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3.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125738, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918085

RESUMO

Organophosphate triesters are used worldwide as additives in flame retardants and plasticizer as a replacement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Increasing evidence on human exposure to and environmental contamination with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) requires an adequate toxicity assessment for this class of chemicals. While developmental toxicity of several OPFRs has been reported, developmental effects of OPFR metabolites have still to be understood. The present study aimed at characterizing developmental effects of OPFR metabolites using zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxylphenyl diphenyl phosphate and 4-hydroxylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, were most potent for inducing pericardial edema and reduction in blood flow in trunk vessels. Other TPHP metabolites, such as diphenyl phosphate and 4-hydroxylphenyl phenyl phosphate, showed no substantial increase in circulatory failure at concentrations up to 30 µM. Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate showed circulatory failure at 30 µM, but its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate did not. Neither tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate nor its metabolite bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, induced circulatory failure. The circulatory failure appeared to be enhanced with the increase in the octanol-water partition coefficients of OPFRs and their metabolites, suggesting that developmental circulatory failure posed by these chemicals could be estimated by their bioaccumulative potential. The present study demonstrated developmental circulatory failure of hydroxylated TPHP metabolites, which was almost equipotent to TPHP. Diester OPFR metabolites showed no major developmental toxicity at the concentrations used in this study. The current results establish the foundation for further understanding the similarities and differences in the toxic mechanisms between OPFRs and their metabolites.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Plastificantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
4.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(1): 67-72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950842

RESUMO

AIM: Cancer treatments specially with new high Tec radiotherapy equipment's calling daily progression in method and predictive factors affecting treatment goals. Due to important effect of oxygen on cells radio sensitivity, tumor blood circulation and it's antigens like ABO blood groups maybe an important predictive factor for radiotherapy response and it is adverse events. The aim of this study was the assessment of the hematological manifestations of local radiotherapy and association with ABO blood groups. METHODS: In this observational study, 2 ml of peripheral blood were taken from 152 patients with routine 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment course and the blood parameters achieve and documented at four stage during treatment courses. The data were analyzed by repeated measurement andone-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Statistically significant reductions of the platelets, white blood cells (WBC), and lymphocytes counts were demonstrated. Also an increased percentage of polymorphonuclear cells during local radiotherapy exposure was found. The changes in WBC counts were observed to be in association with ABO blood groups. The other evaluated factors were not significantly associated with ABO blood groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed an association between radiotherapy patients ABO blood groups and some hematological changes in their blood circulation (Fig. 7, Ref. 23).


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Circulação Sanguínea , Neoplasias , Lesões por Radiação , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Prognóstico
5.
Phys Rev E ; 100(3-1): 033317, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639980

RESUMO

Laser speckle imaging (LSI) can be used to study dynamic processes in turbid media, such as blood flow. However, it is presently still challenging to obtain meaningful quantitative information from speckle, mainly because speckle is the interferometric summation of multiply scattered light. Consequently, speckle represents a convolution of the local dynamics of the medium. In this paper, we present a computational model for simulating the LSI process, which we aim to use for improving our understanding of the underlying physics. Thereby reliable methods for extracting meaningful information from speckle can be developed. To validate our code, we apply it to a case study resembling blood flow: a cylindrical fluid flow geometry seeded with small spherical particles and modulated with a heartbeat signal. From the simulated speckle pattern, we successfully retrieve the main frequency modes of the original heartbeat signal. By comparing Poiseuille flow to plug flow, we show that speckle boiling causes a small amount of uniform spectral noise. Our results indicate that our computational model is capable of simulating LSI and will therefore be useful in future studies for further developing LSI as a quantitative imaging tool.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea , Lasers , Modelos Biológicos , Imagem Molecular , Hidrodinâmica
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3349-3357, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602894

RESUMO

Rat model of blood stasis syndrome was prepared by subcutaneous injecting of epinephrine hydrochlorid,then the model rats were administrated by Yunnan Baiyao for 15 days. Blood rheology,coagulation function and histopathology were chosen as indicators to evaluate the successful replication of blood stasis syndrome model and the treatment effect of Yunnan Baiyao. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to rapidly analyze the serum samples of blood stasis syndrome rat after 15 days Yunnan Baiyao treatment,Progenesis QI software was employed to identify the alkaloids components. The results showed that Yunnan Baiyao reduced the plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity of rats with blood stasis syndrome,prolonged thrombin and prothrombin time,reduced fibrinogen content,and effectively improved pathological state such as inflammatory cell infiltration,blood stasis,congestion and edema of various organs in rats with blood stasis syndrome. Seven alkaloids components from Aconitum kusnezoffii,including karacolidine,senbusine B,isotalatizidine,karakoline,denudatine,talatisamine and chasmanine were found in the rat serum after Yunnan Baiyao treatment. Based on the effectiveness of Yunnan Baiyao in the treatment of blood stasis syndrome induced by epinephrine hydrochloride in rats,alkaloids components from the root of A. kusnezoffii absorbed into blood after Yunnan Baiyao treatment were clarified rapidly and accurately with the help of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Karacolidine,senbusine B,isotalatizidine,karakoline,denudatine,talatisamine and chasmanine are the pharmacodynamic material basis of the root of A. kusnezoffii for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Animais , Viscosidade Sanguínea , Tempo de Protrombina , Ratos , Tempo de Trombina
7.
Phys Rev E ; 100(1-1): 012203, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499874

RESUMO

The flow of red blood cells within cylindrical vessels is complex and irregular, so long as the vessel diameter is somewhat larger than the nominal cell size. Long-time-series simulations, in which cells flow 10^{5} vessel diameters, are used to characterize the chaotic kinematics, particularly to inform reduced-order models. The simulation model used includes full coupling between the elastic red blood cell membranes and surrounding viscous fluid, providing a faithful representation of the cell-scale dynamics. Results show that the flow has neither classifiable recurrent features nor a dominant frequency. Instead, its kinematics are sensitive to the initial flow configuration in a way consistent with chaos and Lagrangian turbulence. Phase-space reconstructions show that a low-dimensional attractor does not exist, so the observed long-time dynamics are effectively stochastic. Based on this, a simple Markov chain model for the dynamics is introduced and shown to reproduce the statistics of the cell positions.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea , Microvasos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Processos Estocásticos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17039, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climacteric women experience various disorders, including hot flush, depression, insomnia, arthralgia, and hand and foot numbness. Dangguijakyaksan is among the most common treatments for climacteric syndrome, and its effect on depression, insomnia, hot flush and quality of life (QOL) in climacteric women has been reported multiple times. A recent animal study found dangguijakyaksan decreased serum lipid factors and improved blood circulation in a menopausal rat model; however, these effects have not been assessed in clinical trials. This study aims to assess the clinical effects and safety of dangguijakyaksan for lower-extremity blood circulation disturbances in climacteric women. METHODS: This is a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study that will be conducted at Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital at Daejeon University. Forty-six climacteric women with lower-extremity blood circulation disturbances will be recruited and randomized (1:1) into either the dangguijakyaksan or placebo group. After 8 weeks of administration, the effects and safety of dangguijakyaksan will be assessed.The primary outcome is the visual analogue scale for lower-extremity blood circulation disturbances, and it will be assessed on visits 1, 2, and 3. The secondary outcomes, Kupperman's index and blood deficiency scoring system, will be assessed on visits 1, 2, and 3, and accelerated photoplethysmography and digital infrared thermal imaging will be performed on visits 1 and 3. Moreover, blood lipid profile, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol levels will be measured at the screening visit and visit 3. Blood tests will be performed at the screening visit and visit 3 to assess the safety of dangguijakyaksan. Statistical analysis will be performed using R-3.3.3 (Another Canoe), and within-group study variable differences after drug administration will be analyzed using paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. DISCUSSION: We expect to confirm the effects and safety of dangguijakyaksan on lower-extremity blood circulation disturbances in menopause, which would provide foundational data for planning subsequent studies.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Climatério , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370190

RESUMO

Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. While endometriotic tissue is commonly localized in the pelvic cavity, it can also be found in distant sites, including the brain. The origin and pathophysiology of tissue migration is poorly understood; retrograde menstruation is thought to be the cause, although the presence of endometrium at distant sites is not explained by this hypothesis. To determine whether dissemination occurs via the bloodstream in women with endometriosis, we analyzed circulating blood for the presence of endometrial cells. Circulating endometrial stromal cells were identified only in women with endometriosis but not in controls, while endometrial epithelial cells were not identified in the circulation of either group. Our results support the hypothesis that endometrial stromal cells may migrate through circulation and promote the pathophysiology of endometriosis. The detection of these cells in circulation creates avenues for the development of less invasive diagnostic tools for the disease, and opens possibilities for further study of the origin of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose/diagnóstico , Endométrio/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Circulação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Endometriose/metabolismo , Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neprilisina/genética , Neprilisina/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Células Estromais/metabolismo
10.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 3123-3128, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352837

RESUMO

Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are artificial oxygen carriers encapsulating purified and concentrated hemoglobin solution in phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) and their safety and efficacy as a transfusion alternative have been evaluated. Because of the absence of enzymatic methemoglobin reduction system in HbV, the level of ferric methemoglobin (metHb) increases gradually after intravenous administration. Our previous studies clarified that the glycolytic electron energies, charged as NAD(P)H in red blood cells (RBC), are donated to reduce metHb compartmentalized in HbV via a water-soluble electron mediator such as methylene blue [MB; 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazinium chloride], which freely shuttle across both RBC biomembrane and HbV lipid membrane. Herein, we tried to test repeated injections of MB after the massive HbV administration (28 mL/kg) to hemorrhagic shocked Wistar rats (n = 3). MB was injected (3.1 mg/kg) at 7, 24 and 48 h after HbV administration. Every MB injection showed rapid reduction of metHb and gradual reversal increase. As a result, the functional life span of HbV was significantly extended over 60 h. It is expected that further optimization of injection scheduling will decrease the total amount of MB and prolong the functional life span of HbV.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Substitutos Sanguíneos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Animais , Interações Medicamentosas , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Injeções , Metemoglobina/metabolismo , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Analyst ; 144(15): 4677-4686, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268052

RESUMO

We have investigated the development of murine hindlimb ischemia from day 1 to day 55 after femoral artery ligation (FAL) using blood flow analysis, functional tests, histopathological staining, and in vivo Raman spectroscopy. FAL resulted in hindlimb blood deprivation and the loss of functionality as attested by the blood flow analysis and functional tests, respectively. The limbs recovered a normal circulation progressively without recovering complete functionality. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of muscle fibers with intense inflammation. From day 22 to day 55 post-ischemia, regeneration of the myofibers was observed. Raman spectroscopic results related to subcutaneous analysis made the identification of modification in the biochemical constituents of hindlimb muscles possible during disease progression. Ischemia was characterized by a quantitative increase in the lipid content and a decrease in the protein content. The lipid to protein ratio can be used as a spectroscopic marker to score the severity of ischemia. Multivariate statistical analysis PC-LDA (Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis) was used to classify all the data measured for the normal and ischemic tissues. This classification illustrated an excellent separation between the control and ischemic tissues at any time during the course of ischemic development. In vivo Raman spectroscopy was then applied to assess the potential of this technique as a screening tool to explore an ischemic disease non-invasively (transcutaneously). For this purpose, the influence of skin on the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated; transcutaneous analysis revealed the accuracy of this technique, indicating its potential in the in situ monitoring of muscle structural changes during ischemia.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Análise Discriminante , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Análise Multivariada , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
12.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 37(3): 395-408, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262411

RESUMO

Patients in shock present frequently to the emergency department. The emergency physician must be skilled in the resuscitation of both differentiated and undifferentiated shock. Early, aggressive resuscitation of patients in shock is essential, using macrocirculatory, microcirculatory, and clinical end points to guide interventions. Therapy should focus on the restoration of oxygen delivery to match tissue demand. This article reviews the evidence supporting common end points of resuscitation for common etiologies of shock and limitations to their use.


Assuntos
Ressuscitação , Choque/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Medicina de Emergência , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Oxigênio/sangue , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Choque/sangue , Urina
14.
Redox Biol ; 26: 101271, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302408

RESUMO

Oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction, a key step in cardiovascular disease development. Ageing-related vascular dysfunction involves defective antioxidant response. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-like-2 (Nrf2), orchestrates cellular response to oxidative stress. We evaluated the impact of Nrf2-activation on endothelium-dependent and H2O2-mediated vasodilations in: aorta (RA), mesenteric artery (RMA), coronary artery (RCA) and corpus cavernosum (RCC) from ageing rats and in human penile arteries (HPRA) and corpus cavernosum (HCC) from erectile dysfunction (ED) patients. Relaxant responses were evaluated in organ chambers and wire myographs. Nrf2 content and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined by ELISA. Superoxide and Nrf2 were detected by immunofluorescence. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane (SFN) improved NO- and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and H2O2-induced relaxation in vascular beds from aging rats. SFN-induced effects were associated with increased Nrf2 (RMA, RCA) and reduced superoxide detection in RCA. Improvement of vascular function was confirmed in HPRA and HCC from ED patients and mimicked by another Nrf2 activator, oltipraz. Nrf2 increase and superoxide reduction together with HO-1 increase by Nrf2 activation was evidenced in HCC from ED patients. PDE5 inhibitor-induced relaxations of HPRA and HCC from ED patients were enhanced by SFN. Nrf2 short-term pharmacological activation attenuates age-related impairment of endothelium-dependent and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vasodilation in different rat and human vascular territories by upregulation of Nrf2-related signaling and decreased oxidative stress. In ED patients target tissues, Nrf2 potentiates the functional effect of ED conventional pharmacological therapy suggesting potential therapeutic implication.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Endotélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/agonistas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Vasodilatação
15.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(8): 663-673, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216915

RESUMO

Introduction: Right heart failure (RHF) in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) carries a poor prognosis although the treatment strategy including mechanical circulatory support for the failing right ventricle (RV) has not been well established. Areas covered: In this review, we describe an overview of RHF post-LVAD implant including natural history, prevalence, pathophysiology, outcomes, and challenges to predict RHF post-LVAD implant. Then, we focus on right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) and their clinical outcomes. Recently developed percutaneous RVADs are the major advance in this field. Finally, we discuss future perspectives to overcome limitations of the current treatment options. Expert opinion: In the absence of dedicated RVAD system RHF post-LVAD implant may have been undertreated. Now that dedicated percutaneous RVADs have emerged, surgeons are encouraged to use these new devices to improve outcomes of LVAD therapy. As experience accumulates, we should be able to establish the best possible strategy to treat early RHF post-LVAD implant. Late RHF is another form of RHF post-LVAD implant and has been underappreciated. Further research is mandatory to clarify the mechanism and risk factors. There are still unmet needs for a dedicated implantable RVAD for a subset of patients who need long-term RV support.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea , Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) ; 77(2): 128-131, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The utility of pulse oximetry for evaluating the perfusion of an injured digit is not well established. The goal of our study was to compare the use of a handheld Doppler to the use of pulse oximetry to determine perfusion in the digits of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in our study. All digits of both hands were assessed, for a total of 150 digits. Baseline measurements were performed for both the Doppler and pulse oximeter. Then, a pulse oximeter was placed on each digit for 1 minute and the recordings taken at the end of the minute. A Penrose drain was used to occlude each digit. Once perfusion was absent, the pulse oximeter was placed onto the digit. Pulse oximeter readings were recorded for 1 minute and then averaged over that time. For the first five patients, a hinge type sensor was used and for the second group of 10 patients, a rubber sleeve type sensor was used. RESULTS: The mean baseline pulse oximeter reading averaged an oxygen saturation of 98.9% (range: 96% to 100%). For the hinge type pulse oximeter sensor, no readout was obtained for the unperfused digits, thus making the results binary. Using the rubber sleeve type pulse oximeter sensor, the mean unperfused readings dropped to an oxygen saturation of 85.0% (range: 71% to 98%). The difference between baseline and the rubber sleeve sensor was significant. The mean drop in pulse oximetry oxygen saturation reading between baseline and occluded digits was 15%. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the use of pulse oximetry in the assessment of fingertip perfusion, specifically for confirming that a digit is well perfused. Depending on the model of pulse oximeter used, results may be binary (signal or no signal) or show a decrease in reading compared to a perfused digit. Although pulse oximetry cannot be utilized as a sole diagnostic study for vascular injury, it can be a useful adjuvant. Statement of Significance: The evaluation of an injured finger includes the assessment of vascular status. Handheld Doppler in conjunction with physical exam can be used to diagnose vascular injury, but this is often unavailable or unfamiliar to the medical staff initially evaluating the patient. This study analyzes the use of pulse oximetry in the evaluation of poorly perfused digits. Pulse oximeters are simple, inexpensive, readily available, and familiar to all medical personnel.


Assuntos
Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Oximetria/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adulto , Circulação Sanguínea , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Imagem de Perfusão/instrumentação , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia Doppler/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048866

RESUMO

Many parameters treated as constants in traditional physiologically based pharmacokinetic models must be formulated as time-varying quantities when modeling pregnancy and gestation due to the dramatic physiological and anatomical changes that occur during this period. While several collections of empirical models for such parameters have been published, each has shortcomings. We sought to create a repository of empirical models for tissue volumes, blood flow rates, and other quantities that undergo substantial changes in a human mother and her fetus during the time between conception and birth, and to address deficiencies with similar, previously published repositories. We used maximum likelihood estimation to calibrate various models for the time-varying quantities of interest, and then used the Akaike information criterion to select an optimal model for each quantity. For quantities of interest for which time-course data were not available, we constructed composite models using percentages and/or models describing related quantities. In this way, we developed a comprehensive collection of formulae describing parameters essential for constructing a PBPK model of a human mother and her fetus throughout the approximately 40 weeks of pregnancy and gestation. We included models describing blood flow rates through various fetal blood routes that have no counterparts in adults. Our repository of mathematical models for anatomical and physiological quantities of interest provides a basis for PBPK models of human pregnancy and gestation, and as such, it can ultimately be used to support decision-making with respect to optimal pharmacological dosing and risk assessment for pregnant women and their developing fetuses. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Assuntos
Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/fisiologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Biológicos , Mães , Circulação Sanguínea , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Hematócrito , Humanos , Gravidez , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071969

RESUMO

Blood circulation disorders, such as hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis, are not easily cured by dietary supplements, but they can be mitigated. Although Ecklonia cava extract (ECE), as dietary supplements, are associated with improving the conditions, there are not many studies verifying the same. In this study, the beneficial effect of ECE and leaf of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), which is a well-known dietary supplement, were first confirmed in a diet induced-obese model. Afterwards, 4 phlorotannins were isolated from ECE, and their inhibitory effects on vascular cell dysfunction were validated. Pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB) was selected to be orally administered in two mice models: the diet induced obese model and diet induced hypertension model. After four weeks of administration, the blood pressure of all mice was measured, after which they were subsequently sacrificed. PPB was found to significantly improve blood circulation, including a reduction of adhesion molecule expression, endothelial cell (EC) death, excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, blood pressure, and lipoprotein and cholesterol levels. Based on the excellent efficacy in diet-induced mouse models of obese and hypertension, our results demonstrate that PPB is a valuable active compound from among the phlorotannins that were isolated and it has the potential to be used in functional foods for improving the blood circulation.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dioxinas/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Pirogalol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Feófitas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro , Transdução de Sinais , Taninos/farmacologia
20.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 36(3): 361-370, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079603

RESUMO

The accurate assessment of peripheral perfusion is a critical step in caring for a diabetic patient with active ulceration. This article guides the provider through diagnostic and therapeutic options. The perfusion assessment begins with a physical examination and augmented using noninvasive tests. Although some of these tests can be performed at the bedside, often a dedicated vascular laboratory is required. Additional cross-sectional imaging studies or formal angiography should be performed as well. These tools aid in the creation of the best therapeutic plan, which aims to restore perfusion and allow for rapid wound healing via open or endovascular means.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Exame Físico , Pulso Arterial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
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