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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21898, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925725

RESUMO

Abrupt alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation during direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) treatment is an uncommon but noticeable adverse event in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, which may lead to early termination of treatment. This study aims to investigate the incidence, outcome and predictors of the on-treatment ALT elevation during DAA therapy.CHC patients treated with DAA regimen in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou branch during March 2015 to March 2019 were recruited. Prospective scheduled ALT assessment at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th/24th weeks were recorded. Pretherapy host and viral factors were compared between patients with and without on-treatment ALT elevation. Multivariate logistic regression was used for independent factors for on-treatment ALT elevation.A total of 1563 CHC patients treated with grazoprevir/elbasvir, glecaprevir/pibrentasvir and sofosbuvir-based regimen were analyzed. On-treatment ALT elevation occurred in 10.9% patients while those treated with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir had the least possibility (5.4%). Only 1.4% patients had ≥grade 3 ALT elevation events. The presence of such events had no impact on sustained virological response 12 rates. Hepatitis B virus coinfection (aOR: 3.599, P < 0.001) and higher pretherapy ALT (1-5x, ≥5x upper limit of normal: aOR: 2.632, P = 0.024, aOR: 4.702, P = .011, respectively) were significant predictors for ALT elevation.On-treatment ALT elevation occurred in one-tenth CHC patients treated with preferred DAAs but had no impact on sustained virological response rate.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Adulto , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Testes de Função Hepática , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Quinoxalinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109176, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534989

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a progressively aggravated liver disease with high incidence in alcoholics. Ethanol-induced fat accumulation and the subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven inflammation bring liver from reversible steatosis, to irreversible hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and plays pivotal roles in the regulation of fatty acid homeostasis as well as the inflammation control in the liver. It has been well documented that PPARα activity and/or expression are downregulated in liver of mice exposed to ethanol, which is thought to be one of the prime contributors to ethanol-induced steatosis, hepatitis and fibrosis. This article summarizes the current evidences from in vitro and animal models for the critical roles of PPARα in the onset and progression of ALD. Importantly, it should be noted that the expression of PPARα in human liver is reported to be similar to that in mice, and PPARα expression is downregulated in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease sharing many similarities with ALD. Therefore, clinical trials investigating the expression of PPARα in the liver of ALD patients and the efficacy of strong PPARα agonists for the prevention and treatment of ALD are warranted.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/etiologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Etanol , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492075

RESUMO

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) released by damaged cells, and its purinergic receptors, comprise a crucial signaling network after injury. Purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2RX7), a major driver of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and IL-1ß processing, has been shown to play a role in liver injury in murine diet- and chemically-induced liver injury models. It is unclear, however, whether P2RX7 plays a role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and which cell type is the main target of P2RX7 pharmacological inhibition. Here, we report that P2RX7 is expressed by infiltrating monocytes and resident Kupffer cells in livers from NASH-affected individuals. Using primary isolated human cells, we demonstrate that P2RX7 expression in CD14+ monocytes and Kupffer cells primarily mediates IL-1ß release. In addition, we show that pharmacological inhibition of P2RX7 in monocytes and Kupffer cells, blocks IL-1ß release, reducing hepatocyte caspase 3/7 activity, IL-1ß-mediated CCL2 and CCL5 chemokine gene expression and secretion, and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) procollagen secretion. Consequently, in a chemically-induced nonhuman primate model of liver fibrosis, treatment with a P2RX7 inhibitor improved histological characteristics of NASH, protecting from liver inflammation and fibrosis. Taken together, these findings underscore the critical role of P2RX7 in the pathogenesis of NASH and implicate P2RX7 as a promising therapeutic target for the management of this disease.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/uso terapêutico , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/citologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Pró-Colágeno/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/química , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética
4.
Nature ; 583(7814): 127-132, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555459

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is characterized by stable cell-cycle arrest and a secretory program that modulates the tissue microenvironment1,2. Physiologically, senescence serves as a tumour-suppressive mechanism that prevents the expansion of premalignant cells3,4 and has a beneficial role in wound-healing responses5,6. Pathologically, the aberrant accumulation of senescent cells generates an inflammatory milieu that leads to chronic tissue damage and contributes to diseases such as liver and lung fibrosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes and osteoarthritis1,7. Accordingly, eliminating senescent cells from damaged tissues in mice ameliorates the symptoms of these pathologies and even promotes longevity1,2,8-10. Here we test the therapeutic concept that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells that target senescent cells can be effective senolytic agents. We identify the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)11 as a cell-surface protein that is broadly induced during senescence and show that uPAR-specific CAR T cells efficiently ablate senescent cells in vitro and in vivo. CAR T cells that target uPAR extend the survival of mice with lung adenocarcinoma that are treated with a senescence-inducing combination of drugs, and restore tissue homeostasis in mice in which liver fibrosis is induced chemically or by diet. These results establish the therapeutic potential of senolytic CAR T cells for senescence-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Longevidade/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Rejuvenescimento , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2362, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398673

RESUMO

Due to their bacterial ancestry, many components of mitochondria share structural similarities with bacteria. Release of molecular danger signals from injured cell mitochondria (mitochondria-derived damage-associated molecular patterns, mito-DAMPs) triggers a potent inflammatory response, but their role in fibrosis is unknown. Using liver fibrosis resistant/susceptible mouse strain system, we demonstrate that mito-DAMPs released from injured hepatocyte mitochondria (with mtDNA as major active component) directly activate hepatic stellate cells, the fibrogenic cell in the liver, and drive liver scarring. The release of mito-DAMPs is controlled by efferocytosis of dying hepatocytes by phagocytic resident liver macrophages and infiltrating Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. Circulating mito-DAMPs are markedly increased in human patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and significant liver fibrosis. Our study identifies specific pathway driving liver fibrosis, with important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Targeting mito-DAMP release from hepatocytes and/or modulating the phagocytic function of macrophages represents a promising antifibrotic strategy.


Assuntos
Alarminas/imunologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/imunologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alarminas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/imunologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 165-175, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387002

RESUMO

yeyachun and danshen exist as Chinese patent medicine, Xuemai Tong, and are clearly effective at alleviating liver fibrosis (LF). Previous studies have indicated that triterpenoids from yeyachun (EFT), and phenolic acids from danshen (SMP) are effective in the treatment of LF. The regulation of intestinal flora is an effective method for treating LF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a mixture of EFT and SMP on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced LF. Our results showed the mixture significantly decreased liver damage and fibrosis index, and maintained liver tissue composition, compared to the model group. Moreover, the imbalance of symptoms of intestinal flora was improved. The mixture also caused changes to metabolites of gut flora. Furthermore, the expression of CD68 in liver tissues from the treated groups was significantly decreased when compared to the model group. However, no significant difference was observed from microstructure of gut tissues and LPS concentrations in the serum between mixture treated mice and model mice. This study suggests that the mixture of EFT and SMP had a significant effect on CCl4 induced LF, and the mechanism of this action, at least in part, involved the regulation of intestinal flora and their metabolites.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Fitoterapia , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109098, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278740

RESUMO

This study evaluates the possible protective effects of gallic acid (GaA) and ferulic acid (FeA) against an experimentally induced liver fibrosis by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. Animals were divided into: Control group, GaA group (20 mg/kg/day, p.o), FeA (20 mg/kg/day, p.o), TAA group (receiving 250 mg/kg twice/week, I.P), TAA + GaA group, TAA + FeA group (received the same previous doses) and TAA+silymarin group (received silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day+TAA as mentioned above). After 6 consecutive weeks, animals were sacrificed and the assessment of liver functions, oxidative stress biomarkers and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were performed. In addition, the effect on TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling and the expression of miR-21, miR-30 and miR-200 were evaluated. The results showed that administration of GaA or FeA with TAA induced a significant reduction in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities and protected the integrity of liver tissues. Furthermore, they increased the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase and catalase while decreased malondialdehyde content to a normal level. The hepatic expression of TGF-ß1, phosphorylated and total Smad3 proteins were significantly decreased. In addition, miR-21 expression was downregulated while miR-30 and miR-200 expressions were upregulated by administration of gallic acid or ferulic acid. In conclusion, gallic and ferulic acids exhibit hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects against TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats. These effects are mediated through inhibition of TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling and differentially regulating the hepatic expression level of miR-21, miR-30 and miR-200.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gálico/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Tioacetamida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 631-635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237523

RESUMO

This paper was aimed to observe the interventional effect of Sedum sarmentosum total flavanones on hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism through the subcutaneous injection of CCl_4 in rats. Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, low-dose, medium-dose, high-dose S. sarmentosum total flavanones groups(100, 200, 400 mg·kg~(-1)) and silymarin group(200 mg·kg~(-1)). The model of liver fibrosis was established by subcutaneous injection of rats with 40% CCl_4. After the modeling, the drug groups were intragastrically administered with corresponding drugs once a day for consecutively five weeks, while the normal group and the model group were given 0.9% sodium chloride solution during the same period. After the experiment, the general conditions of rats and the pathological changes of liver tissues were observed, and the contents of serum ALT, AST, HA and LN were measured. Besides, the expressions of the protein and relevant mRNA of Smad2/3, Smad4 and α-SMA in rats were detected. Compared with model group, S. sarmentosum total flavanones could significantly increase the rats' body weight, inhibit the increase of liver and spleen index in rats of liver fibrosis, reduce the levels of ALT, AST, HA and LN, and alleviate pathological changes. Meanwhile, compared with the model group, the protein expressions of Smad2/3, Smad4 and α-SMA as well as relevant mRNA expressions in S. sarmentosum total flavanones group were obviously decreased, while Smad7 expression was markedly increased. As a result, S. sarmentosum total flavanones could significantly alleviate CCl_4-induced liver fibrosis, and its anti-hepatic fibrosis mechanism may be related to intervention with Smads pathway, so as to inhibit the activation of HSC.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Sedum/química , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Fígado , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Life Sci ; 248: 117475, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119963

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver fibrosis is a crucial pathological feature which could result in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. But until now, there is no favourable treatment for it. Apigenin (APG) is a flavonoid, which exhibits efficient anti-liver fibrosis activity, but its underlying mechanisms were rarely studied. So this work aims to estimate the potential therapeutic action of APG on liver fibrosis rats and to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats, and APG was given in the light of the regimen. Biochemical indexes, histopathological change and immunohistochemistry of liver were evaluated. The optimal effect group of APG was selected for further transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. KEY FINDINGS: APG ameliorated liver fibrosis via reducing the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Hyp, TP, TB, DB, HA, LN, PCIII and IV-C, mitigating fibrosis and inflammation of liver in H&E and Masson staining. Mechanistically, APG elevated the activity of ALB, SOD and GSH-PX with reducing the level of MDA. The results of microarray and TMT revealed that 4919 genes and 4876 proteins were differentially expressed in the APG and model groups. Besides, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses unfolded 120 overlapped proteins, enriched in 111 GO terms containing apoptotic process, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, etc. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 pathways containing HIF-1/MAPK/eNOS/VEGF/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion mostly. SIGNIFICANCE: APG can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via VEGF-mediated FAK phosphorylation through the MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, HIF-1, ROS, and eNOS pathways, which may hopefully become the anti-liver fibrosis activity of natural product.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 317: 108945, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935363

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a common pathological consequence of liver injury, which increases liver failure-related morbidity and mortality. Hence, anti-fibrotic treatment is urgently needed. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progression of liver fibrosis. Thus, targeting ROS may be an effective strategy for liver fibrosis treatment. In this study, we investigated four benzoquinones derivatives, including 5-isopropyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TQ), 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (tBu-Q) 2,5-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone (Dime-Q) and p-benzoquinone (Ph-Q), as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activity and anti-fibrotic effects on activated hepatic stellate cells and TAA-induced mice. Electrochemical analysis showed that all compounds possessed antioxidant property. The result was first confirmed by in vitro experiments, which revealed potential anti-fibrotic activity of all four compounds at the cellular level. Benzoquinone derivatives act as ROS-scavenging molecules, which modulated the TLR4-CD14 signaling pathway to inhibit the expression of procaspase-1 and IL-1ß in cells, induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway by upregulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and by activating caspase-3, as well as inhibited the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins FLIP and XIAP in activated LX-2 cells. In addition, a TAA (Thioacetamide)-induced mouse model was used to further validate the results. Treatment with benzoquinone derivatives significantly decreased the levels of liver injury markers and lipid peroxidation caused by excessive ROS, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, treatment with benzoquinone derivatives significantly inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of liver fibrosis markers, such as collagen I, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and TIMP-1. In summary, these results indicate that benzoquinone derivatives may act as potential therapeutic drugs against liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113870, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918140

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DLM) is an important member of the pyrethroid pesticide family, and its widespread use has led to serious environmental and health problems. Exposure to DLM causes pathological changes in the liver of animals and humans and can lead to liver fibrosis. However, the mechanism of DLM-induced liver fibrosis remains unclear. Therefore, to address its potential molecular mechanisms, we used both in vivo and in vitro methods. Quails were treated in vivo by intragastric administration of different concentrations of DLM (0, 15, 30, or 45 mg kg-1), and the chicken liver cancer cell line LMH was treated in vitro with various doses of DLM (0, 50, 200, or 800 µg mL-1). We found that DLM treatment in vivo induced liver fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner through the promotion of oxidative stress, activation of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Treatment of LMH cells with different concentrations of DLM similarly induced oxidative stress and also decreased cell viability. Collectively, our study demonstrates that DLM-induced liver fibrosis in quails occurs via activation of the TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , Codorniz , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Galinhas , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110202, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945511

RESUMO

The environmental pollution caused by cigarette smoke (CS) seriously endangers people's health. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea. In this study, rats were exposed to CS for 90 days. Kidney function was evaluated by detecting the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Liver function was evaluated by detecting the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase. The renal and hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and proinflammatory cytokines. Organ fibrosis was evaluated by observing collagen deposition via masson staining, by examining the hydroxyproline level, by measuring the mRNA levels of fibrosis-associated genes collagen (Col)-1A1 and Col-3A1, as well as by assessing the activity of profibrotic TGF-ß1 pathway. Additionally, renal and hepatic epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were evaluated. It was observed that EGCG ameliorated the renal and hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation, EMT, as well as inhibited the activation of TGF-ß1 signaling pathway induced by CS. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate CS-induced renal and hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Catequina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/fisiologia
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1390-1398, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922209

RESUMO

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is widely used to induce hepatic fibrosis. Therapeutic agents alleviate hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. To understand the direct effects of CCl4 on STAT3 expression in the liver, the present study incubated cultured hepatocytes expressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) with CCl4. Rats exposed to CCl4 for 8 weeks exhibited hepatic fibrosis, which was confirmed through the assessment of plasma biomarkers. Isolated liver samples were used to determine the protein levels of CTGF and STAT3 using western blotting. In addition, STAT3 expression was silenced in α mouse liver 12 (AML­12) cells using small interfering RNA transfection. In addition, a pharmacological inhibitor, stattic, was used to inhibit STAT3 expression. The incubation of AML­12 cells with CCl4 induced a dose­dependent increase in CTGF expression and STAT3 activation. Notably, silymarin, an extract from milk thistle, inhibited these changes in AML­12 cells and the antioxidant tiron produced similar effects. Silencing of STAT3 reduced the CTGF expression promoted by CCl4 in the hepatocytes. Additionally, similar to tiron, stattic inhibited CTGF expression induced by CCl4. In conclusion, CCl4 may activate STAT3 through oxidative stress to promote CTGF expression, which is one of the main factors contributing to the risk of hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Hepatócitos/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Am J Pathol ; 190(3): 614-629, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972159

RESUMO

Bacterial flagellin, recognized by cell surface of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5, is a potent activator of many types of cells, leading to the activation of innate or adaptive immunity, which are pivotal in regulating fibrotic process. However, the exact role of TLR5 signaling in hepatic fibrogenesis remains unclear, and this study aims to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Flagellin was injected to hepatotoxin- and cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis murine models. Flagellin-induced TLR5 activation significantly decreased the severity of liver fibrosis. Interestingly, the expression levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and interferon (IFN)ß markedly increased in fibrotic livers on flagellin treatment. Consistently, in vivo activation of TLR5 signaling markedly increased IFNß and IL1RN expression in the livers. Notably, flagellin injection significantly exacerbated the severity of liver fibrosis in IFN-α/ß receptor 1 (IFNAR1) knockout mice. Furthermore, hepatic expression of IL1RN in the fibrotic livers of IFNAR1 knockout mice was significantly lower than those of wild-type mice. In support of these findings, flagellin-mediated IL1RN production is not sufficient to alleviate the severity of hepatic fibroinflammatory responses in IFNAR1-deficient milieu. Finally, hepatic stellate cells treated with IL1RN had significantly decreased cellular activation and its associated fibrogenic responses. Collectively, manipulation of TLR5 signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Colestase/complicações , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Flagelina/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Inata , Interferon beta/genética , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética
15.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280460

RESUMO

To date, there are very few effective drugs for liver fibrosis treatment; therefore, it is urgent to develop novel therapeutic targets and approaches. In the present research, we sought to study the protective effect of sweroside contained in Lonicera japonica or blue honeysuckle berries in a mouse model of liver fibrosis and investigate the underlying mechanism. The mouse model of liver fibrosis in was induced by intraperitoneal injections of 10% CCl4 for 6 weeks (three times/week). At the beginning of the fourth week, sweroside was intragastrically administered once a day and at the end of the treatment, biochemical and histological studies were investigated. The expression of FXR, miR-29a and the downstream targets were analyzed as well. Moreover, the effect of sweroside on cell proliferation was observed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (LX-2), along with using the siRNA for FXR and miR-29a inhibitor to investigate the underpinning of the anti-fibrotic effect of sweroside. Sweroside successfully protected the liver fibrosis in CCl4-induced mouse model, accompanied by miR-29a induction. Furthermore, sweroside also induced miR-29a in HSCs, resulting in the inhibition of COL1 and TIMP1. Our data also showed that either silencing miR-29a or knockdown of FXR in LX-2 cell abolished the inhibition of COL1 and TIMP1 as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation by sweroside treatment. In conclusion, sweroside exerted its anti-fibrotic effect in vivo and in vitro by up-regulation of miR-29a and repression of COL1 and TIMP1, which was at least in part through FXR.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Life Sci ; 241: 116826, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479678

RESUMO

AIMS: Hepatitis is a kind of liver dysfunction and usually refers to a variety of pathogenic factors. Circular RNA (circRNA) participates in diverse diseases. This study aimed to explore the roles and regulatory mechanisms of the circRNA-4099 in L02 cell line. MAIN METHODS: Cells were induced with H2O2 dilutions and transfected with circRNA-4099 overproduction vectoer and the specific siRNA (si-circRNA-4099), as well as microRNA-706 (miR-706) mimic or the corresponding controls. Cell viability was detected with the CCK-8. The apoptotic rate was determined by the annexin v-FITC/PI with flow cytometer. The expression of circRNA-4099 or miR-706 was quantified depending on qRT-PCR. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was examined through ROS assay. The relative proteins were individually determined via western blot. The relationship between the circRNA-4099 and miR-706 was detected through bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. KEY FINDINGS: H2O2 induced inhibition of viability and promotion of apoptosis, ROS production and cell fibrosis as well as keap1/Nrf2 and p38MAPK cascades on L02 cell line. circRNA-4099 was stimulated by H2O2. Plentiful circRNA-4099 augmented H2O2-resulted damage by inhibiting miR-706. miR-706 mimic partly abolished the influence of circRNA-4099 on L02 cells. Meanwhile, circRNA-4099 silence exerted opposite effect on these elements above. SIGNIFICANCE: circRNA-4099 aggravated H2O2-induced injury by inhibiting miR-706 through triggering keap1/Nrf2 and p38MAPK in the L02 cells.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 240: 117096, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760097

RESUMO

Aim Liver fibrosis represents a massive global health burden with limited therapeutic options. Thus, the need for curative options is evident. Thus, this study aimed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of honokiol in Concanavalin A (Con A) induced immunological model of liver fibrosis as well the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either Con A (20 mg/kg, IV) and/or honokiol (10 mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices were as well as histopathological evaluation was done. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed by measuring alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and collagen fibers deposition by Masson's trichrome stain and hydroxyproline content. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, the effect of honokiol on oxidative stress, inflammatory markers as well as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)/SMAD and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Honokiol effectively reversed the hepatotoxicity indices elevations and abnormal histopathological changes induced by Con A. Besides, honokiol attenuated Con A-induced liver fibrosis by down-regulation of hydroxyproline levels, α-SMA expression together with a marked decrease in collagen fibers deposition. Mechanistically Con A induced oxidative stress, provocation of inflammatory responses and activation of TGF-ß/SMAD/MAPK pathways. Contrariwise, honokiol co-treatment significantly restored antioxidant defence mechanisms, down-regulated inflammatory cascades and inhibited TGF-ß/SMAD/MAPK signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: The results provide an evidence for the promising antifibrotic effect of honokiol that could be partially due to suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory processes as well as inhibition of TGF-ß/SMAD/MAPK signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Concanavalina A , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Cell Prolif ; 53(1): e12731, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-4 (TIM-4) is selectively expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and modulates various immune responses. However, the role of TIM-4 expressed by Kupffer cells (KCs) in liver fibrosis remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore whether and how TIM-4 expressed by KCs is involved in liver fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice chronic liver fibrosis models were established and divided into the olive-induced control group, CCL4-induced control group, olive-induced TIM-4 interference group and CCL4-induced TIM-4 interference group. Different techniques were used to monitor the fibrotic effects of TIM-4, including histopathological assays, Western blotting, ELISA and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, mice liver transplant models were established to determine the fibrotic effects of TIM-4 on fibrosis after liver transplantation (LT). RESULTS: We found that the induction of liver fibrosis by CCL4 was associated with TIM-4 expression in KCs. TIM-4 interference essentially contributed to liver fibrosis resolution. KCs from the TIM-4 interference group had decreased levels of pro-fibrotic markers, reduced TGF-ß1 secretion and inhibited hepatic stellate cell (HSC) differentiation into myofibroblast-like cells. In addition, we used GdCl3 to verify that KCs are the primary source of TGF-ß1 during fibrosis progression. Moreover, KCs from CCL4-induced mice showed increased ROS production, mitophagy activation and TGF-ß1 secretion. However, TIM-4 interference in the KCs inhibited Akt1-mediated ROS production, resulting in the suppression of PINK1, Parkin and LC3-II/I activation and the reduction of TGF-ß1 secretion during liver fibrosis. Additionally, TIM-4 interference potentially attenuated development of fibrosis after LT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed the underlying mechanisms of TIM-4 interference in KCs to mitigate liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos
19.
Life Sci ; 241: 117121, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794772

RESUMO

AIMS: This study addressed whether endogenous hepatic stem/progenitor (HSP) cells survival were related to the injured signals during liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver cirrhosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administering diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining were used to identify infiltrative cells and connective tissues, respectively. The inflammatory activity grade and fibrotic stage, represented as G and S respectively, and evaluated by the International Simplified Grading and Staging System (ISGSS). Endogenous HSP cells (Ng2+HSP) were identified by immunofluorescence staining with an anti-neuro/glial antigen 2 (Ng2) antibody. All data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and GraphPad Prism 6 and Student's t-test was performed to determine statistical significance. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. KEY FINDINGS: All mice administered oral DEN developed liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). During the fibrosis period, observed a positive correlation of survival of endogenous HSP (Ng2+HSP) cells with inflammatory activity. As the disease developed into the cirrhotic stage, when lost correlation of endogenous HSP cells with inflammatory activity, revealed a dramatically reduced survival rate of endogenous HSP (Ng2+HSP) cells. SIGNIFICANCE: The DEN-induced liver cirrhosis could develop into three time zone of fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer, and the histological patterns in the model are similar to those described in humans. Dramatic survival and less apoptosis of endogenous HSP (Ng2+HSP) cells was within fibrotic state, where inflammation signals is strong, indicating such time zone (1-6 weeks) during liver cirrhosis is important for mobilizing endogenous HSP-based regeneration.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Inflamação/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/terapia , Fígado/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Fígado/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/etiologia , Regeneração Hepática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
20.
Chemosphere ; 242: 124959, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669990

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to arsenic can cause liver injury and fibrosis. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays an essential role in the process of liver fibrosis. We found that NaAsO2 caused liver damage and fibrosis in vivo, accompanied by excessive collagen deposition and HSCs activation. In addition, NaAsO2 upregulated autophagy flux, elevated the level of cytoplasmic cathepsin B (CTSB), and activated the NOD-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in a subtle way. Consistent with these findings in vivo, we demonstrated that NaAsO2-induced activation of HSCs depended on CTSB-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HSC-t6 cells and rats primary HSCs. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy decreased the cytoplasmic CTSB and alleviated the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby attenuating the NaAsO2-induced HSCs activation. In summary, these results indicated that NaAsO2 induced HSCs activation via autophagic-CTSB-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. These findings may provide a novel insight into the potential mechanism of NaAsO2-induced liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Autofagia , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Arsênico/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos
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