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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23565-23570, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900959

RESUMO

l-cysteine is the source of all bacterial sulfurous biomolecules. However, the cytoplasmic level of l-cysteine must be tightly regulated due to its propensity to reduce iron and drive damaging Fenton chemistry. It has been proposed that in Escherichia coli the component of cytochrome bd-I terminal oxidase, the CydDC complex, shuttles excessive l-cysteine from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence for an alternative function of CydDC by demonstrating that the cydD phenotype, unlike that of the bona fide l-cysteine exporter eamA, parallels that of the l-cystine importer tcyP. Chromosomal induction of eamA, but not of cydDC, from a strong pLtetO-1 promoter (Ptet) leads to the increased level of extracellular l-cysteine, whereas induction of cydDC or tcyP causes the accumulation of cytoplasmic l-cysteine. Congruently, inactivation of cydD renders cells resistant to hydrogen peroxide and to aminoglycoside antibiotics. In contrast, induction of cydDC sensitizes cells to oxidative stress and aminoglycosides, which can be suppressed by eamA overexpression. Furthermore, inactivation of the ferric uptake regulator (fur) in Ptet-cydDC or Ptet-tcyP cells results in dramatic loss of survival, whereas catalase (katG) overexpression suppresses the hypersensitivity of both strains to H2O2 These results establish CydDC as a reducer of cytoplasmic cystine, as opposed to an l-cysteine exporter, and further elucidate a link between oxidative stress, antibiotic resistance, and sulfur metabolism.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Grupo dos Citocromos b/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Aminoglicosídeos/metabolismo , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Grupo dos Citocromos b/genética , Citoplasma/enzimologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Periplasma/metabolismo
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(9): 1119-1128, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879244

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to various xenobiotic electrophiles on a daily basis. Electrophiles form covalent adducts with nucleophilic residues of proteins. Redox signaling, which consists of effector molecules (e.g., kinases and transcription factors) and redox sensor proteins with low pKa cysteine residues, is involved in cell survival, cell proliferation, quality control of cellular proteins and oxidative stress response. Herein, we showed that at a low dose, xenobiotic electrophiles selectively modified redox sensor proteins through covalent modification of their reactive thiols, resulting in activation of a variety of redox signaling pathways. However, increasing the dose of xenobiotic electrophiles caused non-selective and extensive modification of cellular proteins involved in toxicity. Of interest, reactive sulfur species (RSS), such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), cysteine persulfide (CysSSH), glutathione persulfide (GSSH) and even synthetic polysulfide (e.g., Na2S4), readily captured xenobiotic electrophiles, forming their sulfur adducts, which was associated with inactivation of the electrophiles. Our findings suggest that an adaptive response through redox signaling activation and RSS-mediated electrophile capturing is involved in the regulation of electrophilic stress.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Glutationa/análogos & derivados , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Cisteína/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 11): 282, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S-glutathionylation is the formation of disulfide bonds between the tripeptide glutathione and cysteine residues of the protein, protecting them from irreversible oxidation and in some cases causing change in their functions. Regulatory glutathionylation of proteins is a controllable and reversible process associated with cell response to the changing redox status. Prediction of cysteine residues that undergo glutathionylation allows us to find new target proteins, which function can be altered in pathologies associated with impaired redox status. We set out to analyze this issue and create new tool for predicting S-glutathionylated cysteine residues. RESULTS: One hundred forty proteins with experimentally proven S-glutathionylated cysteine residues were found in the literature and the RedoxDB database. These proteins contain 1018 non-S-glutathionylated cysteines and 235 S-glutathionylated ones. Based on 235 S-glutathionylated cysteines, non-redundant positive dataset of 221 heptapeptide sequences of S-glutathionylated cysteines was made. Based on 221 heptapeptide sequences, a position-specific matrix was created by analyzing the protein sequence near the cysteine residue (three amino acid residues before and three after the cysteine). We propose the method for calculating the glutathionylation propensity score, which utilizes the position-specific matrix and a criterion for predicting glutathionylated peptides. CONCLUSION: Non-S-glutathionylated sites were enriched by cysteines in - 3 and + 3 positions. The proposed prediction method demonstrates 76.6% of correct predictions of S-glutathionylated cysteines. This method can be used for detecting new glutathionylation sites, especially in proteins with an unknown structure.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Cisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos/metabolismo
4.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 692: 108515, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791141

RESUMO

Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein and essential partner of the CHCHD4 redox protein during the mitochondrial intermembrane space import machinery. Mammalian AIF has three cysteine residues, which have received little attention. Previous reports have evidenced a redox interaction between AIF and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), particularly after oxidant conditions. Therefore, we asked whether the cysteine residues of the human AIF could be oxidized. Our data showed that endogenous AIF could be oxidized to disulfide-linked conjugates (DLC). Overexpressed WT AIF in HEK293T cells, as well as recombinant WT AIF, formed DLC. Expression of C256S, C317S or C441S AIF mutants severely inhibited DLC formation in cells exposed to oxidants. In vitro, DLC formation was completely precluded with C256S and C441S AIF mutants and partially inhibited with the C317S mutant. DLC was shown to enhance cellular susceptibility to apoptosis induced by staurosporine, likely by preventing AIF to maintain mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Cells with decreased expression of Trx1 produced more AIF DLC than those with normal Trx1 levels, and in vitro, Trx1 was able to decrease the amount of AIF DLC. Finally, confocal analysis, as well as immunoblotting of mitochondrial fraction, indicated that a fraction of Trx1 is present in mitochondria. Overall, these data provide evidence that all three cysteine residues of AIF can be oxidized to DLC, which can be disrupted by mitochondrial Trx1.


Assuntos
Fator de Indução de Apoptose , Apoptose , Dissulfetos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/química , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/genética , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oxirredução , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estaurosporina/farmacologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4137, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811827

RESUMO

The class B secretin GPCR (SecR) has broad physiological effects, with target potential for treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Molecular understanding of SecR binding and activation is important for its therapeutic exploitation. We combined cryo-electron microscopy, molecular dynamics, and biochemical cross-linking to determine a 2.3 Å structure, and interrogate dynamics, of secretin bound to the SecR:Gs complex. SecR exhibited a unique organization of its extracellular domain (ECD) relative to its 7-transmembrane (TM) core, forming more extended interactions than other family members. Numerous polar interactions formed between secretin and the receptor extracellular loops (ECLs) and TM helices. Cysteine-cross-linking, cryo-electron microscopy multivariate analysis and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that interactions between peptide and receptor were dynamic, and suggested a model for initial peptide engagement where early interactions between the far N-terminus of the peptide and SecR ECL2 likely occur following initial binding of the peptide C-terminus to the ECD.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/química , Secretina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Insetos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/ultraestrutura , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/ultraestrutura , Secretina/metabolismo
6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(34): 19069-19079, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812956

RESUMO

A dynamical approach is proposed to discriminate between reactive (rES) and nonreactive (nES) enzyme-substrate complexes taking the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) as an important example. Molecular dynamics simulations with the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potentials (QM(DFT)/MM-MD) followed by the electron density analysis are employed to evaluate geometry and electronic properties of the enzyme with different substrates along MD trajectories. We demonstrate that mapping the Laplacian of the electron density and the electron localization function provides easily visible images of the substrate activation that allow one to distinguish rES and nES. The computed fractions of reactive enzyme-substrate complexes along MD trajectories well correlate with the findings of recent experimental studies on the substrate specificity of Mpro. The results of our simulations demonstrate the role of the theory level used in QM subsystems for a proper description of the nucleophilic attack of the catalytic cysteine residue in Mpro. The activation of the carbonyl group of a substrate is correctly characterized with the hybrid DFT functional PBE0, whereas the use of a GGA-type PBE functional, that lacks the admixture of the Hartree-Fock exchange fails to describe activation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Domínio Catalítico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Elétrons , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22402-22412, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839304

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, generally starts as the relapsing remitting form (RRMS), but often shifts into secondary progressive MS (SPMS). SPMS represents a more advanced stage of MS, characterized by accumulating disabilities and refractoriness to medications. The aim of this study was to clarify the microbial and functional differences in gut microbiomes of the different stages of MS. Here, we compared gut microbiomes of patients with RRMS, SPMS, and two closely related disorders with healthy controls (HCs) by 16S rRNA gene and whole metagenomic sequencing data from fecal samples and by fecal metabolites. Each patient group had a number of species having significant changes in abundance in comparison with HCs, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria reduced in MS. Changes in some species had close association with clinical severity of the patients. A marked reduction in butyrate and propionate biosynthesis and corresponding metabolic changes were confirmed in RRMS compared with HCs. Although bacterial composition analysis showed limited differences between the patient groups, metagenomic functional data disclosed an increase in microbial genes involved in DNA mismatch repair in SPMS as compared to RRMS. Together with an increased ratio of cysteine persulfide to cysteine in SPMS revealed by sulfur metabolomics, we postulate that excessive DNA oxidation could take place in the gut of SPMS. Thus, gut ecological and functional microenvironments were significantly altered in the different stages of MS. In particular, reduced SCFA biosynthesis in RRMS and elevated oxidative level in SPMS were characteristic.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/microbiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisteína/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/epidemiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Enxofre/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237884, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841243

RESUMO

The Solanum tuberosum plant specific insert (StPSI) has a defensive role in potato plants, with the requirements of acidic pH and anionic lipids. The StPSI contains a set of three highly conserved disulfide bonds that bridge the protein's helical domains. Removal of these bonds leads to enhanced membrane interactions. This work examined the effects of their sequential removal, both individually and in combination, using all-atom molecular dynamics to elucidate the role of disulfide linkages in maintaining overall protein tertiary structure. The tertiary structure was found to remain stable at both acidic (active) and neutral (inactive) pH despite the removal of disulfide linkages. The findings include how the dimer structure is stabilized and the impact on secondary structure on a residue-basis as a function of disulfide bond removal. The StPSI possesses an extensive network of inter-monomer hydrophobic interactions and intra-monomer hydrogen bonds, which is likely the key to the stability of the StPSI by stabilizing local secondary structure and the tertiary saposin-fold, leading to a robust association between monomers, regardless of the disulfide bond state. Removal of disulfide bonds did not significantly impact secondary structure, nor lead to quaternary structural changes. Instead, disulfide bond removal induces regions of amino acids with relatively higher or lower variation in secondary structure, relative to when all the disulfide bonds are intact. Although disulfide bonds are not required to preserve overall secondary structure, they may have an important role in maintaining a less plastic structure within plant cells in order to regulate membrane affinity or targeting.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saposinas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Multimerização Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Sais/química , Enxofre/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3978, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770044

RESUMO

Methionine restriction, a dietary regimen that protects against metabolic diseases and aging, represses cancer growth and improves cancer therapy. However, the response of different cancer cells to this nutritional manipulation is highly variable, and the molecular determinants of this heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here we report that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) dictates the sensitivity of liver cancer to methionine restriction. We show that hepatic sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism is under transcriptional control of HNF4α. Knocking down HNF4α or SAA enzymes in HNF4α-positive epithelial liver cancer lines impairs SAA metabolism, increases resistance to methionine restriction or sorafenib, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and induces cell migration. Conversely, genetic or metabolic restoration of the transsulfuration pathway in SAA metabolism significantly alleviates the outcomes induced by HNF4α deficiency in liver cancer cells. Our study identifies HNF4α as a regulator of hepatic SAA metabolism that regulates the sensitivity of liver cancer to methionine restriction.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesoderma/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628158

RESUMO

Measuring the intracellular oxidation/reduction balance provides an overview of the physiological and/or pathophysiological redox status of an organism. Thiols are especially important for illuminating the redox status of cells via their reduced dithiol and oxidized disulfide ratios. Engineered cysteine-containing fluorescent proteins open a new era for redox-sensitive biosensors. One of them, redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP), can easily be introduced into cells with adenoviral transduction, allowing the redox status of subcellular compartments to be evaluated without disrupting cellular processes. Reduced cysteines and oxidized cystines of roGFP have excitation maxima at 488 nm and 405 nm, respectively, with emission at 525 nm. Assessing the ratios of these reduced and oxidized forms allows the convenient calculation of redox balance within the cell. In this method article, immortalized human triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were used to assess redox status within the living cell. The protocol steps include MDA-MB-231 cell line transduction with adenovirus to express cytosolic roGFP, treatment with H2O2, and assessment of cysteine and cystine ratio with both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.


Assuntos
Compartimento Celular , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisteína/metabolismo , Cistina/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oxirredução , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Transdução Genética
11.
Nat Protoc ; 15(9): 2891-2919, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690958

RESUMO

Cysteine is unique among all protein-coding amino acids, owing to its intrinsically high nucleophilicity. The cysteinyl thiol group can be covalently modified by a broad range of redox mechanisms or by various electrophiles derived from exogenous or endogenous sources. Measuring the response of protein cysteines to redox perturbation or electrophiles is critical for understanding the underlying mechanisms involved. Activity-based protein profiling based on thiol-reactive probes has been the method of choice for such analyses. We therefore adapted this approach and developed a new chemoproteomic platform, termed 'QTRP' (quantitative thiol reactivity profiling), that relies on the ability of a commercially available thiol-reactive probe IPM (2-iodo-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)acetamide) to covalently label, enrich and quantify the reactive cysteinome in cells and tissues. Here, we provide a detailed and updated workflow of QTRP that includes procedures for (i) labeling of the reactive cysteinome from cell or tissue samples (e.g., control versus treatment) with IPM, (ii) processing the protein samples into tryptic peptides and tagging the probe-modified peptides with isotopically labeled azido-biotin reagents containing a photo-cleavable linker via click chemistry reaction, (iii) capturing biotin-conjugated peptides with streptavidin beads, (iv) identifying and quantifying the photo-released peptides by mass spectrometry (MS)-based shotgun proteomics and (v) interpreting MS data by a streamlined informatic pipeline using a proteomics software, pFind 3, and an automatic post-processing algorithm. We also exemplified here how to use QTRP for mining H2O2-sensitive cysteines and for determining the intrinsic reactivity of cysteines in a complex proteome. We anticipate that this protocol should find broad applications in redox biology, chemical biology and the pharmaceutical industry. The protocol for sample preparation takes 3 d, whereas MS measurements and data analyses require 75 min and <30 min, respectively, per sample.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Oxirredução
12.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(9): 781-789, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661419

RESUMO

Apoptosis is regulated by BCL-2 family proteins. Anti-apoptotic members suppress cell death by deploying a surface groove to capture the critical BH3 α-helix of pro-apoptotic members. Cancer cells hijack this mechanism by overexpressing anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins to enforce cellular immortality. We previously identified and harnessed a unique cysteine (C55) in the groove of anti-apoptotic BFL-1 to selectively neutralize its oncogenic activity using a covalent stapled-peptide inhibitor. Here, we find that disulfide bonding between a native cysteine pair at the groove (C55) and C-terminal α9 helix (C175) of BFL-1 operates as a redox switch to control the accessibility of the anti-apoptotic pocket. Reducing the C55-C175 disulfide triggers α9 release, which promotes mitochondrial translocation, groove exposure for BH3 interaction and inhibition of mitochondrial permeabilization by pro-apoptotic BAX. C55-C175 disulfide formation in an oxidative cellular environment abrogates the ability of BFL-1 to bind BH3 domains. Thus, we identify a mechanism of conformational control of BFL-1 by an intramolecular redox switch.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/química
13.
Nature ; 585(7823): 141-145, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641835

RESUMO

The transient receptor potential ion channel TRPA1 is expressed by primary afferent nerve fibres, in which it functions as a low-threshold sensor for structurally diverse electrophilic irritants, including small volatile environmental toxicants and endogenous algogenic lipids1. TRPA1 is also a 'receptor-operated' channel whose activation downstream of metabotropic receptors elicits inflammatory pain or itch, making it an attractive target for novel analgesic therapies2. However, the mechanisms by which TRPA1 recognizes and responds to electrophiles or cytoplasmic second messengers remain unknown. Here we use strutural studies and electrophysiology to show that electrophiles act through a two-step process in which modification of a highly reactive cysteine residue (C621) promotes reorientation of a cytoplasmic loop to enhance nucleophilicity and modification of a nearby cysteine (C665), thereby stabilizing the loop in an activating configuration. These actions modulate two restrictions controlling ion permeation, including widening of the selectivity filter to enhance calcium permeability and opening of a canonical gate at the cytoplasmic end of the pore. We propose a model to explain functional coupling between electrophile action and these control points. We also characterize a calcium-binding pocket that is highly conserved across TRP channel subtypes and accounts for all aspects of calcium-dependent TRPA1 regulation, including potentiation, desensitization and activation by metabotropic receptors. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding how a broad-spectrum irritant receptor is controlled by endogenous and exogenous agents that elicit or exacerbate pain and itch.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacologia , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/química , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Iodoacetamida/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Oximas/farmacologia , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645038

RESUMO

The vasculature within a tumor is highly disordered both structurally and functionally. Endothelial cells that comprise the vasculature are poorly connected causing vessel leakage and exposing the endothelium to a hypoxic microenvironment. Therefore, most anti-angiogenic therapies are generally inefficient and result in acquired resistance to increased hypoxia due to elimination of the vasculature. Recent studies have explored the efficacy of targeting metabolic pathways in tumor cells in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy. However, the metabolic alterations of endothelial cells in response to hypoxia have been relatively unexplored. Here, we measured polar metabolite levels in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to short- and long-term hypoxia with the goal of identifying metabolic vulnerabilities that can be targeted to normalize tumor vasculature and improve drug delivery. We found that many amino acid-related metabolites were altered by hypoxia exposure, especially within alanine-aspartate-glutamate, serine-threonine, and cysteine-methionine metabolism. Additionally, there were significant changes in de novo pyrimidine synthesis as well as glutathione and taurine metabolism. These results provide key insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in endothelial cells in response to hypoxia, which serve as a foundation for future studies to develop therapies that lead to vessel normalization and more efficient drug delivery.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cisteína/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Microvasos/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo
15.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(9): 979-987, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483379

RESUMO

Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is commonly overexpressed in human cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). While Pin1 is dispensable for viability in mice, it is required for activated Ras to induce tumorigenesis, suggesting a role for Pin1 inhibitors in Ras-driven tumors, such as PDAC. We report the development of rationally designed peptide inhibitors that covalently target Cys113, a highly conserved cysteine located in the Pin1 active site. The inhibitors were iteratively optimized for potency, selectivity and cell permeability to give BJP-06-005-3, a versatile tool compound with which to probe Pin1 biology and interrogate its role in cancer. In parallel to inhibitor development, we employed genetic and chemical-genetic strategies to assess the consequences of Pin1 loss in human PDAC cell lines. We demonstrate that Pin1 cooperates with mutant KRAS to promote transformation in PDAC, and that Pin1 inhibition impairs cell viability over time in PDAC cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/química , Peptidilprolil Isomerase de Interação com NIMA/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12101-12108, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414921

RESUMO

Membrane anchoring of farnesylated KRAS is critical for activation of RAF kinases, yet our understanding of how these proteins interact on the membrane is limited to isolated domains. The RAS-binding domain (RBD) and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of RAF engage KRAS and the plasma membrane, unleashing the kinase domain from autoinhibition. Due to experimental challenges, structural insight into this tripartite KRAS:RBD-CRD:membrane complex has relied on molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we report NMR studies of the KRAS:CRAF RBD-CRD complex. We found that the nucleotide-dependent KRAS-RBD interaction results in transient electrostatic interactions between KRAS and CRD, and we mapped the membrane interfaces of the CRD, RBD-CRD, and the KRAS:RBD-CRD complex. RBD-CRD exhibits dynamic interactions with the membrane through the canonical CRD lipid-binding site (CRD ß7-8), as well as an alternative interface comprising ß6 and the C terminus of CRD and ß2 of RBD. Upon complex formation with KRAS, two distinct states were observed by NMR: State A was stabilized by membrane association of CRD ß7-8 and KRAS α4-α5 while state B involved the C terminus of CRD, ß3-5 of RBD, and part of KRAS α5. Notably, α4-α5, which has been proposed to mediate KRAS dimerization, is accessible only in state B. A cancer-associated mutation on the state B membrane interface of CRAF RBD (E125K) stabilized state B and enhanced kinase activity and cellular MAPK signaling. These studies revealed a dynamic picture of the assembly of the KRAS-CRAF complex via multivalent and dynamic interactions between KRAS, CRAF RBD-CRD, and the membrane.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cisteína/química , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10789-10796, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358195

RESUMO

Oxidation of cysteine thiols by physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiates thermogenesis in brown and beige adipose tissues. Cellular selenocysteines, where sulfur is replaced with selenium, exhibit enhanced reactivity with ROS. Despite their critical roles in physiology, methods for broad and direct detection of proteogenic selenocysteines are limited. Here we developed a mass spectrometric method to interrogate incorporation of selenium into proteins. Unexpectedly, this approach revealed facultative incorporation of selenium as selenocysteine or selenomethionine into proteins that lack canonical encoding for selenocysteine. Selenium was selectively incorporated into regulatory sites on key metabolic proteins, including as selenocysteine-replacing cysteine at position 253 in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This facultative utilization of selenium was initiated by increasing cellular levels of organic, but not inorganic, forms of selenium. Remarkably, dietary selenium supplementation elevated facultative incorporation into UCP1, elevated energy expenditure through thermogenic adipose tissue, and protected against obesity. Together, these findings reveal the existence of facultative protein selenation, which correlates with impacts on thermogenic adipocyte function and presumably other biological processes as well.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Termogênese , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110721, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464438

RESUMO

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small (10-15 kDa) glutathione (GSH) - dependent redox proteins. The role of Grxs are well documented in tolerance to heavy metal stress in prokaryotic and mammalian systems and a few plant genera, but is poorly understood in plants against drought. In the present study, two rice glutaredoxin (Osgrx) genes (LOC_Os02g40500 and LOC_Os01g27140) responsible for tolerance against heavy metal stress have been studied for investigating their role against drought. Each glutaredoxin gene was over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to reveal their role in drought stress. The relative expression of both Osgrx genes was higher in the transgenic lines. Transgenic lines of both Osgrxs showed longer roots, higher seed germination, and survival efficiency during drought stress. The physiological parameters (PN, gs, E, WUE, qP, NPQ and ETR), antioxidant enzymes (GRX, GR, GPX, GST, APX, POD, SOD, CAT, DHAR, and MDHAR), antioxidant molecules (ascorbate and GSH) and stress-responsive amino acids (cysteine and proline) levels were additionally increased in transgenic lines of both Osgrxs to provide drought tolerance. The outcomes from this study strongly determined that each Osgrx gene participated in the moderation of drought and might be utilized in biological engineering strategies to overcome drought conditions in different crops.


Assuntos
Glutarredoxinas/genética , Oryza/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1869-1880, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372139

RESUMO

Increased proteolytic activity of cysteine cathepsins has long been known to facilitate malignant progression, and it has also been associated with tumor-promoting roles of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Consequently, cysteine cathepsins have gained much attention as potential targets for cancer therapies. However, cross-talk between tumor cells and MDSCs needs to be taken into account when studying the efficacy of cathepsin inhibitors as anti-cancer agents. Here, we demonstrate the potential of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to generate functional MDSCs from CD14+ cells of healthy human donors. During this transition to MDSCs, the overall levels of cysteine cathepsins increased, with the largest responses for cathepsins L and X. We used small-molecule inhibitors of cathepsins L and X (i.e., CLIK-148, Z9, respectively) to investigate their functional impact on tumor cells and immune cells in this co-culture system. Interactions with peripheral blood mononuclear cells reduced MDA-MB-231 cell invasion, while inhibition of cathepsin X activity by Z9 restored invasion. Inhibition of cathepsin L activity using CLIK-148 resulted in significantly increased CD8+ cytotoxicity. Of note, inhibition of cathepsins L and X in separate immune or tumor cells did not promote these functional changes. Together, our findings underlie the importance of tumor cell-immune cell interactions in the evaluation of the anti-cancer potential of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors.


Assuntos
Catepsina L/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Células PC-3
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10989-10999, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354997

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus infections can lead to diseases that range from localized skin abscess to life-threatening toxic shock syndrome. The SrrAB two-component system (TCS) is a global regulator of S. aureus virulence and critical for survival under environmental conditions such as hypoxic, oxidative, and nitrosative stress found at sites of infection. Despite the critical role of SrrAB in S. aureus pathogenicity, the mechanism by which the SrrAB TCS senses and responds to these environmental signals remains unknown. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the SrrB histidine kinase contains several domains, including an extracellular Cache domain and a cytoplasmic HAMP-PAS-DHp-CA region. Here, we show that the PAS domain regulates both kinase and phosphatase enzyme activity of SrrB and present the structure of the DHp-CA catalytic core. Importantly, this structure shows a unique intramolecular cysteine disulfide bond in the ATP-binding domain that significantly affects autophosphorylation kinetics. In vitro data show that the redox state of the disulfide bond affects S. aureus biofilm formation and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 production. Moreover, with the use of the rabbit infective endocarditis model, we demonstrate that the disulfide bond is a critical regulatory element of SrrB function during S. aureus infection. Our data support a model whereby the disulfide bond and PAS domain of SrrB sense and respond to the cellular redox environment to regulate S. aureus survival and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas , Sequência de Bases , Biofilmes , Domínio Catalítico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocardite , Enterotoxinas , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Oxirredução , Domínios Proteicos , Coelhos , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sepse , Infecções Estafilocócicas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Superantígenos , Thermotoga maritima , Virulência/genética , Virulência/fisiologia
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