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1.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 36(2): 308-345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525306

RESUMO

From the advent of the use of anaesthesia during surgery through the Second World War, confusion and competition over who should administer the technology - doctors or nurses - dominated gendered discussions of professional boundaries. Using information about practice in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France in this period, we find vastly different outcomes for nurse-administered anaesthesia. Differences in perceptions regarding the gendered nature of this technology and its related level of prestige largely determined who could practice it. When administering anaesthesia carried low prestige and was viewed as non-technical, it fell under the purview of women's work in medicine, that is, nursing. When the same technology gained prestige and became perceived as a technical, medical skill, doctors associated it with their masculine professional identity and worked to exclude nurses from administering anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia/história , Anestesiologia/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/história , Cirurgiões/história , França , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/história , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , II Guerra Mundial
2.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 14-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540649

RESUMO

The recognition of vascular surgery as an independent surgical specialty is inevitable, but the pathway to full autonomy remains uncertain. Vascular surgery emerged from general surgery in the mid-1950s with the advent of synthetic grafts and microvascular techniques. By the early 1980s, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved fellowships were established in most large academic medical centers. The American Board of Surgery recognized this additional specialty training by awarding vascular graduates a Certificate of Special Qualifications distinguishing them from general surgeons. The emergence of endovascular surgery radically changed the face of vascular surgery from a general surgery subspecialty to a unique surgical specialty with a growing array of minimally invasive tools. With the establishment of a primary Certificate in Vascular Surgery and the subsequent development of integrated residencies, vascular surgery moved ever closer to recognition as an independent surgical specialty. Despite the remarkable progress that has been observed over the past 50 years, there is a desire in the vascular community for formal recognition of the unique body of knowledge and surgical skills that serve as the foundation of contemporary vascular care.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Autonomia Profissional , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/história , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/história , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/tendências , Cirurgiões/história , Cirurgiões/normas , Cirurgiões/tendências , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/tendências
3.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 5-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540658

RESUMO

The American Board of Surgery (ABS) has more than 80 years of both direct and indirect involvement in US surgical education, with its primary role being certification of graduates of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved surgical training programs. The ABS's impact on education has been at multiple levels, including the development of the content and administration of qualifying and certifying examinations; original education research based on the Board's unique data sets; and surgical training and education-related initiatives in partnership with multiple regulatory bodies and surgical societies. Within these efforts, by incremental steps, the specialty of vascular surgery attained recognition as a primary specialty of the ABS, and the Vascular Surgery Board of the ABS was established 20 years ago, in 1998. The 2 decades that followed have witnessed significant transformations in the evaluation and treatment of vascular disease, the paradigms for training vascular and endovascular surgeons, and the Vascular Surgery Board has partnered with stakeholder organizations to continually ensure quality education for the evolving vascular surgical workforce. Looking forward, while surgical education remains outside of its primary mission, the ABS and Vascular Surgery Board will continue as key stakeholders and leaders in the complex network of professional societies and training institutions that will guide the evolution of vascular surgery training.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/história , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/história , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Cirurgiões/história , Cirurgiões/normas , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas
5.
Bull Hist Med ; 93(1): 27-54, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956235

RESUMO

This article analyzes the career of Giovanni Battista Cortesi (1552-1643)-the son of a poor tailor who started his career as barber and steam bath attendant and became university professor at Bologna and Messina-and places it in the context of the profession of surgery in early modern Italy. The article investigates how a surgeon had to establish close relationships with universities, civic authorities, wealthy upper-class patients, hospitals as sites of clinical education and acquisition of manual skills, the printing industry and the book market, and students. Moreover, the article explores the fluidity of professional and cultural boundaries between learned and empirical knowledge from the perspective of a graduate surgeon who was not supposed to be. Finally, the article aims at describing the figure of the "graduate surgeon," typical of the Italian medical landscape.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Classe Social , Cirurgiões/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Itália
7.
Technol Cult ; 60(1): 34-64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905874

RESUMO

This article uses a locksmith's design for a mechanical hand in the surgeon Ambroise Paré's widely influential Oeuvres (1575) to examine the transmission of technical knowledge in early modern Europe. The article interprets Paré's chapter on artificial limbs through the lens of material culture, and then uses its findings to explore the movement of craft knowledge through print. A comparison between Paré's woodcut image of the prosthesis and an extant sixteenth-century mechanical hand from Kassel, Germany grounds Paré's woodcut in ongoing practices of making prosthetic technology. Analyzing the transmission of Paré's Oeuvres in light of the creative environment of artificial limb design and construction transforms our understanding of the potential utility of the printed image for different viewers. The dissemination of this woodcut design reveals a form of technical knowledge transfer that was endlessly adaptable to the experiences of artisans from different craft groups.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais/história , Mãos , Alemanha , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Conhecimento , Cirurgiões/história
12.
Arthroscopy ; 35(2): 684-690, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612774

RESUMO

Paul Segond was a French surgeon who was in practice at the end of the 19th century. A prodigious anatomist, scientist, and surgeon in his day, he is best known for his treatise on the origin of traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee following injury. In this detailed description of the anatomy of the anterolateral aspect of the knee, he describes "a pearly, resistant, fibrous band that is placed under extreme tension when the knee is forcefully rotated internally," which has more recently been described as the anterolateral ligament or a capsular thickening contributing to the anterolateral complex of the knee. His work goes on to speculate about the role of this structure in controlling internal rotation of the knee. The original study was published in French in 1879. Although this work is widely cited, one must question whether many of the citing authors have actually had the opportunity to read it. As such, we sought to unlock this treasure by translating the original study into English and exposing this illuminating, forward-thinking and historical tour de force to the broader orthopaedic community.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos Articulares/anatomia & histologia , Ortopedia/história , Cirurgiões/história , França , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Traduções
13.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 64(2): 144-149, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606620

RESUMO

Many surgical instruments are named after their inventors, acclaimed surgeons of the past, because of their discoveries and their contributions in the field of surgical techniques. However, these daily reminders of History of Surgery are often forgotten by the modern practitioners. We propose to review, through a selection of instruments, short biographies of these precursors. This first original article will focus on the inventors of modern forceps: Debakey, Adson, Kocher, Péan, Tuffier and Halsted.


Assuntos
Epônimos , Cirurgiões/história , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Paris , Suíça , Estados Unidos
14.
J Med Biogr ; 27(1): 37-45, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566233

RESUMO

The London surgeon and anaesthetist, Joseph Thomas Clover (1825-1882), and the Birmingham surgeon, Joseph Sampson Gamgee (1828-1886), are well known figures in the history of medicine. Draft letters among the surviving papers of Joseph Clover have been transcribed and reveal new information about their friendship, their financial affairs and Clover's motivation to become a full-time anaesthetist. They have also led to the discovery that Gamgee was briefly imprisoned in Warwick County Goal for debt in 1859.


Assuntos
Correspondência como Assunto/história , Cirurgiões/história , Cirurgiões/legislação & jurisprudência , Anestesistas , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX , Londres
15.
J Med Biogr ; 27(2): 115-122, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972422

RESUMO

Thomas Keith, an Edinburgh surgeon, was an early and successful exponent of the operation of ovariotomy (ovarian cystectomy). He published detailed accounts of all of the patients on whom he carried out this procedure and his published success rate proved to be amongst the best in the world. The leading American surgeon J Marion Sims, who visited Keith to determine the reasons for this success, concluded that Keith's achievement resulted from meticulous attention to detail and his emphasis on the cleanliness of the instruments and the operating field, before this was generally adopted. His friendship with Joseph Lister led to his early use of Listerian antisepsis, which further improved these results. Yet, his medical colleagues and his obituarists seemed unaware of his other significant pioneering contribution, as a gifted photographer and pioneer of the waxed paper technique of photographic processing. That same attention to detail resulted in photographs of the highest quality whose significance has since been appreciated by photographic historians.


Assuntos
Cistos Ovarianos/história , Fotografação/história , Cirurgiões/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Cistos Ovarianos/cirurgia , Fotografação/métodos , Escócia
16.
J Med Biogr ; 27(3): 149-158, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972440

RESUMO

Henry Wade graduated in the Edinburgh Medical School in 1898 before spending two years with the British army during the Anglo-Boer war. Returning to this country, he joined Francis Caird, surgeon to the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. Appointed Conservator of the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Wade met young William Ford Robertson. In a study of experimental cancer they concluded that some neoplasms were caused by bacteria. Wade became increasingly recognised as an authority in urology. His growing practice was interrupted by the First World War. Already a member of the Royal Army Medical Corps, he served for five years in the Middle East, in Gallipoli and then with the army in an approach to Jerusalem. Resuming civilian life, Wade combined an extensive urological practice with membership of the Council of the RCSEd. He became President in 1935. Married in 1924, his wife died four years later after an operation by a colleague, David Wilkie. Director of Surgery to the Scottish Emergency Medical Service when the Second World War broke out, Wade was made a Knight Bachelor in 1946. He died in 1955.


Assuntos
Medicina Militar/história , Museus/história , Cirurgiões/história , Urologistas/história , Urologia/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Escócia , África do Sul , Veteranos/história
17.
Surg Innov ; 26(1): 129-133, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472922

RESUMO

Pierre Franco (1505-1578) was a brilliant surgeon of the Renaissance, a contemporary of Ambroise Paré. He made an impact on the history of surgery with his innovative approaches in the treatment of hernia, lithotomy, and the use of the suprapubic incision. The purpose of this study is to present a detailed account of his work, innovations, and achievements as well as the impact he made on the surgery of the Renaissance.


Assuntos
Herniorrafia/história , Cirurgiões/história , Urolitíase/história , Urolitíase/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/instrumentação , Herniorrafia/métodos , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Rev. esp. investig. quir ; 22(2): 85-88, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184391

RESUMO

A lo largo de la historia se puede considerar que no han sido muchas las mujeres que han podido ejercer como cirujanas en las diferentes civilizaciones y cuando esto ha sido posible en muchos casos han tenido que hacerlo disfrazadas de nombre. El caso de Elena de Céspedes se puede considerar peculiar en primer lugar por su situación biológica de posible hemafroditismo, a lo que se añade su vida venturera ejerciendo múltiples oficios incluido el de soldado hasta llegar a la de médico cirujana que ejerce como varón. El descubrimiento de esta situación la hace que sea acusada de diferentes delitos y al final juzgada por la Inquisición siendo condenada. Resalta en su personalidad su reconocida inteligencia que la hace progresar desde el punto de vista social desde su inicio como esclava hasta lograr acreditarse como cirujano y cirujano sangrador logrando ejercer el oficio con solvencia y maestría. Se la considera referencia como mujer cirujano en la historia de la medicina


Throughout history it can be considered that there have not been many women who have been able to practice as surgeons in diffe-rent civilizations and when this has been possible in many cases they have had to do it disguised as a name. The case of Elena de Céspedes can be considered peculiar in the first place due to her biological situation of possible hemaphroditism, to which is added her life as a trainee exercising multiple trades, including that of a soldier until she becomes a surgeon practicing as a male. The discovery of this situation causes her to be accused of different crimes and in the end judged by the Inquisition to be condemned. Her personality stands out in her well-known intelligence, which makes her progress from the social point of view from her beginning as a slave to becoming accredited as a bleeding surgeon and surgeon, achieving the job with solvency and mastery. It is considered a reference as a female surgeon in the history of medicine


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Cirurgiões/história , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/história , Espanha
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