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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6017-6028, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: R-spondins control WNT signaling and RSPO1 and LGR6, two of its receptors, are uniquely expressed at high levels in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The aim of this study was to assess the interrelations between the expression of the RSPOs and LGRs in HGSOC and in the ovarian surface (OSE) and fallopian tube surface epithelium (FTSE) from which HGSOC arises. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of TCGA (HGSOC), CCLE (ovary), and other publicly accessed RNA-Seq data using UC San Diego Computational Cancer Analysis Library (CCAL) to perform differential expression analysis, association studies, and gene set inspection using the single-sample GSEA method. Additionally, we employed multiple publicly available databases including StringDB, Human Protein Atlas, and cBioPortal to aid the investigation. RESULTS: Among normal tissues, expression of RSPO1, LGR5 and LGR6 was highest in the fallopian tube. The relative levels of expression of the RSPOs and LGRs in the OSE and FTSE matched those in HGSOC. RSPO1 and LGR6 were highly co-expressed in all three tissues. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that expression of RSPO1 was strongly linked to the enrichment of three separate WNT-driven GO pathways. Analysis of genes that impacted overall survival identified two other immediately adjacent genes that control WNT signaling, KREMEN1 and ZNRF3 whose expression and copy number were coordinately linked. CONCLUSION: RSPO1 and LGR6 are coordinately expressed in HGSOC and the two normal tissues from which this tumor arises, and their expression is linked to WNT signaling pathways known the control cell fate and proliferation.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ovário/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Trombospondinas/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877461

RESUMO

Somatic copy number alterations (CNA) are common in endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC). We used the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas Pan Cancer dataset (TCGA Pan Can) to explore the impact of somatic CNA and gene expression levels (mRNA) of cancer-related genes in ESC. Results were correlated with clinico-pathologic parameters such as age of onset, disease stage, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (n = 108). 1,449 genes with recurrent somatic CNA were identified, observed in 10% or more tumor samples. Somatic CNA and mRNA expression levels were highly correlated (r> = 0.6) for 383 genes. Among these, 45 genes were classified in the Tier 1 category of Cancer Genome Census-Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer. Eighteen of 45 Tier 1 genes had highly correlated somatic CNA and mRNA expression levels including ARNT, PIK3CA, TBLXR1, ASXL1, EIF4A2, HOOK3, IKBKB, KAT6A, TCEA1, KAT6B, ERBB2, BRD4, KEAP1, PRKACA, DNM2, SMARCA4, AKT2, SS18L1. Our results are in agreement with previously reported somatic CNA for ERBB2, BRD4 and PIK3C in ESC. In addition, AKT2 (p = 0.002) and KAT6A (p = 0.015) amplifications were more frequent in tumor samples from younger patients (<60), and CEBPA (p = 0.028) and MYC (p = 0.023) amplifications were more common with advanced (stage III and IV) disease stage. Patients with tumors carrying KAT6A and MYC amplifications had shorter PFS and OS. The hazard ratio (HR) of KAT6A was 2.82 [95 CI 1.12-7.07] for PFS and 3.87 [95 CI 1.28-11.68] for OS. The HR of MYC was 2.25 [95 CI 1.05-4.81] and 2.62[95 CI 1.07-6.41] for PFS and OS, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Helicases , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Mutação , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Oncogenes , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Transcrição , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 622-635, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946763

RESUMO

Quantifying the functional effects of complex disease risk variants can provide insights into mechanisms underlying disease biology. Genome-wide association studies have identified 39 regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The vast majority of these variants lie in the non-coding genome, where they likely function through interaction with gene regulatory elements. In this study we first estimated the heritability explained by known common low penetrance risk alleles for EOC. The narrow sense heritability (hg2) of EOC overall and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOCs) were estimated to be 5%-6%. Partitioned SNP heritability across broad functional categories indicated a significant contribution of regulatory elements to EOC heritability. We collated epigenomic profiling data for 77 cell and tissue types from Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE, and from H3K27Ac ChIP-seq data generated in 26 ovarian cancer and precursor-related cell and tissue types. We identified significant enrichment of risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in active regulatory elements marked by H3K27Ac in HGSOCs. To further investigate how risk SNPs in active regulatory elements influence predisposition to ovarian cancer, we used motifbreakR to predict the disruption of transcription factor binding sites. We identified 469 candidate causal risk variants in H3K27Ac peaks that are predicted to significantly break transcription factor (TF) motifs. The most frequently broken motif was REST (p value = 0.0028), which has been reported as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. Overall, these systematic functional annotations with epigenomic data improve interpretation of EOC risk variants and shed light on likely cells of origin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Histonas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Alelos , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639993

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) remains the deadliest form of epithelial ovarian cancer and despite major efforts little improvement in overall survival has been achieved. Identification of recurring "driver" genetic lesions has the potential to enable design of novel therapies for cancer. Here, we report on a study to find such new therapeutic targets for HGSOC using exome-capture sequencing approach targeting all kinase genes in 127 patient samples. Consistent with previous reports, the most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (97% mutation frequency) followed by BRCA1 (10% mutation frequency). The average mutation frequency of the kinase genes mutated from our panel was 1.5%. Intriguingly, after BRCA1, JAK3 was the most frequently mutated gene (4% mutation frequency). We tested the transforming properties of JAK3 mutants using the Ba/F3 cell-based in vitro functional assay and identified a novel gain-of-function mutation in the kinase domain of JAK3 (p.T1022I). Importantly, p.T1022I JAK3 mutants displayed higher sensitivity to the JAK3-selective inhibitor Tofacitinib compared to controls. For independent validation, we re-sequenced the entire JAK3 coding sequence using tagged amplicon sequencing (TAm-Seq) in 463 HGSOCs resulting in an overall somatic mutation frequency of 1%. TAm-Seq screening of CDK12 in the same population revealed a 7% mutation frequency. Our data confirms that the frequency of mutations in kinase genes in HGSOC is low and provides accurate estimates for the frequency of JAK3 and CDK12 mutations in a large well characterized cohort. Although p.T1022I JAK3 mutations are rare, our functional validation shows that if detected they should be considered as potentially actionable for therapy. The observation of CDK12 mutations in 7% of HGSOC cases provides a strong rationale for routine somatic testing, although more functional and clinical characterization is required to understand which nonsynonymous mutations alterations are associated with homologous recombination deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497036

RESUMO

Metastasis is responsible for 90% of human cancer mortality, yet it remains a challenge to model human cancer metastasis in vivo. Here we describe mouse models of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and deadliest human ovarian cancer type. Mice genetically engineered to harbor Dicer1 and Pten inactivation and mutant p53 robustly replicate the peritoneal metastases of human HGSC with complete penetrance. Arising from the fallopian tube, tumors spread to the ovary and metastasize throughout the pelvic and peritoneal cavities, invariably inducing hemorrhagic ascites. Widespread and abundant peritoneal metastases ultimately cause mouse deaths (100%). Besides the phenotypic and histopathological similarities, mouse HGSCs also display marked chromosomal instability, impaired DNA repair, and chemosensitivity. Faithfully recapitulating the clinical metastases as well as molecular and genomic features of human HGSC, this murine model will be valuable for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of metastatic ovarian cancer and also for evaluating potential therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/secundário , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Reparo do DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Cultura Primária de Células , Ribonuclease III/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
6.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 582-593, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483290

RESUMO

In metastatic cancer, the degree of heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its molecular underpinnings remain largely unstudied. To characterize the tumor-immune interface at baseline and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), we performed immunogenomic analysis of treatment-naive and paired samples from before and after treatment with chemotherapy. In treatment-naive HGSOC, we found that immune-cell-excluded and inflammatory microenvironments coexist within the same individuals and within the same tumor sites, indicating ubiquitous variability in immune cell infiltration. Analysis of TME cell composition, DNA copy number, mutations and gene expression showed that immune cell exclusion was associated with amplification of Myc target genes and increased expression of canonical Wnt signaling in treatment-naive HGSOC. Following NACT, increased natural killer (NK) cell infiltration and oligoclonal expansion of T cells were detected. We demonstrate that the tumor-immune microenvironment of advanced HGSOC is intrinsically heterogeneous and that chemotherapy induces local immune activation, suggesting that chemotherapy can potentiate the immunogenicity of immune-excluded HGSOC tumors.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Cisplatino/imunologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/imunologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes myc , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2641, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457376

RESUMO

Acquired resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is a major challenge for the clinical management of high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Here, we demonstrate CX-5461, the first-in-class inhibitor of RNA polymerase I transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA), induces replication stress and activates the DNA damage response. CX-5461 co-operates with PARPi in exacerbating replication stress and enhances therapeutic efficacy against homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair-deficient HGSOC-patient-derived xenograft (PDX) in vivo. We demonstrate CX-5461 has a different sensitivity spectrum to PARPi involving MRE11-dependent degradation of replication forks. Importantly, CX-5461 exhibits in vivo single agent efficacy in a HGSOC-PDX with reduced sensitivity to PARPi by overcoming replication fork protection. Further, we identify CX-5461-sensitivity gene expression signatures in primary and relapsed HGSOC. We propose CX-5461 is a promising therapy in combination with PARPi in HR-deficient HGSOC and also as a single agent for the treatment of relapsed disease.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Dano ao DNA , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase I/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptoma
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6688, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317693

RESUMO

Peritoneal spread indicates poor prognosis in patients with serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) and is generally treated by surgical cytoreduction and chemotherapy. Novel treatment options are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Clinically relevant cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are of critical importance to therapeutic regimen evaluation. Here, a PDX model was established, by orthotopic engraftment after subperitoneal tumor slurry injection of low-grade SOC, resulting in an early-stage transplantable peritoneal metastasis (PM)-PDX model. Histology confirmed the micropapillary and cribriform growth pattern with intraluminal tumor budding and positivity for PAX8 and WT1. PM-PDX dissociated cells show an epithelial morphotype with a 42 h doubling time and 40% colony forming efficiency, they are low sensitive to platinum derivatives and highly sensitive to paclitaxel (IC50: 6.3 ± 2.2 nM, mean ± SEM). The patient primary tumor, PM, PM-PDX and derived cell line all show a KRAS c.35 G > T (p.(Gly12Val)) mutation and show sensitivity to the MEK inhibitor trametinib in vitro (IC50: 7.2 ± 0.5 nM, mean ± SEM) and in the PM mouse model. These preclinical models closely reflecting patient tumors are useful to further elucidate LGSOC disease progression, therapy response and resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos SCID , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1640, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242007

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) has a significant hereditary component, approximately half of which cannot be explained by known genes. To discover genes, we analyse germline exome sequencing data from 516 BRCA1/2-negative women with HGSOC, focusing on genes enriched with rare, protein-coding loss-of-function (LoF) variants. Overall, there is a significant enrichment of rare protein-coding LoF variants in the cases (p < 0.0001, chi-squared test). Only thirty-four (6.6%) have a pathogenic variant in a known or proposed predisposition gene. Few genes have LoF mutations in more than four individuals and the majority are detected in one individual only. Forty-three highly-ranked genes are identified with three or more LoF variants that are enriched by three-fold or more compared to GnomAD. These genes represent diverse functional pathways with relatively few involved in DNA repair, suggesting that much of the remaining heritability is explained by previously under-explored genes and pathways.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Exoma , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Ovarian Res ; 13(1): 38, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is the second most common ovarian cancer after serous carcinoma in Southeast Asia. OCCC has a more unfavourable clinical outcome due to a poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy compared with serous carcinoma. The identification of biomarkers related to the prognosis of OCCC is critically important for an improved understanding of the biology that drives OCCC progression and leads to poor outcomes. To detect differences in gene expression profiles between OCCC and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), twelve patients with OCCC and twelve patients with HGSOC were recruited in whom the pathological diagnosis was confirmed on surgically resected specimens. RESULTS: Compared with HGSOC, OCCC has 609 differentially expression genes, and 199 are significantly different (P < 0.05). These genes are involved in the cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, the PI3K pathway and so on. There were 164 differentially expressed genes in the PI3K pathway. There were 35 overexpressed genes in OCCC, while there were 12 overexpressed genes in HGSOC. Among these differentially expressed genes, we found that the MET gene and the CCNE1 gene were overexpressed in OCCC and associated with a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there are many differentially expressed genes in OCCC and HGSOC, which indicates that the two kinds of tumours differ greatly in tumourigenesis and provides a theoretical basis for targeted therapy in the future. Further studies need to be performed to clarify the association of the differentially expressed genes with the unfavourable prognosis in OCCC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma
12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 204, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors targeting BRCA1/2 mutations are available for treating patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These treatments may be more appropriately directed to patients who might respond if the tumor tissue is additionally tested by next-generation sequencing with a multi-gene panel and Sanger sequencing of a blood sample. In this study, we compared the results obtained using the next-generation sequencing multi-gene panel to a known germline BRCA1/2 mutational state determined by conventional Sanger sequencing to evaluate the landscape of somatic mutations in high-grade serous ovarian cancer tumors. METHODS: Cancer tissue from 98 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer who underwent Sanger sequencing for germline BRCA1/2 analysis were consecutively analyzed for somatic mutations using a next-generation sequencing 170-gene panel. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (24.5%) showed overall BRCA1/2 mutations. Seven patients (7.1%) contained only somatic BRCA1/2 mutations with wild-type germline BRCA1/2, indicating acquired mutation of BRCA1/2. Three patients (3.1%) showed reversion of germline BRCA1 mutations. Among the 14 patients (14.3%) with both germline and somatic mutations in BRCA1/2, two patients showed different variations of BRCA1/2 mutations. The next-generation sequencing panel test for somatic mutation detected other pathogenic variations including RAD51D and ARID1A, which are possible targets of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. Compared to conventional Sanger sequencing alone, next-generation sequencing-based tissue analysis increased the number of candidates for poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor treatment from 17.3% (17/98) to 26.5% (26/98). CONCLUSIONS: Somatic mutation analysis by next-generation sequencing, in addition to germline BRCA1/2 mutation analysis, should become the standard of care for managing women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer to widen the indication of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 197, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 germline mutation related cancers are candidates for new immune therapeutic interventions. This study was a hypothesis generating exploration of genomic data collected at diagnosis for 19 patients. The prominent tumor mutation burden (TMB) in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in this cohort was not correlated with high global immune activity in their microenvironments. More information is needed about the relationship between genomic instability, phenotypes and immune microenvironments of these hereditary tumors in order to find appropriate markers of immune activity and the most effective anticancer immune strategies. METHODS: Mining and statistical analyses of the original DNA and RNA sequencing data and The Cancer Genome Atlas data were performed. To interpret the data, we have used published literature and web available resources such as Gene Ontology, The Cancer immunome Atlas and the Cancer Research Institute iAtlas. RESULTS: We found that BRCA1/2 germline related breast and ovarian cancers do not represent a unique phenotypic identity, but they express a range of phenotypes similar to sporadic cancers. All breast and ovarian BRCA1/2 related tumors are characterized by high homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) and low aneuploidy. Interestingly, all sporadic high grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) and most of the subtypes of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) also express a high degree of HRD. CONCLUSIONS: TMB is not associated with the magnitude of the immune response in hereditary BRCA1/2 related breast and ovarian cancers or in sporadic TNBC and sporadic HGSOC. Hereditary tumors express phenotypes as heterogenous as sporadic tumors with various degree of "BRCAness" and various characteristics of the immune microenvironments. The subtyping criteria developed for sporadic tumors can be applied for the classification of hereditary tumors and possibly also characterization of their immune microenvironment. A high HRD score may be a good candidate biomarker for response to platinum, and potentially PARP-inhibition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Phase I Study of the Oral PI3kinase Inhibitor BKM120 or BYL719 and the Oral PARP Inhibitor Olaparib in Patients With Recurrent TNBC or HGSOC (NCT01623349), first posted on June 20, 2012. The design and the outcome of the clinical trial is not in the scope of this study.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the effects of BRCA1/2 mutations on chemotherapy response scores (CRS) and survival in a cohort of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 169 high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients who underwent a germline BRCA1/2 test and received three cycles of NAC at the Yonsei Cancer Center from 2006 to 2018. Chemotherapy response scores were compared in patients with and without BRCA1/2 mutations. The effects of BRCA1/2 mutations and CRS on survival were evaluated. RESULTS: BRCA1/2 mutations were detected in 47 (28.1%) of the 169 patients. Overall, 16 (34.0%) patients with BRCA1/2 mutations had a CRS 3 to chemotherapy compared to scores of 43 in patients (35.2%) without a mutation. Response scores of 3 in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations were not significantly associated with either improved progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.949) or overall survival (OS) (P = 0.168). However, CRS 3 in patients without BRCA mutations was significantly associated with both improved PFS (P = 0.030) and OS (P = 0.039). In patients with CRS1/2, carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations had better PFS (P = 0.0344) and OS (P = 0.043) than wild-type BRCA genotype patients. CONCLUSION: In ovarian cancer patients treated with NAC, CRS did not predict survival for BRCA 1/2 mutation carriers but did for BRCA wild-type patients.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/terapia , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cancer Cell ; 37(2): 226-242.e7, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049047

RESUMO

The inter-differentiation between cell states promotes cancer cell survival under stress and fosters non-genetic heterogeneity (NGH). NGH is, therefore, a surrogate of tumor resilience but its quantification is confounded by genetic heterogeneity. Here we show that NGH in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) can be accurately measured when informed by the molecular signatures of the normal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) cells, the cells of origin of SOC. Surveying the transcriptomes of ∼6,000 FTE cells, predominantly from non-ovarian cancer patients, identified 6 FTE subtypes. We used subtype signatures to deconvolute SOC expression data and found substantial intra-tumor NGH. Importantly, NGH-based stratification of ∼1,700 tumors robustly correlated with survival. Our findings lay the foundation for accurate prognostic and therapeutic stratification of SOC.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 405-410, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common and lethal histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. HGSOC with cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1) amplification and bromodomain and extraterminal 4 (BRD4) amplification have been associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate clinical outcomes of HGSOC with co-amplification of CCNE1 and BRD4 and high protein expression of cyclin E and BRD4. METHODS: Copy number amplification data were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for 579 HGSOC. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) TCGA data were used to determine cyclin E and BRD4 protein expression in 482 HGSOC. Cyclin E and BRD4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was evaluated in a tissue microarray (TMA) of 110 HGSOC. Measured clinical outcomes were survival and platinum sensitivity. RESULTS: Of 30% of HGSOC with amplifications in CCNE1 or BRD4, 8% have both CCNE1 and BRD4 amplification. Protein expression of cyclin E and BRD4 are positively correlated, both by RPPA (r = 0.23; p < 0.001) and by IHC (r = 0.21; p = 0.025). Patients with CCNE1 and BRD4 co-amplified HGSOC have worse overall survival than patients without amplifications, 39.94 vs 48.06 months (p = 0.029). High protein expression of cyclin E, but not BRD4, was associated with poor overall survival (HR 1.62, 1.04-2.53, p = 0.033) and platinum resistance (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: HGSOC with CCNE1 and BRD4 co-amplification are associated with poor overall survival. Further studies are warranted to determine the use of protein expression by IHC as a surrogate marker for CCNE1 and BRD4 co-amplified HGSOC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclinas/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/biossíntese , Ciclinas/biossíntese , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese
17.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(3): 145-149, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105524

RESUMO

Introduction: The zinc finger homeobox 4 (ZFHX4) protein is a crucial molecular regulator of tumor-initiating stem cell-like functions. Objective: This study aimed to determine the role of ZFHX4 in the progression of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OSC). Methods: Differential gene expression ZFHX4 among low-stage (stages I and II), high-stage (stages III and IV), low-grade (grades I and II), and high-grade (grades III and IV) OSC patients was identified using four independent cohorts from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We compared ZFHX4 expression as a prognostic factor using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, multivariate analysis, the time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) of Uno's C-index, and the AUC of the receiver operating characteristics at 4 years post diagnosis. Results: ZFHX4 gene expression in high-stage tumors is significantly higher than in low-stage tumors (TCGA, p = 0.007; GSE9891, p = 0.001). A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that elevated expression of ZFHX4 was associated with a poor prognosis in OSC patients for all cohorts, regardless of stage and grade (TCGA, p = 1e-04; GSE9891, p = 0.0044; GSE13876, p = 0.00078; GSE26712, p = 0.039). Analysis of C-indices and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve further supported this result (C-index: TCGA, 0.599; GSE9891, 0.642; GSE13876, 0.585; GSE26712, 0.597). Moreover, univariate and multivariate Cox hazards analyses confirmed the prognostic significance of ZFHX4 levels. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings suggest that ZFHX4 is a prognostic factor for OSC.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , China , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética
18.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 9696285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076467

RESUMO

The low survival rate associated with serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC) is largely due to the lack of relevant molecular markers for early detection and therapy. Increasing experimental evidence has demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in cancer initiation and development, and a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis has been formulated. Therefore, the characterization of new lncRNA and lncRNA-related networks is crucial for early diagnosis and targeted therapy of SOC. Data on lncRNAs, mRNAs, and miRNAs with differential expression in SOC, compared to normal ovarian tissue, were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Data on lncRNA expression and clinical data in SOC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). lncRNA-miRNA interactions were predicted by the miRBase database. Different online tools, i.e., TargetScan, RNA22, miRmap, microT, miRanda, StarBase, and PicTar, were cooperatively utilized to predict the mRNAs targeted by miRNAs. The plugin of BiNGO in Cytoscape and KOBAS 3.0 were used to conduct the functional and pathway enrichment analyses. The lncRNA, miRNAs, and mRNAs identified to be expressed at statistically significant and different levels between SOC and healthy fallopian tube tissues were further validated using qRT-PCR. A total of 4 lncRNAs (LINC00284, HAGLR, HCAT158, and BLACAT1) and 111 mRNAs were found to be upregulated in SOC tissues compared to normal tissues, based on the GEO database. LINC00284 was found to be highly expressed in SOC, in association with the upregulation of the transcription factor SOX9. The high LINC00284 expression was associated with poor prognosis and proved to be an independent risk factor in patients with SOC, based on TCGA database. The qRT-PCR validation results closely recapitulated the expression profiles and prognostic scores of the aforementioned bioinformatic analyses. The LINC00284-related ceRNA network was found to be associated with SOC carcinogenesis by biofunctional analysis. In conclusion, the LINC00284-related ceRNA network may provide valuable information on the mechanisms of SOC initiation and progression. Importantly, LINC00284 proved to be a new potential prognostic biomarker for SOC.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Regulação para Cima
19.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(4): 544-555, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047025

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), the principal cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the world, has not significantly benefited from advances in cancer immunotherapy. Although HGSC infiltration by lymphocytes correlates with superior survival, the nature of antigens that can elicit anti-HGSC immune responses is unknown. The goal of this study was to establish the global landscape of HGSC tumor-specific antigens (TSA) using a mass spectrometry pipeline that interrogated all reading frames of all genomic regions. In 23 HGSC tumors, we identified 103 TSAs. Classic TSA discovery approaches focusing only on mutated exonic sequences would have uncovered only three of these TSAs. Other mutated TSAs resulted from out-of-frame exonic translation (n = 2) or from noncoding sequences (n = 7). One group of TSAs (n = 91) derived from aberrantly expressed unmutated genomic sequences, which were not expressed in normal tissues. These aberrantly expressed TSAs (aeTSA) originated primarily from nonexonic sequences, in particular intronic (29%) and intergenic (22%) sequences. Their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level by variations in gene copy number and DNA methylation. Although mutated TSAs were unique to individual tumors, aeTSAs were shared by a large proportion of HGSCs. Taking into account the frequency of aeTSA expression and HLA allele frequencies, we calculated that, in Caucasians, the median number of aeTSAs per tumor would be five. We conclude that, in view of their number and the fact that they are shared by many tumors, aeTSAs may be the most attractive targets for HGSC immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteogenômica/métodos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2757, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066851

RESUMO

Homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway deficiency (HRD) is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) as well as in the sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy drugs. In this study, we obtained data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) on HGSOC and identified scores for the loss of heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions, and calculated the HRD score. We then investigated the relationships among the score, genetic/epigenetic alterations in HRR-related genes, and the clinical data. We found that BRCA1/2 mutations were enriched in the group with HRD scores ≥63. Compared with the groups with scores ≤62, this group had a good prognosis; we thus considered HRD scores ≥63 to be the best cutoff point for identifying HRD cases in HGSOC. Classification of HGSOC cases by the HRD status revealed a better prognosis for HRD cases caused by genetic alterations (genetic HRD) than those caused by epigenetic changes and those caused by undetermined reasons (p = 0.0002). Among cases without macroscopic residual tumors after primary debulking surgery, 11 of 12 genetic HRD cases survived after the median observation period of 6.6 years, showing remarkably high survival rates (p = 0.0059). In conclusion, HGSOC can be classified into subtypes with different prognoses according to HRD status. This classification could be useful for personalized HGSOC treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Atlas como Assunto , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Terminologia como Assunto
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