or swab from bladder and intracardiac clot) that was defined for the detection of CDV in both live and dead animals. The rectal swab, easily collected also from live animals, represented the most suitable sample for CDV diagnosis, with 9 positive of the 11 (81.82%) tested. In addition, brain and lung of 15 subjects out of 181 susceptible animals collected between 2011 and 2018, during post mortem investigations in routine diagnostic activity, were CDV positive. Molecular analyses of all positive samples, using a 287 bp fragment located within the conserved N terminus of the morbillivirus nucleoprotein gene, detected the circulation of strain CDV599/2016 (KX545421.1) belonging to the "Europe wildlife" lineage, and of strain CDV12254/2015 (KX024709.1), belonging to the Arctic-lineage, thus confirming the co-circulation of the two lineages, as already noted in previous studies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/virologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Cinomose/patologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinas Virais/genética
6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450828

RESUMO

Canine distemper (CD) is a fatal, highly contagious disease of wild and domestic carnivores. In the Alpine territory, several outbreaks have occurred in the past few decades within wild populations. This study investigated the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) infections in wild carnivores in Lombardy, relating to the different circulating genotypes. From 2018 to 2020, foxes, badgers, and martens collected during passive surveillance were subjected to necropsy and histological examination, showing classical signs and microscopic lesions related to CDV. Pools of viscera from each animal were analysed by molecular methods and immunoelectron microscopy. Total prevalences of 39.7%, 52.6%, and 14.3% were recorded in foxes, badgers, and stone martens, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences obtained belonged to the European 1 lineage and were divided into two different clades (a and b) according to the geographical conformation of alpine valleys included in the study. Clade a was related to the European outbreaks originating from Germany in 2006-2010, while clade b was closely related to the CDV sequences originating from northeastern Italy during the 2011-2018 epidemic wave. Our results suggest that CDV is currently well adapted to wild carnivores, mostly circulating with subclinical manifestations and without severe impact on the dynamics of these populations.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Carnívoros/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/virologia , Animais , Biópsia , Cinomose/diagnóstico , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/classificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cães , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Itália , Filogenia , Filogeografia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(50): 31954-31962, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229566

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently emerged as an extinction threat for the endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). CDV is vaccine-preventable, and control strategies could require vaccination of domestic dogs and/or wildlife populations. However, vaccination of endangered wildlife remains controversial, which has led to a focus on interventions in domestic dogs, often assumed to be the source of infection. Effective decision making requires an understanding of the true reservoir dynamics, which poses substantial challenges in remote areas with diverse host communities. We carried out serological, demographic, and phylogenetic studies of dog and wildlife populations in the Russian Far East to show that a number of wildlife species are more important than dogs, both in maintaining CDV and as sources of infection for tigers. Critically, therefore, because CDV circulates among multiple wildlife sources, dog vaccination alone would not be effective at protecting tigers. We show, however, that low-coverage vaccination of tigers themselves is feasible and would produce substantive reductions in extinction risks. Vaccination of endangered wildlife provides a valuable component of conservation strategies for endangered species.


Assuntos
Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Tigres/virologia , Vacinação/economia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/transmissão , Cinomose/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cães/sangue , Cães/virologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sibéria , Tigres/sangue , Vacinação/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/economia , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Vacinas Virais/economia
8.
Mol Ecol ; 29(22): 4254-4257, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012001

RESUMO

Predicting the emergence of novel infectious diseases requires an understanding of how pathogens infect and efficiently spread in alternative naïve hosts. A pathogen's ability to adapt to a new host (i.e. host shift) oftentimes is constrained by host phylogeny, due to limits in the molecular mechanisms available to overcome host-specific immune defences (Longdon et al., 2014). Some pathogens, such as RNA viruses, however, have a propensity to jump hosts due to rapid mutation rates. For example, canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of terrestrial carnivores, as well as noncarnivore species worldwide, with a host range that is distributed across 5 orders and 22 families (Beineke et al., 2015). In 1993-1994, a severe CDV outbreak infected multiple carnivore host species in Serengeti National Park, causing widespread mortality and the subsequent decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) population (Roelke-Parker et al., 1996). While previous studies established domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as the disease reservoir, the precise route of transmission to lions remained a mystery, and a number of wild carnivore species could have facilitated viral evolution and spread. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Weckworth et al. (2020) used whole-genome viral sequences obtained from four carnivore species during the CDV outbreak, in combination with epidemiological data, to illuminate the pathway and evolutionary mechanisms leading to disease emergence in Serengeti lions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Leões , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cães , Genômica , Leões/genética , Parques Recreativos
9.
Virus Res ; 290: 198164, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949657

RESUMO

Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) can produce a fatal multisystem disease in carnivores and other mammals and is an important threat for wildlife conservation. However, integrative and comparative studies in wild carnivores are scarce and some areas of the world lack of genetic studies. We explore the dynamic of host-CDV in a procyonid community during an outbreak. This study reports for the first time an index case occurred in a common raccoon (Procyon lotor) and for which a complete CDV diagnosis was performed. The long-term epidemiological analysis in two sympatric populations of common raccoons and white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) was achieved through seroneutralization, RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence assays. Additionally, hematologic analyses were performed and phylogenetic reconstruction of CDV was done using molecular data from this study. Overall prevalence for white-nosed coatis was 19.6 % and for common raccoons was 25.3 % by seroneutralization, and 13.3 % and 17.3 % by RT-PCR. Antibodies titer average for white-nosed coatis was 1:512 and 1:156 for common raccoons. Significant difference in prevalence between white-nosed coatis and common raccoons was detected during one season (summer 2013). White-nosed coatis showed differences in erythrocytes and monocytes counts between positives and negative animals. A 100 % similarity was found between CDV of white-nosed coati and CDV of common raccoon and is a new CDV sequence not previously described; this sequence is close to Asian and European lineage. An endemic state of distemper in both species was observed but showed different dynamics over time per host species. Differences in cellular and humoral responses were also detected between procyonids. The evidence found here may have serious implications for CDV understanding in wild carnivores, it reveals clear differences in the response over time to the same CDV strain, in two close related carnivore species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/imunologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral , Procyonidae/virologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/classificação , Cães , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Clima Tropical
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(4): 873-883, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609600

RESUMO

Before 2001, all serosurveys for morbilliviruses in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in California, Washington, and Alaska, US, documented a 0% seroprevalence. The first published serologic detections of morbillivirus in sea otters occurred in 2001-02 in live-captured Washington sea otters, with a documented 80% seroprevalence. We conducted a retrospective study of sea otter cases from 1989 to 2010 compiled at the US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center to identify cases of morbilliviral disease in Washington sea otters and to characterize the disease using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, genetic sequencing, virus isolation, and serology. We identified six cases of morbilliviral disease and 12 cases of morbilliviral infection in this population of sea otters during 2000-10. Significant histologic findings included inflammation in the white and gray matter of the brain characterized by lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing, neuronal necrosis, and satellitosis in gray matter and by spongiosis, myelin degeneration, spheroids, and gemistocytes in white matter. Intranuclear and intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies were found in neurons, Purkinje cells, and glia. Immunohistochemistry for canine distemper virus (CDV) showed positive staining in neurons, glial cells, and cell processes. A pan-morbillivirus RT-PCR with subsequent restriction endonuclease digestion or sequencing identified CDV. Virus isolation was not successful. Two sea otters with morbilliviral encephalitis showed greater antibody titers to CDV than phocine distemper virus. Histologic changes were confined to the central nervous system and resembled neurologic canine distemper in domestic dogs. Cases of sea otters with morbilliviral infection without histologic changes could represent early infections or incompletely cleared sublethal infections. We found that morbillivirus was present in the Washington sea otter population as early as 2000, and we provide a description of the pathology of canine distemper in sea otters.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Cinomose/virologia , Lontras/virologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Washington/epidemiologia
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 778-786, May-June, 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | ID: biblio-1129176

RESUMO

O perfil epizootiológico da cinomose canina em Belo Horizonte é desatualizado e não alberga algumas características relevantes. Uma análise recente da distribuição do vírus em relação às características do hospedeiro e do meio ambiente associada aos principais sinais clínicos e achados laboratoriais são importantes para se adotarem medidas estratégicas para o controle da enfermidade. Objetivou-se, assim, determinar as características epizootiológicas da infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina associada à variedade de sinais clínico-neurológicos e laboratoriais em Belo Horizonte, auxiliando no diagnóstico precoce da infecção e na diminuição das taxas de morbidade e mortalidade da doença. A avaliação do perfil epizootiológico de 90 cães revelou que a doença é mais frequente em animais adultos (um a seis anos de idade) e que não receberam vacinas conforme recomendado pelos protocolos. Os sinais clínicos extraneurais e neurais foram variados, com predomínio para manifestações gastrentérica e respiratória, mioclonia e déficit motor, respectivamente. O exame do fluido cérebro-espinhal demonstrou predomínio de proteinorraquia associada à pleocitose linfocítica. O teste de imunocromatografia para pesquisa de antígeno com amostras do fluido cerebroespinhal foi eficaz para identificar a doença em pacientes com sinais neurológicos, diferentemente das amostras do swab conjuntival, que não devem ser utilizadas.(AU)


The epizootiology profile of canine distemper in Belo Horizonte is outdated and does not harbor some important characteristics. A recent analysis of the virus distribution in relation to host and environmental characteristics associated with the main clinical signs and laboratory findings are important for adopting strategic measures to control the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the epizootiology characteristics of canine distemper virus infection associated with a variety of clinical and neurologic signs and laboratory findings in Belo Horizonte, helping to detect early infection and reduce morbidity and mortality rates. The evaluation of the epizootiology profile of 90 dogs revealed that the disease is more frequent in adult animals (1-6 years of age) and did not receive vaccines as recommended by the protocols. Extra neural and neural clinical signs were varied, with predominance for gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations and myoclonus and motor deficit, respectively. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid of 16 dogs showed a predominance of increase protein associated with lymphocytic pleocytosis. The immunochromatography test for antigen screening with samples of cerebrospinal fluid in 76 animals with neurological signs was effective in identifying the disease, unlike conjunctival swab samples, which should not be used.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Mioclonia/veterinária , Manifestações Neurológicas , Cromatografia de Afinidade/veterinária , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/virologia , Linfocitose/veterinária
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104359, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407794

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important threat for both wild and domestic carnivores. Since 2006, the North-Eastern regions in Italy have been experiencing severe and widespread recurring outbreaks of CDV affecting the wild carnivore population. In this study we performed an extensive phylogeographic analysis of CDV strains belonging to the Wildlife-Europe genetic group identified between 2006 and 2018 in Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. Our analysis revealed that viruses from the first (2006-2009) and the second (2011-2018) epidemic wave cluster separately, suggesting the introduction of two distinct genetic variants. These two events were characterized by different diffusion rates and spatial distribution, thus suggesting the existence of a connection between infection spread and host population dynamics. We also report the first spillover event of this strain to a non-vaccinated dog in a rural area of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The increasing prevalence of the infection in wildlife population, the broad host range of CDV circulating in the Alpine wildlife and the first reported transmission of a wild-adapted strain to a domestic dog in this region raise concerns over the vulnerability of wildlife species and the exposure of our pets to new threatening strains. Understanding the dynamic of CDV epidemics will also improve preparedness for re-emerging diseases affecting carnivore species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421723

RESUMO

Disease transmission and epidemic prevention are top conservation concerns for wildlife managers, especially for small, isolated populations. Previous studies have shown that the course of an epidemic within a heterogeneous host population is strongly influenced by whether pathogens are introduced to regions of relatively high or low host densities. This raises the question of how disease monitoring and vaccination programs are influenced by spatial heterogeneity in host distributions. We addressed this question by modeling vaccination and monitoring strategies for the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis), which has a history of substantial population decline due to introduced disease. We simulated various strategies to detect and prevent epidemics of rabies and canine distemper using a spatially explicit model, which was parameterized from field studies. Increasing sentinel monitoring frequency, and to a lesser degree, the number of monitored sentinels from 50 to 150 radio collared animals, reduced the time to epidemic detection and percentage of the fox population infected at the time of detection for both pathogens. Fox density at the location of pathogen introduction had little influence on the time to detection, but a large influence on how many foxes had become infected by the detection day, especially when sentinels were monitored relatively infrequently. The efficacy of different vaccination strategies was heavily influenced by local host density at the site of pathogen entry. Generally, creating a vaccine firewall far away from the site of pathogen entry was the least effective strategy. A firewall close to the site of pathogen entry was generally more effective than a random distribution of vaccinated animals when pathogens entered regions of high host density, but not when pathogens entered regions of low host density. These results highlight the importance of considering host densities at likely locations of pathogen invasion when designing disease management plans.


Assuntos
Cinomose/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/veterinária , Raposas/virologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação , Animais , Ilhas Anglo-Normandas/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Cinomose/diagnóstico , Cinomose/imunologia , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Geografia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 135, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus belonging to family Paramyxovirade, genus Morbillivirus and responsible for high morbidity and mortality in dogs worldwide. Infected domestic dogs can cause spillover infections to wild carnivores that are in contact. We conducted a seroprevalence survey of CDV in domestic dogs in two areas of western Bhutan (Haa district) located at the periphery of the Jigme Khesar Strict Nature Reserve, which is home to several endangered wildlife. A total of 238 serum samples, 119 each from the pet and stray dog, were collected during summer and winter seasons. Samples were tested for CDV antibodies using a sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) test. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of CDV was found to be 11.3% (95% CI 6.7-14.2). Dogs sampled during winter were less likely to test seropositive against CDV antibodies than those sampled during summer (adjusted odds ratio: -2.6; 95% CI: - 1.2-6.1). Dogs in good body condition were found to be more likely to test seropositive against CDV than dogs in poor condition and obese dogs (adjusted odds ratio: 2.2; 95% CI: 0.1-5.9). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of CDV among different sexes, breeds and age classes, pet and stray dogs and between the two study sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that CDV seroprevalence was equally distributed among pet and stray dogs. We suggest strengthening the management practices of dogs through responsible dog ownership, dog population management and waste management to minimize the transmission risk of infectious diseases to wildlife.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Animais , Butão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Mol Ecol ; 29(22): 4308-4321, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306443

RESUMO

The outcome of pathogen spillover from a reservoir to a novel host population can range from a "dead-end" when there is no onward transmission in the recipient population, to epidemic spread and even establishment in new hosts. Understanding the evolutionary epidemiology of spillover events leading to discrete outcomes in novel hosts is key to predicting risk and can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of emergence. Here we use a Bayesian phylodynamic approach to examine cross-species transmission and evolutionary dynamics during a canine distemper virus (CDV) spillover event causing clinical disease and population decline in an African lion population (Panthera leo) in the Serengeti Ecological Region between 1993 and 1994. Using 21 near-complete viral genomes from four species we found that this large-scale outbreak was likely  ignited by a single cross-species spillover event from a canid reservoir to noncanid hosts <1 year before disease detection and explosive spread of CDV in lions. Cross-species transmission from other noncanid species probably fuelled the high prevalence of CDV across spatially structured lion prides. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) could have acted as the proximate source of CDV exposure in lions. We report 13 nucleotide substitutions segregating CDV strains found in canids and noncanids. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that virus evolution played a role in CDV emergence in noncanid hosts following spillover during the outbreak, suggest that host barriers to clinical infection can limit outcomes of CDV spillover in novel host species.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Leões , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Teorema de Bayes , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Parques Recreativos
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 2: 178-184, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080984

RESUMO

The pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) findings associated with infection due to canine morbilivírus (canine distemper virus, CDV) are described in coatis (Nasua nasua). Tissue fragments of coatis (n = 13) that died at the Bela Vista Sanctuary, Paraná, Southern Brazil, were routinely processed for histopathology to identify the main histopathologic patterns as compared to that of the domestic dog. Selected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue fragments of the lungs, liver, urinary bladder and small intestine were used in IHC assays designed to identify the antigens of CDV, canine adenovirus (CAdV-1 and CAdV-2) and canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). The main histopathologic patterns identified were interstitial pneumonia (n = 9), interstitial nephritis (n = 6), atrophic enteritis (n = 4) and ballooning degeneration of the uroepithelium (n = 3). Positive immunolabelling for intralesional antigens of CDV was identified in the lung with interstitial pneumonia (n = 3), in the intestine (n = 2) and in the degenerated epithelium of the urinary bladder (n = 2). Antigens of CPV-2, CAdV-1 and CAdV-2 were not identified in any FFPE tissue sections evaluated. These findings indicate that these wild carnivores were infected by a viral disease pathogen common to the domestic dog and develop similar histopathologic findings. Collectively, these findings suggest that these coatis were infected by CDV and can serve as a potential host for this infectious disease pathogen.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/virologia , Procyonidae/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/patologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Intestino Delgado/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Inclusão em Parafina/veterinária , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/virologia
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(3): 646-650, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917631

RESUMO

A lethargic juvenile male harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in poor nutritional condition was found on the beach on the north shore of Prince Edward Island, Canada, in June 2017. Microscopic examination revealed a severe nonsuppurative encephalitis positive for morbillivirus antigen on immunohistochemistry. Virus isolation attempts were negative. However, phocine distemper virus (PDV) was detected in brain tissue RNA extracts by a seminested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the paramyxovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (pol) gene. Comparison of the resulting partial PDV pol nucleotide sequence revealed it was nearly identical to PDV strains isolated from eastern Atlantic harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) during a 1988 epizootic in the Wadden and Irish seas, and a western Atlantic harbor seal (Phoca vitulina concolor) that stranded in Maine, US, in 2006. Our study confirmed that closely related PDV strains are circulating in multiple seal species along the coastlines of North America and Europe.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Focina/isolamento & purificação , Cinomose/virologia , Focas Verdadeiras/virologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/patologia , Masculino , Ilha do Príncipe Eduardo/epidemiologia
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 778-789, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926507

RESUMO

Data on canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination were collected on 812 large felids (351 tigers, Panthera tigris; 220 lions, Panthera leo; 143 snow leopards, Panthera uncia; 50 leopards, Panthera pardus; and 48 jaguars, Panthera onca) from 48 institutions to assess vaccine use and safety. The documented individual vaccination events with multiple products numbered 2,846. Canarypox-vectored CDV vaccines were the most commonly used vaccines (96.3% of all vaccinations) and the Purevax® Ferret Distemper (PFD) vaccine was the most commonly used canarypox-vectored vaccine (91.0% of all vaccinations). Modified live virus (MLV) CDV vaccines were used for 3.7% of all vaccinations, and only in tigers, lions, and snow leopards. Adverse effects were reported after 0.5% (13 of 2,740) of the canarypox-vectored vaccinations and after 2.9% (3 of 104) of the MLV CDV vaccinations. This low complication rate suggests large felids may not be as sensitive to adverse effects of MLV CDV vaccines as other exotic carnivores. Serological data were available from 159 individuals (69 tigers, 31 lions, 31 snow leopards, 22 jaguars, and 6 Amur leopards, Panthera pardus orientalis) vaccinated with the PFD vaccine, and 66.0% of vaccinates seroconverted (defined as acquiring a titer ≥1: 24) at some point postvaccination: 24.3% after one vaccination, 55.8% after two vaccinations, 54.3% after three vaccinations, and 79.2% after four or more vaccinations. Among animals exhibiting seroconversion after the initial PFD vaccinations, 88.9% still had titers ≥12 mo and ≥24 mo after the last vaccination, and 87.5% had titers ≥1: 24 at ≥36 mo after the last vaccination. The study was unable to assess fully the safety of vaccination with either canarypox-vectored or MLV CDV vaccines during gestation because of the small number of animals vaccinated while pregnant (n = 6, all vaccinated with PFD).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Panthera/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Vacinas Atenuadas
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 790-797, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926508

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious disease of wild and domestic mammals. Maintenance of CDV among wildlife plays an important role in the disease epidemiology. Wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), serve as reservoirs of CDV and hamper the control of the disease. Recently, we discovered that at least three different CDV lineages (America-3 [Edomex], America-4, and America-5] that are genetically different from the available vaccine strains are circulating in domestic dogs in the United States. Because wildlife serve as a reservoir for the virus, it is important to determine if wildlife play a role in the maintenance and spread of these lineages. To determine the genetic characteristics of circulating strains of CDV in wildlife in various geographic regions in the United States, we studied the nucleotide sequences of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of 25 CDV strains detected in nondomestic species. The species included were free-ranging wildlife: three fishers (Martes pennanti), six foxes, one skunk (Mephitis mephitis), 10 raccoons, two wolves (Canis lupus), and one mink (Neovison vison). Strains from two species in managed care, one sloth (Choloepus didactylus) and one red panda (Ailurus fulgens), were also evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis of the H genes indicated that in addition to America-3, America-4, and America-5 lineages, there are at least two other lineages circulating in US wildlife. One of these includes CDV nucleotide sequences that grouped with that of a single CDV isolate previously detected in a raccoon from Rhode Island in 2012. The other lineage is independent and genetically distinct from other CDV strains included in the analysis. Additional genetically variable strains were detected, mainly in raccoons, suggesting that this species may be the host responsible for the genetic variability of newly detected strains in the domestic dog population.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Carnívoros/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cinomose/virologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have the potential to act as disease reservoirs for wildlife and are important sentinels for common circulating pathogens. Therefore, the infectious disease seroprevalence among domestic dogs in northern Botswana may be indicative of pathogen exposure of various wildlife species. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., Dirofilaria immitis, canine adenovirus, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus in domestic dogs as proxies of disease prevalence in the local wildlife in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana. Statistical analysis assessed crude and factor-specific seroprevalence proportions in relation to age, sex, and geographical location as predictors of seropositivity. Logistic regression was used to identify adjusted predictors of seropositivity for each of the pathogens of interest. RESULTS: Samples from 233 dogs in a total of seven locations in Maun, Botswana, and surrounding villages were collected and serologically analyzed. No dogs were seropositive for B. burgdorferi, while low seroprevalence proportions were observed for Anaplasma spp. (2.2%) and D. immitis (0.9%). Higher seroprevalence proportions were observed for the tick-borne pathogen Ehrlichia spp. (21.0%), and 19.7% were seropositive for canine adenovirus (hepatitis). The highest seroprevalence proportions were for canine parvovirus (70.0%) and canine distemper virus (44.8%). The predictors of seropositivity revealed that adults were more likely to be seropositive for canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, and canine parvovirus than juveniles, and location was a risk factor for canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and Ehrlichia spp. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia burgdorferi/patogenicidade , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilaria immitis/patogenicidade , Dirofilariose/microbiologia , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Cinomose/microbiologia , Cinomose/transmissão , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/patogenicidade , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/patogenicidade , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/microbiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/transmissão , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus Canino/patogenicidade , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos/microbiologia
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