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1.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 865-872, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has historically been the most common cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States. With improved HCV treatment, cirrhosis secondary to other etiologies is increasing. Given this changing epidemiology, our aim was to determine the impact of cirrhosis etiology on overall survival (OS) in patients with HCC. METHODS: All patients with cirrhosis and primary HCC from the US Safety Net Collaborative (2012-2014) database were included. Patients were grouped into "safety net" and "academic" based on where they received their care. The primary outcome was the OS. RESULTS: 1479 patients were included. The average age was 60 years and 78% (n = 1156) were male. 56% (n = 649) received care at academic and 44% (n = 649) at safety net hospitals. The median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) was 10 (IQR 8-16). Median OS was 23 months. Etiology of cirrhosis was viral hepatitis 56% (n = 612), alcohol abuse 14% (n = 152), alcohol and hepatitis 23% (n = 251), and other 7% (n = 85). Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (alcohol alone or with hepatitis) were younger (59 vs 62 years), more likely to be male (86% vs 75%), treated at a safety net facility (45% vs 35%), uninsured (17% vs 13%), and had a higher MELD (median 12 vs 10) (all P < .003). They were less likely to have been screened for HCC within 1 year of diagnosis (20% vs 29%) and to receive treatment (69% vs 81%), and more likely to present with stage IV disease (21% vs 15%) (all P < .001). Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis had decreased OS (5-year OS 24% vs 40%, P < .001), which persisted in a subset analysis of both academic and safety net populations. CONCLUSION: Although not significant on MVA, alcohol-related cirrhosis is associated with all factors that correlate with decreased survival from HCC. Efforts must focus on this vulnerable patient population to optimize screening, treatment, and outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21061, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664122

RESUMO

Sarcopenia has a negative impact on the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). We investigated the significance of skeletal muscle volume and its changes in LC patients taking levocarnitine (L-carnitine).We retrospectively analyzed 51 LC patients taking L-carnitine from December 2012 to March 2019. Skeletal mass index was calculated as the left-right sum of the major × minor axis of psoas muscle at the third lumbar vertebra, divided by height squared (psoas muscle index [PMI]). Patients were classified into 2 groups (low and normal PMI) depending on PMI < 6.0 and < 3.4 cm/m for men and women, respectively. Changes in PMI per month during L-carnitine administration (ΔPMI/m) were calculated, and we classified the patients into 2 groups (severe and mild muscle atrophy) depending on ΔPMI/m below the lower quartile. We assessed overall survival (OS).At the start of L-carnitine administration, there were no significant differences in OS between groups with low and normal PMI. Multivariate analysis showed that ΔPMI/m (hazard ratio [HR], 0.007; P = .005) and L-carnitine administration period (HR, 0.956; P = .021) were significantly associated with OS. Patients with severe muscle atrophy had a significantly lower OS than those with mild muscle atrophy. There was the positive correlation relationship between ΔPMI/m and L-carnitine administration period.Among LC patients taking L-carnitine, progressive muscle volume loss was a predictor of poor prognosis. L-carnitine administration for longer may be able to prevent muscle volume loss and lead to a better prognosis in LC patients.


Assuntos
Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amônia/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Músculos Psoas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The management of patients with refractory ascites (RA) is challenging, particularly at higher age. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an established treatment for RA, but safety data in elderly patients are rare. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of TIPS in elderly patients with RA. METHODS: Overall, 160 consecutive cirrhotic patients receiving a TIPS for RA at Hannover Medical School between 2012 and 2018 were considered for this retrospective analysis. Periinterventional complications such as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) as well as survival were compared between patients <65 and ≥65 years. Propensity score matching was conducted to match elderly TIPS patients and patients treated with paracentesis. RESULTS: A number of 53 out of the 160 patients were ≥65 years (33%). Periinterventional course in those ≥65 years appeared to be slightly more complicated than in <65 years as reflected by a significantly longer hospital stay (p = 0.030) and more ACLF-episodes (21% vs. 9%; p = 0.044). 28-day mortality was similar between both groups (p = 0.350), whereas survival of the younger patients was significantly higher at 90 days (p = 0.029) and numerically higher at 1 year (p = 0.171). In the multivariate analysis age ≥65 years remained an independent predictor for 90-day mortality (HR: 2.58; p = 0.028), while it was not associated with 28-day and 1-year survival. Importantly, after matching for potential confounders 1-year survival was similar in elderly patients if treated with TIPS or paracentesis (p = 0.419). CONCLUSIONS: TIPS placement in elderly patients with RA appears to be slightly more complicated compared to younger individuals, but overall feasible and at least not inferior to paracentesis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Cirrose Hepática , Paracentese , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(9): 1505-1512, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371628

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with cirrhosis, differences between acute kidney injury (AKI) at the time of hospital admission (community-acquired) and AKI occurring during hospitalization (hospital-acquired) have not been explored. We aimed to compare patients with hospital-acquired AKI (H-AKI) and community-acquired AKI (C-AKI) in a large, prospective study. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis were enrolled (N = 519) and were followed for 90 days after discharge for mortality. The primary outcome was mortality within 90 days; secondary outcomes were the development of de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD)/progression of CKD after 90 days. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regressions were used to determine the independent association of either AKI for primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: H-AKI occurred in 10%, and C-AKI occurred in 25%. In multivariable Cox models adjusting for significant confounders, only patients with C-AKI had a higher risk for mortality adjusting for model for end-stage liver disease-Na: (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-2.57, P = 0.033) and adjusting for acute on chronic liver failure: (hazard ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.63-3.65, P < 0.001). In univariable analysis, community-acquired-AKI, but not hospital-acquired-AKI, was associated with de novo CKD/progression of CKD (odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.14, P = 0.027), but in multivariable analysis, C-AKI was not independently associated with de novo CKD/progression of CKD. However, when AKI was dichotomized by stage, C-AKI stage 3 was independently associated with de novo CKD/progression of CKD (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI 1.11-20.57, P = 0.035). DISCUSSION: Compared with H-AKI, C-AKI is associated with increased mortality and de novo CKD/progression of CKD in patients with cirrhosis. Patients with C-AKI may benefit from frequent monitoring after discharge to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 43(1): 9-15, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193673

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: El consumo de alcohol es factor de riesgo para muchos problemas de salud. Se estudia la mortalidad por causas directamente atribuibles al consumo de alcohol por sexo y nivel de renta y se analizan las tendencias en el periodo 1993-2017 en Navarra. MÉTODO: Se seleccionaron mediante los códigos CIE-9 y CIE-10 los fallecimientos por trastornos mentales inducidos por alcohol, dependencia y abuso, cardiomiopatía alcohólica, cirrosis alcohólica y otras enfermedades alcohólicas del hígado, y envenenamiento accidental por alcohol. Se utilizaron las categorías de renta asociadas al copago farmacéutico como indicador de la posición socioeconómica. Finalmente, se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas a la población estándar europea mediante el método directo y se utilizó regresión joinpoint para evaluar la tendencia temporal. RESULTADOS: Se registraron un total de 441 fallecimientos en la población de 35-79 años, siendo la cirrosis hepática la causa más frecuente (77,5%). En 1993-1997 y 2013-2017, las tasas de mortalidad en los hombres eran diez y cinco veces más altas que en las mujeres, respectivamente. Las tasas de mortalidad fueron cinco veces más elevadas en hombres con rentas menores de 18.000 €. No se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos en la tendencia de las tasas de mortalidad en el periodo estudiado. CONCLUSIONES: La mortalidad por causas totalmente atribuibles alcohol no ha disminuido en Navarra en las últimas tres décadas, siendo superior en hombres y en la población con menores rentas económicas


BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for many health problems. Mortality from causes of death wholly attributable to alcohol consumption by sex and income level was studied and trends in the 1993-2017 period were analyzed in Navarre (Spain). METHODS: Deaths due to alcohol-induced mental disorders, dependence and abuse, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, alcoholic cirrhosis and other alcoholic liver diseases, and accidental alcohol poisoning were selected through codes ICD-9 and ICD-10. Annual income that determines copayment level was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status. Mortality rates adjusted to the European standard population were calculated using the direct method and joinpoint regression was used to evaluate the temporal trend. RESULTS: A total of 441 deaths were recorded in the population aged 35-79 years. It highlights liver cirrhosis as the most common cause (77,5%). Death rates in men were ten and five times higher than in women in 1993-1997 and 2013-2017 periods, respectively. Compared to men with incomes above 18,000 €, mortality rates were five times higher in the population with incomes below 18,000 €. No statistically significant changes were observed in the trend of mortality rates throughout the period studied. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality by causes of death wholly attributable to alcohol has not decreased in Navarre in the last three decades, it is higher in men than in women and in the population with lower incomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Causas de Morte , Fatores de Risco , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade
6.
J Hepatol ; 73(2): 441-445, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298769

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shattered the meticulously developed processes by which we delivered quality care for patients with cirrhosis. Care has been transformed by the crisis, but enduring lessons have been learned. In this article, we review how COVID-19 will impact cirrhosis care. We describe how this impact unfolds over 3 waves; i) an intense period with prioritized high-acuity care with delayed elective procedures and routine care during physical distancing, ii) a challenging 'return to normal' following the end of physical distancing, with increased emergent decompensations, morbidity, and systems of care overwhelmed by the backlog of deferred care, and iii) a protracted period of suboptimal outcomes characterized by missed diagnoses, progressive disease and loss to follow-up. We outline the concrete steps required to preserve the quality of care provided to patients with cirrhosis. This includes an intensification of the preventative care provided to patients with compensated cirrhosis, proactive chronic disease management, robust telehealth programs, and a reorganization of care delivery to provide a full service of care with flexible clinical staffing. Managing the pandemic of a serious chronic disease in the midst of a global infectious pandemic is challenging. It is incumbent upon the entire healthcare establishment to be strong enough to weather the storm. Change is needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Telemedicina/métodos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19575, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195968

RESUMO

Liver cirrhotic predisposes patients to coagulopathy and bleeding. Little is known about outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in cirrhotic patients.Data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2001 to 2013 were retrieved for patients admitted with cirrhosis and AMI. We excluded patients with missing information, <20 years old, previous AMI, previous coronary intervention, and liver transplant. Patients were separated into cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: recurrent MI, revascularization, ischemic stroke, and heart failure), and liver outcomes (hepatic encephalopathy, ascites tapping, spontaneous peritonitis, and esophageal varices bleeding).A total of 3217 cirrhotic patients and 6434 non-cirrhotic patients were analyzed, with a mean follow up of 2.8 ±â€Š3.3 years. In cirrhotic patients with AMI, subsequent coronary and cerebrovascular events were lower in comparison to non-cirrhotic patients, with higher all-cause mortality observed from adverse liver related outcomes and bleeding. There were significantly lower cumulative incidence of both recurrent MI and MACCE in cirrhotic patients with AMI compared with non-cirrhotic patients with AMI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.82, confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.94, P = .006 and HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.92, P < .001, respectively). There was significantly higher cumulative incidence of liver related outcome in cirrhotic patients with AMI compared with non-cirrhotic patients with AMI (HR 2.27, 95% CI 2.06-2.51, P < .001). And there was significantly higher all-cause mortality in cirrhotic patients with AMI compared with non-cirrhotic patients with AMI (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.23-1.38, P < .001).In cirrhotic cohort with AMI, a decreased in coronary and cerebrovascular events were observed. However, these patients also had higher all-cause mortality due to adverse liver outcomes and bleeding.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Taiwan/epidemiologia
8.
Transplantation ; 104(7): e188-e198, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an early biomarker of renal dysfunction scarcely studied in patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT). Sarcopenia is frequent in cirrhosis and impacts prognosis. We aimed to assess the capability of these factors to predict survival and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients awaiting LT, as well as early post-LT outcomes. METHODS: Single-center study that included all cirrhotic patients listed for LT between 2014 and 2017. Competing risk regression analysis was used to evaluate the capability of liver-, kidney-, and global status-related variables at waitlist (WL) inclusion to predict WL mortality and ACLF. Variables associated with post-LT outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-eighty patients were included. Fifty-six (31%) patients developed ACLF, 54 (30%) underwent LT and 35 (19%) died. In the adjusted competing risk regression analysis, CysC ≥ 1.5 mg/L, sarcopenia and MELD-Na were independent predictors of ACLF in the WL, while CysC ≥ 1.5 mg/L, sarcopenia and albumin were independent predictors of mortality. The cumulative incidence of ACLF and mortality at 12 months were 50% and 34% in patients with sarcopenia and CysC ≥1.5 mg/L. An estimated glomerular filtration rate by chronic kidney disease (CKD)-EPI-CysC-creatinine <60 mL/min/1.73 m at WL inclusion was an independent predictor of the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the first month post-LT. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CysC and sarcopenia are strongly associated with the ACLF and mortality in WL. The assessment of both risk factors may improve the prognostic evaluation and allow identifying a group of patients with a very high risk of poor outcomes while awaiting LT.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Cistatina C/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Sarcopenia/embriologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/sangue , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prognostic role of gender in patients with liver cirrhosis is not fully understood. Our primary aim was to assess how gender affects cumulative incidence and risk of death without liver transplantation (LT) in cirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices. Secondary aims were to assess the relationship between gender and cause specific death, risk of variceal bleeding and incidence rates of gastroesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: All new patients with gastroesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis at Oslo University Hospital between 2006 and May 2016 were identified. Clinical data were retrieved retrospectively from hospital files. Causes of death were classified according to a specified protocol in cases of in-hospital-death, otherwise by data from the Norwegian Death Registry. Competing risk analyses were used to calculate cumulative incidences and risks of i) all-cause death, ii) cause-specific death and iii) variceal bleeding or re-bleeding. RESULTS: Cumulative one- and five years incidence of death without LT in 266 included patients were 28% and 51%, respectively. In univariate analysis, risk of death was positively associated with age, Child Pugh class, alcoholic liver disease and presentation with variceal bleeding, and negatively associated with female sex. In a multivariate model, risk of death without LT was associated with female sex (SHR 0.59 [0.40-0.86]), age (SHR 1.05 [1.04-1.07] per year), Child Pugh class B (SHR 1.54 [1.03-2.32]) and Child Pugh class C (SHR 4.29 [2.57-7.17]). Variceal bleeding caused 27% of deaths. Adjusting for age and Child Pugh score, a trend towards reduced risk of death due to variceal bleeding was seen in women (SHR 0.53; [0.26-1.06]). High alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of first variceal bleeding, both at univariate analysis (SHR 7.73 [1.71-34.9]) and multivariate analysis (SHR 13.9 [2.51-77.0]). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced mortality due to variceal bleeding may contribute to improved survival without LT in cirrhotic women with gastroesophageal varices.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
10.
JAMA ; 323(12): 1175-1183, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207804

RESUMO

Importance: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the inflammatory subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is associated with disease progression, development of cirrhosis, and need for liver transplant. Despite its importance, NASH is underrecognized in clinical practice. Observations: NASH affects an estimated 3% to 6% of the US population and the prevalence is increasing. NASH is strongly associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Although a number of noninvasive tests and scoring systems exist to characterize NAFLD and NASH, liver biopsy is the only accepted method for diagnosis of NASH. Currently, no NASH-specific therapies are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Lifestyle modification is the mainstay of treatment, including dietary changes and exercise, with the primary goal being weight loss. Substantial improvement in histologic outcomes, including fibrosis, is directly correlated with increasing weight loss. In some cases, bariatric surgery may be indicated to achieve and maintain the necessary degree of weight loss required for therapeutic effect. An estimated 20% of patients with NASH will develop cirrhosis, and NASH is predicted to become the leading indication for liver transplants in the US. The mortality rate among patients with NASH is substantially higher than the general population or patients without this inflammatory subtype of NAFLD, with annual all-cause mortality rate of 25.56 per 1000 person-years and a liver-specific mortality rate of 11.77 per 1000 person-years. Conclusions and Relevance: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affects 3% to 6% of the US population, is more prevalent in patients with metabolic disease and obesity, progresses to cirrhosis in approximately 20% of cases, and is associated with increased rates of liver-specific and overall mortality. Early identification and targeted treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are needed to improve patient outcomes, including directing patients toward intensive lifestyle modification to promote weight loss and referral for bariatric surgery as indicated for management of obesity and metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1611-1625.e12, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biopsy-confirmed liver fibrosis is a prognostic factor for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review to quantify the prognostic value of fibrosis stage in patients with NAFLD and the subgroup of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to assess the evidence that change in fibrosis stage is a surrogate endpoint. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and trial registry databases through August 2018 for prospective or retrospective cohort studies of liver-related clinical events and outcomes in adults with NAFLD or NASH. We collected data on mortality (all cause and liver related) and morbidity (cirrhosis, liver cancer, and all liver-related events) by stage of fibrosis, determined by biopsy, for patients with NAFLD or NASH. Using fibrosis stage 0 as a reference population, we calculated fibrosis stage-specific relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values for mortality and morbidities. We performed fixed-effect and random-effect model meta-analyses. Metaregression was used to examine associations among study design (prospective vs retrospective cohort), overall risk of bias (medium or high), and mean duration of follow-up (in years). RESULTS: Our meta-analysis included 13 studies, comprising 4428 patients with NAFLD; 2875 of these were reported to have NASH. Compared with no fibrosis (stage 0), unadjusted risk increased with increasing stage of fibrosis (stage 0 vs 4): all-cause mortality RR, 3.42 (95% CI, 2.63-4.46); liver-related mortality RR, 11.13 (95% CI, 4.15-29.84); liver transplant RR, 5.42 (95% CI, 1.05-27.89); and liver-related events RR, 12.78 (95% CI, 6.85-23.85). The magnitude of RR did not differ significantly after adjustment for confounders, including age or sex in the subgroup of NAFLD patients with NASH. Three studies examined the effects of increasing fibrosis on quality of life had inconsistent findings. CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found biopsy-confirmed fibrosis to be associated with risk of mortality and liver-related morbidity in patients with NAFLD, with and without adjustment for confounding factors and in patients with reported NASH. Further studies are needed to assess the association between fibrosis stage and patient quality of life and establish that change in liver fibrosis stage is a valid endpoint for use in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Biópsia , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(4): 575-583, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with cirrhosis experience a worsened quality of life; this may be quantified by the use of health-related QoL (HRQoL) constructs, such as the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) and EuroQoL Group-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). In this multicenter prospective study, we aimed to evaluate HRQoL as a predictor of unplanned hospital admission/early mortality, identify HRQoL domains most affected in cirrhosis, and identify predictors of low HRQoL in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent association of HRQoL with primary outcome and identify predictors of low HRQoL. HRQoL was also compared with population norms. RESULTS: In this cohort of 402 patients with cirrhosis, mean model for end-stage liver disease was 12.5 (4.9). More than 50% of the cohort had low HRQoL, considerably lower than population norms. HRQoL (measured by either CLDQ or EQ-VAS) was independently associated with the primary outcome of short-term unplanned hospitalization/mortality. Every 1-point increase in the CLDQ and every 10-point increase in the EQ-VAS reduced the risk of reaching this outcome by 30% and 13%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had lower HRQoL scores than population norms across all domains of the CLDQ. Younger age, female sex, current smoker, lower serum albumin, frailty, and ascites were independently associated with low CLDQ. DISCUSSION: Patients with cirrhosis experience poor HRQoL. HRQoL is independently associated with increased mortality/unplanned hospitalizations in patients with cirrhosis and could be an easy-to-use prognostic screen that patients could complete in the waiting room before their appointment.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Alberta , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(2): 199-218, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rifaximin has been shown to reduce the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and other complications in patients with cirrhosis. However, few studies have investigated the effect of rifaximin in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. AIM: To evaluate the effects of rifaximin in the treatment of refractory ascites and to preliminarily explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: A total of 75 cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites were enrolled in the study (50 in a rifaximin and 25 in a control group). Patients in the rifaximin group were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and treatment with or without other antibiotics (19 patients treated with rifaximin and 31 patients treated with rifaximin plus intravenous antibiotics). All patients received conventional treatment for refractory ascites, while patients in the rifaximin group received oral rifaximin-α 200 mg four times daily for at least 2 wk. The ascites grade, fasting weight, liver and kidney function, and inflammatory factors in the plasma were evaluated before and after treatment. In addition, the gut microbiota was determined by metagenomics sequencing to analyse the changes in the characteristics of the gut microbiota before and after rifaximin treatment. The patients were followed for 6 mo. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the fasting weight of patients significantly decreased and the ascites significantly subsided after treatment with rifaximin (P = 0.011 and 0.009, respectively). The 6-mo survival rate of patients in the rifaximin group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P = 0.048). The concentration of interferon-inducible protein 10 decreased significantly in the rifaximin group compared with that in the control group (P = 0.024). The abundance of Roseburia, Haemophilus, and Prevotella was significantly reduced after rifaximin treatment, while the abundance of Lachnospiraceae_noname, Subdoligranulum, and Dorea decreased and the abundance of Coprobacillus increased after treatment with rifaximin plus intravenous antibiotics. The gene expression of virulence factors was significantly reduced after treatment in both subgroups treated with rifaximin or rifaximin plus intravenous antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Rifaximin mitigates ascites and improves survival of cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. A possible mechanism is that rifaximin regulates the structure and function of intestinal bacteria, thus improving the systemic inflammatory state.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ascite/imunologia , Ascite/microbiologia , Ascite/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/imunologia , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/mortalidade , Rifaximina/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1745-1761, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) regulate inflammation and control bacterial infections in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We aimed to characterize PMs and associate their activation with outcomes of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). METHODS: We isolated PMs from ascites samples of 66 patients with decompensated cirrhosis (19 with SBP) and analyzed them by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, functional analysis, and RNA microarrays. We used ascites samples of a separate cohort of 111 patients with decompensated cirrhosis (67 with SBP) and quantified the soluble form of the mannose receptor (CD206) and tumor necrosis factor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (test cohort). We performed logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with 90-day mortality. We validated our findings using data from 71 patients with cirrhosis and SBP. Data from 14 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease but without cirrhosis were included as controls. RESULTS: We used surface levels of CD206 to identify subsets of large PMs (LPM) and small PMs (SPM), which differed in granularity and maturation markers, in ascites samples from patients with cirrhosis. LPMs vs SPMs from patients with cirrhosis had different transcriptomes; we identified more than 4000 genes that were differentially regulated in LPMs vs SPMs, including those that regulate the cycle, metabolism, self-renewal, and immune cell signaling. LPMs had an inflammatory phenotype, were less susceptible to tolerance induction, and released more tumor necrosis factor than SPMs. LPMs from patients with cirrhosis produced more inflammatory cytokines than LPMs from controls. Activation of PMs by Toll-like receptor agonists and live bacteria altered levels of CD206 on the surface of LPMs and release of soluble CD206. Analysis of serial ascites fluid from patients with SBP revealed loss of LPMs in the early phase of SBP, but levels increased after treatment. In the test and validation cohorts, patients with SBP and higher concentrations of soluble CD206 in ascites fluid (>0.53 mg/L) were less likely to survive for 90 days than those with lower levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface level of CD206 can be used to identify mature, resident, inflammatory PMs in patients with cirrhosis. Soluble CD206 is released from activated LPMs and increased concentrations in patients with cirrhosis and SBP indicate reduced odds of surviving for 90 days.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Peritonite/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/citologia , Líquido Ascítico/imunologia , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Peritoneal , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/mortalidade , Peritonite/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Imunológicos/análise , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(3): 245-266, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases (collectively referred to as cirrhosis in this paper) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, although the burden and underlying causes differ across locations and demographic groups. We report on results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 on the burden of cirrhosis and its trends since 1990, by cause, sex, and age, for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We used data from vital registrations, vital registration samples, and verbal autopsies to estimate mortality. We modelled prevalence of total, compensated, and decompensated cirrhosis on the basis of hospital and claims data. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost due to premature death and years lived with disability. Estimates are presented as numbers and age-standardised or age-specific rates per 100 000 population, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). All estimates are presented for five causes of cirrhosis: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and other causes. We compared mortality, prevalence, and DALY estimates with those expected according to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) as a proxy for the development status of regions and countries. FINDINGS: In 2017, cirrhosis caused more than 1·32 million (95% UI 1·27-1·45) deaths (440 000 [416 000-518 000; 33·3%] in females and 883 000 [838 000-967 000; 66·7%] in males) globally, compared with less than 899 000 (829 000-948 000) deaths in 1990. Deaths due to cirrhosis constituted 2·4% (2·3-2·6) of total deaths globally in 2017 compared with 1·9% (1·8-2·0) in 1990. Despite an increase in the number of deaths, the age-standardised death rate decreased from 21·0 (19·2-22·3) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 16·5 (15·8-18·1) per 100 000 population in 2017. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest age-standardised death rate among GBD super-regions for all years of the study period (32·2 [25·8-38·6] deaths per 100 000 population in 2017), and the high-income super-region had the lowest (10·1 [9·8-10·5] deaths per 100 000 population in 2017). The age-standardised death rate decreased or remained constant from 1990 to 2017 in all GBD regions except eastern Europe and central Asia, where the age-standardised death rate increased, primarily due to increases in alcohol-related liver disease prevalence. At the national level, the age-standardised death rate of cirrhosis was lowest in Singapore in 2017 (3·7 [3·3-4·0] per 100 000 in 2017) and highest in Egypt in all years since 1990 (103·3 [64·4-133·4] per 100 000 in 2017). There were 10·6 million (10·3-10·9) prevalent cases of decompensated cirrhosis and 112 million (107-119) prevalent cases of compensated cirrhosis globally in 2017. There was a significant increase in age-standardised prevalence rate of decompensated cirrhosis between 1990 and 2017. Cirrhosis caused by NASH had a steady age-standardised death rate throughout the study period, whereas the other four causes showed declines in age-standardised death rate. The age-standardised prevalence of compensated and decompensated cirrhosis due to NASH increased more than for any other cause of cirrhosis (by 33·2% for compensated cirrhosis and 54·8% for decompensated cirrhosis) over the study period. From 1990 to 2017, the number of prevalent cases more than doubled for compensated cirrhosis due to NASH and more than tripled for decompensated cirrhosis due to NASH. In 2017, age-standardised death and DALY rates were lower among countries and territories with higher SDI. INTERPRETATION: Cirrhosis imposes a substantial health burden on many countries and this burden has increased at the global level since 1990, partly due to population growth and ageing. Although the age-standardised death and DALY rates of cirrhosis decreased from 1990 to 2017, numbers of deaths and DALYs and the proportion of all global deaths due to cirrhosis increased. Despite the availability of effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B and C, they were still the main causes of cirrhosis burden worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The impact of hepatitis B and C is expected to be attenuated and overtaken by that of NASH in the near future. Cost-effective interventions are required to continue the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, and to achieve early diagnosis and prevention of cirrhosis due to alcohol-related liver disease and NASH. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Diagnóstico Precoce , Egito/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/complicações , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(2): 145-153, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and antibiotic strategies of culture-positive spontaneous ascitic infection (SAI) in patients with acute decompensated cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 432 acute decompensated cirrhotic patients with culture-positive SAI from 11 teaching hospitals in China (January 2012 to May 2018). A Cox proportional hazards model analysis was conducted to identify independent predictors of 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 455 strains were isolated from 432 ascitic culture samples. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), gram-positive bacteria (GPB), and fungi caused 52.3, 45.5, and 2.2% of all SAI episodes, respectively. Episodes were classified as nosocomial (41.2%), healthcare-related (34.7%), and community-acquired (24.1%). Escherichia coli (13.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.4%) were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing isolates. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 1.1%. Ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, and amikacin were recommended as first-line antibiotics agents for non-MDR GNB infections; piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems for MDR GNB in community-acquired and healthcare-related or nosocomial infections, respectively; and vancomycin or linezolid for GPB infections, regardless of drug-resistance status. Multivariate analysis revealed days of hospital stay before SAI, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, white blood cell count, alanine aminotransferase, serum creatinine concentration, total bilirubin, and international normalized ratio as key independent predictors of 28-day mortality. CONCLUSION: MDR pathogens and antibiotic strategies were identified in patients with acute decompensated cirrhosis with culture-positive SAI, which may help optimize therapy and improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Ascite/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes
18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 4, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence cautions against the use of non-selective beta-blockers (NSBB) in patients with refractory ascites or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis while other data suggests a survival benefit in patients with advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to describe the use and impact of NSBB in patients with cirrhosis referred for liver transplantation. METHODS: A single-center cohort of patients with cirrhosis, who were referred and evaluated for liver transplantation between January and June 2012 were studied for baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes. Patients were grouped according to the use of NSBB at initial evaluation, with the endpoint of 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Sixty-five (38%) of 170 consecutive patients evaluated for liver transplantation were taking NSBB. Patients taking NSBB had higher MELD and Child Pugh score. NSBB use was associated with lower 90-day mortality (6% vs. 15%) with a risk adjusted hazard ratio of 0.27 (95%CI .09-0.88, p = .03). Patients taking NSBB developed acute kidney injury (AKI) within 90 days more frequently than patients not taking NSBB (22% vs 11%), p = 0.048). However, this was related to increased stage 1 AKI episodes, all of which resolved. Twelve (27%) of 45 patients with > 90 day follow up discontinued NSBB, most commonly for hypotension and AKI, had increased subsequent MELD and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: NSBB use in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplant evaluation is associated with better short-term survival. Nevertheless, ongoing tolerance of NSBB in this population is dynamic and may select a subset of patients with better hemodynamic reserve.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Ascite/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Peritonite/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Ascite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/microbiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Am J Surg ; 219(4): 717-725, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of antiviral therapy on long-term survival outcomes in patients with small HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) after liver resection is still controversial, as the impact can be overshadowed by tumor-related factors. This study investigated this impact on recurrence and survival in patients with HCC of less than 3 cm. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to further determine the impact of antiviral treatment on prognosis of patients with HCC after liver resection, to verify whether patients with cirrhosis still benefited from antiviral treatment, to study the impact of antiviral treatment on post-operative HCC recurrence, and to determine whether patients with a low preoperative HBV-DNA viral load should receive antiviral therapy. METHODS: The clinical data on patients who underwent curative liver resection for histopathologically confirmed small HCC (≤3 cm in diameter) were analyzed to determine factors which were related with HCC recurrence and survival. The disease-free and overall survival outcomes were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of long-term survival. RESULTS: Of the 795 patients in this study, patients with high preoperative HBV-DNA levels had significantly worse DFS and OS outcomes at 1-, 3- and 5- year after liver resection when compared with those with low HBV-DNA levels (86.1%, 60.8%, 46.6% vs 90.5%, 71.3%, 51.4%; and 98.5%, 89.3%, 75.2% vs 98.8%, 91.5%, 84%, respectively). Patients who received antiviral therapy had significantly better DFS and OS outcomes at 1-, 3- and 5- year after liver resection when compared with those without (91.6%, 69.5%, 55% vs 80.2%, 56%, 44.2%; and 99.6%, 93.5%, 87% vs 96.1%, 80.5%, 61.3%, respectively). Antiviral therapy significantly improved the OS but not DFS outcomes in patients with low HBV-DNA levels. The corresponding 1-, 3- and 5- year DFS and OS outcomes were 92.6%, 73%, 59.1% vs 87.1%, 68.5%, 57.9%; and 99.5%, 95.1%, 91.1% vs 97.6%, 85.5%, 72.4%, respectively. Antiviral treatment significantly prolonged DFS and OS in patients with cirrhosis. The corresponding 1-, 3- and 5- year DFS and OS were 90.2%, 66%, 49% vs 73.9%, 46.6%, 32.8%; and 100%, 93.6%, 85% vs 93.8%, 73.3%, 52.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy improved the prognosis of small HBV-related HCC of less than 3 cm. The survival benefit was also detected in patients with cirrhosis. Antiviral therapy should be considered a routine post-operative therapy for patients with HBV-related HCC.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Viral/análise , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
20.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(4): 323-331, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863425

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis with negative effects on patients' lives. The prevalence of clinical HE is estimated to be between 30-45 %. Regardless of its clinical and prognostic relevance HE is considered to be underdiagnosed. METHODS: Beyond a systematic analysis of mortality of HE, we investigated the economic impact and reimbursement situation for HE in patients with liver cirrhosis in Germany. For the retrospective analysis, anonymized data (2011-2015) concerning expenses and diagnoses (§â€Š21-4 KHEntgG) were obtained from 74 participating hospitals of the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) Project of the German Gastroenterological Association (DGVS). Furthermore, results were compared with case data from all German hospitals provided by the German Federal Authority on Statistics (Statistische Bundesamt (Destatis), Wiesbaden). RESULTS: In participating hospitals 59 093 cases with liver cirrhosis were identified of which 14.6 % were coded as having HE. Hospital mortality was threefold increased compared to cirrhosis-patients without HE (20.9 versus 7.5 %). Cases with cirrhosis as well as the proportion with HE increased over time. Compared to all patients with cirrhosis, reimbursement for HE patients produced a deficit (of up to 634 € for HE grade 4). DISCUSSION: Mortality is threefold increased in patients with cirrhosis when an additional HE is diagnosed. Hospitals participating in the DGVS-DRG-project coded 2 % more HE cases among their cirrhosis cases than the rest of hospitals either because of a selection bias for greater disease severity or because of better coding quality. At present, reimbursement for HE patients on the basis of F-DRG-system produced a deficit.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Encefalopatia Hepática/economia , Cirrose Hepática/economia , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Alemanha , Encefalopatia Hepática/mortalidade , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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