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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046036

RESUMO

Background: SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 share similar characteristics. For instance, the genetic homology of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is 80% and 50%, respectively, which may cause similar clinical features. Moreover, uncontrolled release of proinflammatory mediators (also called a cytokine storm) by activated immune cells in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 patients leads to severe phenotype development. Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine profile associated with three strains of severe human coronavirus diseases (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). Method: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published until July 2020. Randomized and observational studies reporting the inflammatory cytokines associated with severe and non-severe human coronavirus diseases, including MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, were included. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval to estimate the pooled mean of inflammatory biomarkers. Results: A high level of circulating IL-6 could be associated with the severity of infection of the three coronavirus strains. TNF, IL-10, and IL-8 are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Increased circulating levels of CXCL10/IP10 and CCL2/MCP-1 might also be related to the severity of MERS. Conclusion: This study suggests that the immune response and immunopathology in the three severe human coronavirus strains are somewhat similar. The findings highlight that nearly all studies reporting severe cases of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 have been associated with elevated levels of IL-6. This could be used as a potential therapeutic target to improve patients' outcomes in severe cases. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration 94 number: CRD42020209931.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 887-900, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the properties of the audible tones produced by current left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pumps approved for use, and to ascertain if changes in those may be present in the setting of pump thrombosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 31, 2016, to January 16, 2020, LVAD recipients consented to have surface recordings obtained using a high-fidelity digital stethoscope. Audio data were analyzed using digital recording and editing software to produce an acoustic spectrogram by Fast Fourier transformation. RESULTS: Recordings were obtained in 53 patient encounters (27 HeartMate II, 19 HeartWare and 7 HeartMate 3). In 12 patients (9 HeartMate II, 3 HeartWare) there was a clinical concern for pump thrombosis. In all patients and pump models, a fundamental frequency was noted, and the second and third harmonics were also clearly detectable. Where thrombosis occurred in the HeartMate II pump, the absolute (normal -46.9 [-57.5,-42.9] dB vs thrombosis -41.4 [-49.8,-26.8] dB; P=.08) and relative (normal 0.72 [0.62, 0.92] vs thrombosis 0.95 [0.86, 1.24]; P=.01) third harmonic frequencies were increased in amplitude. Where paired data were available, an increase in the absolute and relative third harmonic frequencies was observed in all patients. In the case of the HeartWare device, a consistent difference in harmonic amplitudes in the setting of thrombosis could not be identified. CONCLUSION: A consistent pattern of fundamental and harmonic frequencies is common to all LVADs currently approved for use. Alterations in the amplitude of higher order harmonics may signal the onset of pump thrombosis in axial flow LVADs.


Assuntos
Acústica , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925045

RESUMO

Glaucomatous optic neuropathies have been regarded as diseases caused by high intraocular pressure for a long time, despite the concept of vascular glaucoma dating back to von Graefe in 1854. Since then, a tremendous amount of knowledge about the ocular vasculature has been gained; cohort studies have established new vascular risk factors for glaucoma as well as identifying protective measures acting on blood vessels. The knowledge about the physiology and pathophysiology of the choroidal, retinal, as well as ciliary and episcleral circulation has also advanced. Only recently have novel drugs based on that knowledge been approved for clinical use, with more to follow. This review provides an overview of the current vascular concepts in glaucoma, ranging from novel pathogenesis insights to promising therapeutic approaches, covering the supply of the optic nerve head as well as the aqueous humor production and drainage system.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/etiologia , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Olho/irrigação sanguínea , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920015

RESUMO

In addition to providing nutrients, food can help prevent and treat certain diseases. In particular, research on soy products has increased dramatically following their emergence as functional foods capable of improving blood circulation and intestinal regulation. In addition to their nutritional value, soybeans contain specific phytochemical substances that promote health and are a source of dietary fiber, phospholipids, isoflavones (e.g., genistein and daidzein), phenolic acids, saponins, and phytic acid, while serving as a trypsin inhibitor. These individual substances have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing chronic diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, cardiac diseases, diabetes, and senile dementia, as well as in treating cancer and suppressing osteoporosis. Furthermore, soybean can affect fibrinolytic activity, control blood pressure, and improve lipid metabolism, while eliciting antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antibacterial effects. In this review, rather than to improve on the established studies on the reported nutritional qualities of soybeans, we intend to examine the physiological activities of soybeans that have recently been studied and confirm their potential as a high-functional, well-being food.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Soja/química , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinolíticos/química , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/uso terapêutico
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920051

RESUMO

Atherothrombosis exposes vascular components to blood. Currently, new antithrombotic therapies are emerging. Herein we investigated thrombogenesis of human arteries with/without atherosclerosis, and the interaction of coagulation and vascular components, we and explored the anti-thrombogenic efficacy of blockade of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7). A confocal blood flow videomicroscopy system was performed on cryosections of internal mammary artery (IMA) or carotid plaque (CPL) determining/localizing platelets and fibrin. Blood from healthy donors elicited thrombi over arterial layers. Confocal microscopy associated thrombus with tissue presence of collagen type I, laminin, fibrin(ogen) and tissue factor (TF). The addition of antibodies blocking TF (aTF) or factor XI (aFXI) to blood significantly reduced fibrin deposition, variable platelet aggregation and aTF + aFXI almost abolished thrombus formation, showing synergy between coagulation pathways. A scarce effect of aTF over sub-endothelial regions, more abundant in tissue TF and bundles of laminin and collagen type I than deep intima, may suggest tissue thrombogenicity as molecular structure-related. Consistently with TF-related vascular function and expression of P2X7, the sections from CPL but not IMA tissue cultures pre-treated with the P2X7 antagonist A740003 demonstrated poor thrombogenesis in flow experiments. These data hint to local targeting studies on P2X7 modulation for atherothrombosis prevention/therapy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Plaquetas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Vídeo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/ultraestrutura , Fibrina/genética , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/patologia
6.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871458

RESUMO

Although vertebrates are indispensable to biomedical research, studies are often limited by factors such as cost, lengthy internal review, and ethical considerations. We present the earthworm as an alternative, low-cost, invertebrate applicable to certain preliminary vasculature studies. Due to the surgical availability of the earthworm's dorsal vessels, ventral vessels, and five pairs of pseudo hearts, earthworms are readily accessible, offer low-cost maintenance, and require administration of only small doses of a given compound. The earthworm model provides a simple closed vascular circulatory system with a hemoglobin structure similar to human blood. A protocol is provided for anaesthetizing the earthworms and performing surgical incisions to expose relevant blood vessels. Micropipettes for compound administration are formed by heating and pulling glass with a pipette puller and using a beveling system to create a micron-scale fine needle tip. The tips are then used with a micropositioner and microinjector to inject arbitrary compounds into the vascular system of an earthworm, repeatably, with the availability of large sample sizes and small compound volumes. Details on the intricacies of injection procedure are provided. The small vessel size of the earthworm is challenging, particularly in the case of the ventral vessel; however, mastery of the techniques presented offers high repeatability as a low-cost solution, making studies of very large sample size practical.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea , Microinjeções
7.
J Med Chem ; 64(6): 3427-3438, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715378

RESUMO

Inhibition of the pituitary adenylate cyclase 1 receptor (PAC1R) is a novel mechanism that could be used for abortive treatment of acute migraine. Our research began with comparative analysis of known PAC1R ligand scaffolds, PACAP38 and Maxadilan, which resulted in the selection of des(24-42) Maxadilan, 6, as a starting point. C-terminal modifications of 6 improved the peptide metabolic stability in vitro and in vivo. SAR investigations identified synergistic combinations of amino acid replacements that significantly increased the in vitro PAC1R inhibitory activity of the analogs to the pM IC90 range. Our modifications further enabled deletion of up to six residues without impacting potency, thus improving peptide ligand binding efficiency. Analogs 17 and 18 exhibited robust in vivo efficacy in the rat Maxadilan-induced increase in blood flow (MIIBF) pharmacodynamic model at 0.3 mg/kg subcutaneous dosing. The first cocrystal structure of a PAC1R antagonist peptide (18) with PAC1R extracellular domain is reported.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/química , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
8.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 122: 111900, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641903

RESUMO

In order to prevent thrombosis, reduce intima hyperplasia, and to maintain long-term patency after implantation of an artificial blood vessel, the formation of intact endothelial cells layer on an inner surface of graft is desirable. The present study aimed to improve endothelial cell adhesion by regulating the morphology of the inner surface of artificial blood vessels. Zein fibre membranes with three fibre diameters (small, ~100 nm; medium, ~500 nm; and large, ~1000 nm) were constructed by electrospinning. A flow chamber device was designed to simulate the blood flow environment. The morphology and adhesion of human umbilical vein fusion cells (EA.hy926) on the surface of the fibre membranes were studied under a shear stress of approximately 15 dynes/cm2. The results showed that oriented electrospun zein fibre surfaces with both medium- and large-diameter fibres can regulate the morphology of endothelial cells (EA.hy926), which are aligned by the fibre direction. The three fibre membranes improved the adhesion of endothelial cells significantly compared to that on the flat membrane. When the fibre direction was fixed parallel to the fluid direction, the medium-diameter oriented-fibre membrane could significantly improve the ability endothelial cells to resist shear stress, and there was a significant difference at 1, 2 and 4 h time points compared with the shear stress resistance on the small-diameter and large-diameter oriented-fibre membranes. When the fibre direction was perpendicular to the fluid direction, again the medium-diameter oriented-fibre membrane improved the ability of endothelial cells to resist shear stress significantly at 1 and 2 h time points. It was concluded that by changing the diameter and arrangement of electrospun fibres, cell morphology control and shear stress resistance can be achieved.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea , Nanoestruturas , Zeína , Adesão Celular , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico
9.
Science ; 371(6533): 1019-1025, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674488

RESUMO

In vivo models that recapitulate human erythropoiesis with persistence of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) have remained elusive. We report an immunodeficient murine model in which combined human liver and cytokine humanization confer enhanced human erythropoiesis and RBC survival in the circulation. We deleted the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) gene in MISTRG mice expressing several human cytokines in place of their murine counterparts. Liver humanization by intrasplenic injection of human hepatocytes (huHep) eliminated murine complement C3 and reduced murine Kupffer cell density. Engraftment of human sickle cell disease (SCD)-derived hematopoietic stem cells in huHepMISTRGFah -/- mice resulted in vaso-occlusion that replicated acute SCD pathology. Combined liver-cytokine-humanized mice will facilitate the study of diseases afflicting RBCs, including bone marrow failure, hemoglobinopathies, and malaria, and also preclinical testing of therapies.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Circulação Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritropoese/fisiologia , Camundongos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eritropoese/genética , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Hidrolases/genética , Fígado/fisiologia , Camundongos Mutantes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2021: 8880988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628146

RESUMO

Aim: To predict platelet accumulation around stent struts in the presence or absence of tissue defects around them. Methods: Computer simulations were performed using virtual platelets implementing the function of the three membrane proteins: glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, GPIIb/IIIa, and GPVI. These platelets were perfused around the stent struts implanted into the vessel wall in the presence or absence of tissue defects around them using within the simulation platform. The number of platelets that adhered around stent struts was calculated by solving the blood flow using Navier-Stokes equation along with the adhesion of membrane protein modeled within the platform. Results: Platelet accumulation around stent struts occurred mostly at the downstream region of the stent strut array. The majority of platelets adhered at the downstream of the first bend regardless of the tissue defect status. Platelet adhesion around stent struts occurred more rapidly in the presence of tissue defects. Conclusion: Computer simulation using virtual platelets suggested a higher rate of platelet adhesion in the presence of tissue defects around stent struts.


Assuntos
Adesividade Plaquetária/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Stents/efeitos adversos , Circulação Sanguínea , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/lesões , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
11.
J Med Food ; 24(2): 135-144, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617365

RESUMO

Thrombosis causes poor blood circulation, which may lead to several cardiovascular disorders. Antiplatelet aggregation and antihyperlipidemia are the key processes that improve blood circulation. The antiplatelet aggregation and antihyperlipidemic effects of ACG-1, a mixture of Angelica gigas, Cynanchum wilfordii, and Ginkgo biloba extracts, were investigated in this study. The antiplatelet aggregation activity of ACG-1 was determined by studying its effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In addition, the effects of ACG-1 were investigated in a thromboembolism mouse model. The high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse model was used to investigate the antihyperlipidemic effects of ACG-1 and western blotting assay was performed to elucidate its mechanism of action. It was observed that ACG-1 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in human PRP. Furthermore, ACG-1 showed protective effects in a thromboembolism mouse model induced by administering a mixed collagen and epinephrine intravenous injection. Oral administration of ACG-1 also significantly ameliorated blood lipid profiles in the HFD-fed mouse model. In conclusion, ACG-1 should be considered a powerful functional food to improve blood circulation.


Assuntos
Angelica , Circulação Sanguínea , Cynanchum , Ginkgo biloba , Extratos Vegetais , Agregação Plaquetária , Angelica/química , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cynanchum/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginkgo biloba/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491675

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the clinical assessment of cardiovascular morphology and heart function. It is also the recognized standard-of-care for blood flow quantification based on phase contrast MRI. While such measurement of blood flow has been possible in adults for decades, methods to extend this capability to fetal blood flow have only recently been developed. Fetal blood flow quantification in major vessels is important for monitoring fetal pathologies such as congenital heart disease (CHD) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). CHD causes alterations in the cardiac structure and vasculature that change the course of blood in the fetus. In FGR, the path of blood flow is altered through the dilation of shunts such that the oxygenated blood supply to the brain is increased. Blood flow quantification enables assessment of the severity of the fetal pathology, which in turn allows for suitable in utero patient management and planning for postnatal care. The primary challenges of applying phase contrast MRI to the human fetus include small blood vessel size, high fetal heart rate, potential MRI data corruption due to maternal respiration, unpredictable fetal movements, and lack of conventional cardiac gating methods to synchronize data acquisition. Here, we describe recent technical developments from our lab that have enabled the quantification of fetal blood flow using phase contrast MRI, including advances in accelerated imaging, motion compensation, and cardiac gating.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Movimento (Física) , Adulto , Aorta/fisiologia , Feminino , Feto/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sístole/fisiologia
13.
Clin Immunol ; 225: 108677, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating monocytes are classified into three subsets according to their CD14 and CD16 expressions. Here we investigated all three subsets in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). METHODS: Peripheral blood from 54 patients with SCCHN and 24 healthy donors (HDs) was tested for flowcytometry. Immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor was performed. SCCHN cells were co-cultured with human monocytes in vitro. RESULTS: The level of intermediate monocytes was significantly lower in SCCHN than in HDs. The expression levels of HLA-G, PD-L1, and CD51 on intermediate monocytes was evidently greater in patients with SCCHN. In vitro co-culturing of SCCHN cells with monocytes revealed a significant increase in CD51 expression levels on monocytes. The decrease in expression levels of the maturation markers CX3CR1 and CD68 was significantly correlated to poor clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The level of intermediate monocytes was decreased in cancer patients in favor of immature and expressed immunosuppressive molecules.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Circulação Sanguínea , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Antígenos HLA-G , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 75: 116-123, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987123

RESUMO

Development of a deterministic algorithm for automated detection of the Arterial Input Function (AIF) in DCE-MRI of colorectal cancer. Using a filter pipeline to determine the AIF region of interest. Comparison to algorithms from literature with mean squared error and quantitative perfusion parameter Ktrans. The AIF found by our algorithm has a lower mean squared error (0.0022 ±â€¯0.0021) in reference to the manual annotation than comparable algorithms. The error of Ktrans (21.52 ±â€¯17.2%) is lower than that of other algorithms. Our algorithm generates reproducible results and thus supports a robust and comparable perfusion analysis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Circulação Sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Automação , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2147: 163-173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840819

RESUMO

Functional vasculature is crucial for the maintenance of living tissues via the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic waste products. As a result, insufficient vascularization in thick engineered tissues will lead to cell death and necrosis due to mass transport and diffusional constraints. To circumvent these limitations, we describe the development of a microscale continuous optical bioprinting (µCOB) platform for 3D printing complex vascularized tissues with superior resolution and speed. By using the µCOB system, endothelial cells and other supportive cells can be printed directly into hydrogels with precisely controlled distribution and subsequent formation of lumen-like structures in vitro.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Bioimpressão/métodos , Vasos Sanguíneos/citologia , Regeneração Tecidual Guiada/instrumentação , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Órgãos Bioartificiais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Hidrogéis/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional
16.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53033, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1146255

RESUMO

Objetivo: desenvolver e validar um protótipo de baixo custo para reanimação cardiopulmonar em adultos, com ênfase nos fluxos arteriais e venosos para fins educacionais. Método: trata-se de estudo oriundo de trabalho de conclusão de curso, utilizando abordagem do design thinking para elaboração do protótipo, realizado em uma universidade pública federal no sul do Brasil, entre setembro e novembro de 2019. Na validação, participaram 13 indivíduos com expertise em Urgência e Emergência, sendo utilizado um instrumento com escala Likert, composto por sete itens sobre aparência e usabilidade. Resultados: o protótipo foi idealizado usando um manequim de exposição de roupas como estrutura principal. Além do tórax permitir compressões, uma rede de ductos que simulam os fluxos sanguíneos demonstrou visualmente a circulação sanguínea e a injeção de medicações intravenosas. Conclusão: o protótipo possui capacidade de potencializar o processo de ensinoaprendizagem em suporte básico e avançado de vida, especialmente quando sustentado por metodologias ativas.


Objective: to develop and validate a low-cost prototype for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults, with an emphasis on arterial and venous flows, for educational purposes. Method: this study, which originated from a course conclusion project to develop a prototype using the design-thinking approach, was conducted at a federal public university in southern Brazil between September and November 2019. Thirteen individuals with expertise in emergency care took part in validation, using a Likert scale instrument consisting of seven items on appearance and usability. Results: the prototype was designed using a clothing display mannequin as the main structure. Compressions could be performed on the chest, and a network of ducts simulated blood flows visually, demonstrating blood circulation and intravenous medication injections. Conclusion: the prototype was able to enhance teaching and learning on basic and advanced life support, especially when supported by active methodologies.


Objetivo: desarrollar y validar un prototipo de bajo costo para reanimación cardiopulmonar en adultos, con énfasis en los flujos arteriales y venosos, con fines educativos. Método: este estudio, que se originó a partir de un proyecto de conclusión de curso para desarrollar un prototipo utilizando el enfoque de pensamiento de diseño, se realizó en una universidad pública federal en el sur de Brasil entre septiembre y noviembre de 2019. En la validación participaron trece personas con experiencia en atención de emergencias , utilizando un instrumento de escala Likert que consta de siete ítems sobre apariencia y usabilidad. Resultados: el prototipo se diseñó utilizando un maniquí de exhibición de ropa como estructura principal. Se podían realizar compresiones en el pecho y una red de conductos simulaba visualmente los flujos sanguíneos, lo que demostraba la circulación sanguínea y las inyecciones de medicación intravenosa. Conclusión: el prototipo fue capaz de mejorar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje sobre soporte vital básico y avanzado, especialmente cuando fue apoyado por metodologías activas.


Assuntos
Universidades , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Circulação Sanguínea , Brasil , Simulação , Tecnologia de Baixo Custo , Pesquisa Aplicada , Aprendizagem , Manequins , Modelos Anatômicos
17.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322041

RESUMO

Mumefural (MF), a bioactive component of the processed fruit of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc, is known to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by agonists in vitro. In this study, we investigated the anti-thrombotic effects of MF using a rat model of FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with MF (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg) 30 min before 35% FeCl3 treatment to measure the time to occlusion using a laser Doppler flowmeter and to assess the weight of the blood vessels containing thrombus. MF treatment significantly improved blood flow by inhibiting occlusion and thrombus formation. MF also prevented collagen fiber damage in injured vessels and inhibited the expression of the platelet activation-related proteins P-selectin and E-selectin. Moreover, MF significantly reduced the increased inflammatory signal of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 in blood vessels. After administration, MF was detected in the plasma samples of rats with a bioavailability of 36.95%. Therefore, we suggest that MF may improve blood flow as a candidate component in dietary supplements for improving blood flow and preventing blood circulation disorders.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/análogos & derivados , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunus , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Compostos Férricos , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombose/induzido quimicamente
18.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(8): 1731-1748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308095

RESUMO

Migraine is a recurrent disease with complex pathogenesis and is difficult to cure. At present, commercially available western migraine drugs are prone to generate side effects while treating the disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) avoids side effects via treatment with the principles of "treating both symptoms and root causes", "overall adjustment", and "treatment based on syndrome differentiation". Three strategies of drug treatment were developed based on the syndromes, i.e., removing stasis, calming liver Yang, and reinforcing deficiency. Prescriptions of removing stasis mostly contain Chuanxiong rhizome (Chuan Xiong) to remove blood stasis by promoting blood circulation and improve properties of hemorheology, and Da Chuan Xiong Formula (DCXF) is a traditional prescription widely used in clinical practice. Prescriptions of calming liver Yang usually take Ramulus Uncariae cum Uncis (Gou Teng) as the main herb, which can calm the liver Yang via improving vasomotor function, and Tian Ma Gou Teng Decoction (TMGTD) is the representative drug. For reinforcing deficiency, Chinese doctors frequently utilize Angelica Sinensis (Dang Gui) and Astragali Radix (Huang Qi) to nourish blood and Qi in order to improve the weak state of human body; Dang Gui Bu Xue Decoction (DGBXD) is the commonly used prescription. These strategies not only treat the symptoms of diseases but also their root causes, and with the features of multiple targets, in multiple ways. Therefore, TCM prescriptions have obvious advantages in the treatment of chronic diseases such as migraine. In this review, we provided an overview of the pathogenesis of migraine and the function of representative TCM preparations in therapy of migraine as well as the mechanism of action according to effective researches, in order to provide reference and clue for further researches.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/tendências , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Circulação Sanguínea , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 572924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343564

RESUMO

Psoriasis vulgaris (PV) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory dermatosis mediated by aberrantly activated immune cells. The role of the innate-like T cells, particularly gammadelta T (γδT) cells and MR1-restricted T lymphocytes, is incompletely explored, mainly through animal models, or by use of surrogate lineage markers, respectively. Here, we used case-control settings, multiparameter flow cytometry, 5-OP-RU-loaded MR1-tetramers, Luminex technology and targeted qRT-PCR to dissect the cellular and transcriptional landscape of γδ and MR1-restricted blood T cells in untreated PV cases (n=21, 22 matched controls). High interpersonal differences in cell composition were observed, fueling transcriptional variability at healthy baseline. A minor subset of canonical CD4+CD8+MR1-tet+TCRVα7.2+ and CD4+CD8-MR1-tet+TCRVα7.2+ T cells was the most significantly underrepresented community in male PV individuals, whereas Vδ2+ γδ T cells expressing high levels of TCR and Vδ1-δ2- γδ T cells expressing intermediate levels of TCR were selectively enriched in affected males, partly reflecting disease severity. Our findings highlight a formerly unappreciated skewing of human circulating MAIT and γδ cytomes during PV, and reveal their compositional changes in relation to sex, CMV exposure, serum cytokine content, BMI, and inflammatory burden. Complementing numerical alterations, we finally show that flow-sorted, MAIT and γδ populations exhibit divergent transcriptional changes in mild type I psoriasis, consisting of differential bulk expression for signatures of cytotoxicity/type-1 immunity (EOMES, RUNX3, IL18R), type-3 immunity (RORC, CCR6), and T cell innateness (ZBTB16).


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Adulto , Circulação Sanguínea , Diferenciação Celular , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/genética , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22249, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335224

RESUMO

The aim was to assess the relationships between cardiovascular activity, corneal pulse characteristics, and corneal biomechanics in rabbits. Seventeen rabbits were randomly assigned to one of two anesthetic regimens to induce differences in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Experimental protocol included measuring blood flow parameters in the ophthalmic artery by color Doppler imaging, corneal biomechanical parameters using a non-contact tonometer Corvis ST, and the corneal pulse (CP) signal using a non-contact ultrasonic technique. Statistically significantly lower mean values of normalized amplitudes of higher CP harmonics and changes in eight of the twelve corneal biomechanical parameters were observed in the rabbit group with lower arterial blood pressure and higher heart rate, intraocular pressure, and resistive index. The results of partial correlations showed that the CP signal energy and amplitude of its first harmonic correlate with the resistive index, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, whereas no statistically significant correlation was found between any of the CP parameters and intraocular pressure. Our pilot study indicates, for the first time, that non-contact and continuous measuring of corneal pulse allows indirectly assessing changes in cardiovascular activity when the confounding effect of intraocular pressure is eliminated.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Córnea/fisiologia , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea , Pressão Sanguínea , Córnea/irrigação sanguínea , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Intraocular , Modelos Biológicos , Coelhos , Tonometria Ocular , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
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